Discourse is “language as social practicedetermined by social structures.” (2001:14)Social practice is “[f]irstly, that languageis a part of society, and not somehowexternal to it. Secondly, that language is asocial process. And thirdly, that languageis a socially conditioned process,conditioned that is by other (non-linguistic) parts of society.” (2001: 18-19)
“we can say that powerin discourse is to do withpowerful participantscontrolling andconstraining thecontributions of non-powerful participants.”(2001: 38-39)
Ideologynoun1 (plural ideologies) a system of ideasand ideals, especially one which formsthe basis of economic or political theoryand policy: the ideology of republicanismthe set of beliefs characteristic of a socialgroup or individual: a critique ofbourgeois ideology2 [mass noun] archaic the science ofideas; the study of their origin andnature.archaic visionary speculation, especiallyof an unrealistic or idealistic nature.
“Ideologies are closely linked to power, becausethe nature of the ideological assumptionsembedded in particular conventions, and so thenature of those conventions themselves, dependson the power relations which underlie theconventions; and because they are a means oflegitimising existing social relations anddifferences in power, simply through therecurrence of ordinary, familiar ways of behavingwhich take these relations and power differencesfor granted.” (Fairclough 2001: 2)
• Language as a form of social practice• How social and political domination is produced and reproduced through text• Language as primary domain of ideology and struggles for power• Draws from social theory to examine ideologies and power relations in discourse
• Series of techniques for insights into the way discourse produces or resists inequalities or domination• Relates text to socio-political context• Explores how power relations are legitimised or promulgated• Deconstructs motivation, manipulation of reader response, inclusion/exclusion of context, agenda, author and audience
• Fairclough – ‘Discourse as text’ (choices in structural, grammatical and lexical construction); ‘Discourse as social practice’ (ideological framework that situates discourse)• Widdowson – ‘Shared realities’ (ideologies common to author and reader)
• Exploring the use, function and effect of: metaphor; lexical choice; semantic fields; rhetoric; demagogy; how the text influences relations between author/audience; how the text is made meaningful to audience; allusions to ideological practices intended to resonate with audience
• What type of text is it?• What is the genre (subject matter)?• What is the text about?• What is the purpose of the text?
• …has an implied audience and intended reader• …addresses itself to that reader• …aims to persuade you of something• Every text has a job to do; if we as translators don’t know what that job is, then we can’t know what the text is ‘about’• To translate, we need to understand the text, work out what its rhetorical purpose is, and construct for ourselves in response to the translator’s brief a new purpose and an all-new audience and implied reader
• So translation is MORE than consulting the dictionary definition of different words. It is constructing a text that PERFORMS – an action, a purpose, an address to a reader• We carry out an analysis of the original, to discern its audience, reader and purpose• We assess what challenges for translation this poses• We construct a translation strategy based on these needs• We build a glossary of our terminology so that we enhance quality, improve consistency and facilitate our future work• We reflect upon our work and use this for continuous improvement
88091: in Relation to Film,GNATS: ANALYSISGLOSSARY, NEEDSAND TRANSLATION STRATEGY