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How the Open Knowledge system works. Via http://www.cisa.informatics.ed.ac.uk/OK/drupal/home

How the Open Knowledge system works. Via http://www.cisa.informatics.ed.ac.uk/OK/drupal/home

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  • 1. Dave Robertson dr@inf.ed.ac.uk Open Knowledge Sharing an introduction for everyone www.openk.org
  • 2. How the Worldwide Web Works Hermoine and Harry can’t interact in a Hermoine and Harry can’t interact in a sophisticated way to share knowledge; sophisticated way to share knowledge; they can only edit and read each other’s they can only edit and read each other’s documents. documents. Reads pages Reads pages Web browser Search engine Web browser (e.g. Mozilla) (e.g. Google) (e.g. Internet explorer) Accesses pages Discovers pages Accesses pages using keywords Web pages
  • 3. Most Knowledge is Locked Away Interface Most knowledge is locked within system Most knowledge is locked within system components (e.g. database systems, components (e.g. database systems, handheld devices, sensor systems, etc) handheld devices, sensor systems, etc) on peoples’ computers. You can only on peoples’ computers. You can only System component access this sort of knowledge via the access this sort of knowledge via the interface to the component (where you interface to the component (where you supply ititwith input information or can supply with input information or can request information as output). request information as output). If you could look inside these If you could look inside these components you would find components you would find mechanisms so complex that only their mechanisms so complex that only their engineers understand them in detail. It engineers understand them in detail. It is very difficult to specify precisely and is very difficult to specify precisely and reliably what knowledge each contains. reliably what knowledge each contains.
  • 4. Worldwide Web Components Modern Web browsers can connect to Modern Web browsers can connect to complex components using a Web form complex components using a Web form interface. Instead of simply reading interface. Instead of simply reading pages, Hermione can access a form pages, Hermione can access a form Interacts with form produced by some complex system produced by some complex system (about which she knows nothing); then (about which she knows nothing); then she can send input to that system by she can send input to that system by completing the form and sending itit completing the form and sending Web browser back. The interaction is managed by a back. The interaction is managed by a form interface that mediates between form interface that mediates between the language understood by the Web the language understood by the Web Form Form browser and the inputs/outputs browser and the inputs/outputs output input understood by the complex component. understood by the complex component. Form interface This is a big improvement on simple This is a big improvement on simple Web pages but ititonly copes with one- Web pages but only copes with one- to-one interactions. Hermione couldn’t to-one interactions. Hermione couldn’t interact with several coordinated interact with several coordinated components (or with Harry) in this way. components (or with Harry) in this way.
  • 5. Components on Components To allow more sophisticated To allow more sophisticated coordination, people write programs coordination, people write programs that coordinate. If Hermione was that coordinate. If Hermione was clever enough to write one of these clever enough to write one of these Interact with program then she could use ititto coordinate then she could use to coordinate with Harry… with Harry… Component …but the component coordinator is a …but the component coordinator is a coordinator lot like any other component, so ititis lot like any other component, so is difficult for anyone else to find out difficult for anyone else to find out about or use Hermione’s clever about or use Hermione’s clever method for finding things out from all method for finding things out from all those components. those components.
  • 6. Thinking the Same Thing Coordination is made even more Coordination is made even more difficult because the people who built difficult because the people who built the components (and the knowledge the components (and the knowledge locked inside them) often come from locked inside them) often come from different cultures. If Hermione wants to different cultures. If Hermione wants to coordinate components designed by coordinate components designed by Component Imperial Stormtroopers from a distant Imperial Stormtroopers from a distant coordinator galaxy then only some of the things galaxy then only some of the things they have in mind will be appropriate to they have in mind will be appropriate to her task – others may be wildly her task – others may be wildly inappropriate. inappropriate. This makes coordination brittle: ititworks This makes coordination brittle: works well for some tasks but may fail for well for some tasks but may fail for others because the knowledge being others because the knowledge being shared is so sensitive to the context in shared is so sensitive to the context in which ititis being used. which is being used. Design Design
  • 7. Coordination is Knowledge There are formal languages in which There are formal languages in which we can describe precisely the we can describe precisely the Design interaction we want. These interaction we want. These descriptions are like Web pages (so descriptions are like Web pages (so we can invent ways to discover them, we can invent ways to discover them, view them, etc) but they also are view them, etc) but they also are Interaction Run Interaction formal (so we can build programs that formal (so we can build programs that model interpreter interpret them to run actual interpret them to run actual interactions). interactions). Now Hermione doesn’t need to write Now Hermione doesn’t need to write a new component coordinator every a new component coordinator every time she wants a different interaction time she wants a different interaction with Harry. Instead she designs a with Harry. Instead she designs a (much simpler) interaction model and (much simpler) interaction model and gives that to the interaction gives that to the interaction interpreter, which runs the model to interpreter, which runs the model to give her the interaction she give her the interaction she described. described.
  • 8. The OpenKnowledge Kernel The OpenKnowledge kernel is a The OpenKnowledge kernel is a Download from program you (and Hermione, and program you (and Hermione, and www.openk.org Harry) can download and easily Harry) can download and easily install on your computer (it connects install on your computer (it connects automatically to the appropriate automatically to the appropriate interfaces). interfaces). The kernel contains an interaction The kernel contains an interaction model interpreter plus several other model interpreter plus several other things to help you interact with other things to help you interact with other people and with other components on people and with other components on the Internet. the Internet.
  • 9. Inside the Kernel Interaction The OpenKnowledge kernel contains The OpenKnowledge kernel contains discoverer several unusual things, as well as an several unusual things, as well as an Interaction interaction model interpreter. It has a interaction model interpreter. It has a interpreter way of helping to align the way of helping to align the terminology used when interacting terminology used when interacting Reputation (we call this ontology matching). It (we call this ontology matching). It communicator has a way of discovering interaction has a way of discovering interaction Ontology models that other people have matcher models that other people have designed. It has a way of sharing designed. It has a way of sharing information on the reputation of those information on the reputation of those involved in interactions. involved in interactions. The good news is that you don’t need The good news is that you don’t need to understand the details of how to understand the details of how these work in order to use the kernel. these work in order to use the kernel.
  • 10. Discovering Interactions Suppose that Harry wants to Suppose that Harry wants to Hermione has an extensive Hermione has an extensive develop a new spell but doesn’t develop a new spell but doesn’t database of spell recipes and database of spell recipes and know how. He uses the know how. He uses the she has written an interaction she has written an interaction OpenKnowledge discovery OpenKnowledge discovery model that allows a group of model that allows a group of mechanism to search across the mechanism to search across the people to access the people to access the network of other OpenKnowledge network of other OpenKnowledge group spell database and agree on their database and agree on their subscribers. subscribers. interaction own, new spell. own, new spell. Harry asks the It finds one on discovery system Hermione’s list of Hermione’s to seek interactions interaction models OK kernel on “spell design”. Network connecting and passes OpenKnowledge users it to Harry. via the Internet Harry’s Ron’s OK kernel OK kernel
  • 11. Interacting Harry advertises the fact that he is Harry advertises the fact that he is interested in taking the role of “spell interested in taking the role of “spell collator” in the interaction he got collator” in the interaction he got from Hermione. from Hermione. Agreement Ron and Hermione offer to take Ron and Hermione offer to take part, each in the role of “spell part, each in the role of “spell advisor”. advisor”. Then Harry’s OK kernel Then Harry’s OK kernel group spell coordinates the interaction with coordinates the interaction with interaction Ron and Hermione’s kernels. Ron and Hermione’s kernels. Coordination
  • 12. Re-using Interactions Since Hermione made her Since Hermione made her interaction model public, then interaction model public, then Malfoy can discover itit(just like Malfoy can discover (just like Harry did) and use ititto help him Harry did) and use to help him design spells with Snape and design spells with Snape and Gilderoy. Gilderoy. If ititturns out to be really useful If turns out to be really useful then lots of other wizarding folk will then lots of other wizarding folk will group spell use itit– a bit like the way that use – a bit like the way that interaction popular Web pages get used. popular Web pages get used.
  • 13. Choosing Your Partners What prevents Hermione agreeing What prevents Hermione agreeing to interact with Snape and Malfoy to interact with Snape and Malfoy (who doubtless want to cook up an (who doubtless want to cook up an evil spell)? Before she agrees, she evil spell)? Before she agrees, she Agreement? can check the OpenKnowledge can check the OpenKnowledge identifiers for the other people identifiers for the other people ? playing roles in the interaction. playing roles in the interaction. To help her decide we invented a To help her decide we invented a way of sharing information about way of sharing information about interactions judged “good” or “bad” interactions judged “good” or “bad” – a bit like ranking pages on the – a bit like ranking pages on the Web. Web.
  • 14. Spotting Dubious Characters What happens ififHarry turns bad and What happens Harry turns bad and starts misbehaving when interacting with starts misbehaving when interacting with others? How would we detect him? others? How would we detect him? That’s where popularity monitoring That’s where popularity monitoring services (fed with data on “good” and services (fed with data on “good” and “bad” interactions) can help, in a way “bad” interactions) can help, in a way similar to Web page popularity rating similar to Web page popularity rating services. These help you guess how services. These help you guess how good someone else might be given the good someone else might be given the experiences of others and are experiences of others and are approximate guides only approximate guides only but ififyou are particularly worried about but you are particularly worried about trust for some interaction you want to trust for some interaction you want to design then you can build more specific design then you can build more specific safeguards into your interaction model. safeguards into your interaction model.
  • 15. Different Names; Same Thing When Hermione designed her When Hermione designed her Voldemort interaction model she used interaction model she used “Voldemort” to refer to the most evil “Voldemort” to refer to the most evil person in the wizarding world. Other person in the wizarding world. Other group spell people who might use her interaction people who might use her interaction interaction model will have different ways of model will have different ways of naming that person (and of naming naming that person (and of naming lots of other things, perhaps). That’s lots of other things, perhaps). That’s The Dark why we provide a mechanism for why we provide a mechanism for Lord guessing when the thing referred to in guessing when the thing referred to in an interaction is the same, even an interaction is the same, even though the names are different. though the names are different. Knowing the interaction makes these Knowing the interaction makes these guesses more likely to be accurate. guesses more likely to be accurate. “The Dark Lord” probably wouldn’t be “The Dark Lord” probably wouldn’t be He Who Must the same as “Voldemort” outside of the same as “Voldemort” outside of Not be Named wizarding world interactions. wizarding world interactions.
  • 16. Who Designs Interactions? Do you have to be as disciplined as Do you have to be as disciplined as an Imperial Stormtrooper and as an Imperial Stormtrooper and as clever as Hermione to design an clever as Hermione to design an interaction model? interaction model? If you want to be able to build If you want to be able to build absolutely any interaction model then absolutely any interaction model then the answer is (gulp) “yes”. the answer is (gulp) “yes”. However… However… There are ways of translating from There are ways of translating from Alternatively you could be like Harry Alternatively you could be like Harry styles of interaction description that styles of interaction description that and simply use the interactions that and simply use the interactions that lots of people use for more specific lots of people use for more specific Hermione has so cleverly written. Hermione has so cleverly written. tasks (such as business process tasks (such as business process Then you can forget all about Then you can forget all about modelling). If you are one of those modelling). If you are one of those designing them. designing them. kinds of people then you can use kinds of people then you can use your style of description and translate your style of description and translate into the OpenKnowledge language. into the OpenKnowledge language.
  • 17. Useful Things People Might Do With All This Technology OpenKnowledge does something OpenKnowledge does something • Help scientists studying proteins new: ititallows people to share new: allows people to share to share methods of analysis and interactions and, through those, share interactions and, through those, share data collation so they can make knowledge that isn’t easily accessed knowledge that isn’t easily accessed new discoveries faster. on the traditional Worldwide Web. It on the traditional Worldwide Web. It • Give organisations that respond will only become revolutionary, will only become revolutionary, to emergencies ways of sharing however, ififclever people invent however, clever people invent information in a more interactions that are really useful for interactions that are really useful for opportunistic but still coordinated lots of other people. Here are some lots of other people. Here are some way. of the ideas we’ve been developing. of the ideas we’ve been developing. • Share pictures in ways that allow groups of people to interact with Perhaps you will have better ideas. Perhaps you will have better ideas. their collective “library”. The very best ideas might be The very best ideas might be (technically) quite simple. • Turn centralised business (technically) quite simple. models into distributed models. www.openk.org supplies you with www.openk.org supplies you with • Supply more flexible ways of deeper discussion, examples and deeper discussion, examples and bringing medical knowledge free source code. free source code. closer to points of care.