Researchers’ Behaviours, Needs and
          Expectations:
        Some Challenges
             Michael Jubb
     Research...
Some propositions
the volume of research undertaken worldwide has increased, is
increasing, and will continue to increase
...
The Role of Information in Research:
               a crude model
defining a set of research questions, issues or problems...
Information in the Research Process
 gather
 evaluate
 create
 analyse
 manage
 transform
 present and communicate
The Research Process:
  Animal Genetics
The Research Process:
Transgenesis and Embryology
The Research Process:
    Epidemiology
The Research Process
differs even in apparently similar areas of
work, and also between teams………
Composition of Research Groups
big science vs small science
  small teams typical in life sciences
  amorphous and overlap...
Key issues
           What are researchers’   Who provides what and
           needs?                  how?
           How...
Content: what do researchers want to find and
                    use?
Research Resources                                 ...
Content: user expectations and needs
               Data sharing:
published and non-”published”
        motivations and co...
Content: who provides?
changing roles of
  researchers and research institutions
     personal websites, repositories etc
...
Increases in research funding and article
                            Content:tocostsyears: publication
                  ...
Services: user expectations and needs
researchers as creators
  quality assurance and enhancement
  distribution and marke...
Services: who provides?
publishing services
  still needed?
  competition from other providers
search, navigation, access ...
Services: sustainability
search, navigation and access
  invigorating competition or wasteful duplication?
  levels of usa...
Skills, expertise and competences:
     user expectations and needs
specialist research skills and specialist
information ...
Skills, expertise and competences:
            who provides?
differences of view as between researchers,
librarians and pu...
Skills, expertise and competences:
             sustainability
continuing need for professional/skills
development for bot...
Some conclusions:
       seeing through a glass darkly
1. Users (creators and consumers)
    they are (or should be) the d...
Some conclusions:
       seeing through a glass darkly
2. Providers
    growth in concentration of resources and services
...
Some conclusions:
       seeing through a glass darkly
3. Sustainability
    constraints on university funding, and need f...
A particular view………..
    from Microsoft
Questions?

  Thanks


Michael Jubb
www.rin.ac.uk
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Researchers’ Behaviours, Needs and Expectations: Some Challenges

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Researchers’ Behaviours, Needs and Expectations: Some Challenges

  1. 1. Researchers’ Behaviours, Needs and Expectations: Some Challenges Michael Jubb Research Information Network The Changing Face of Learned and Professional Society Libraries 5 August 2009
  2. 2. Some propositions the volume of research undertaken worldwide has increased, is increasing, and will continue to increase and more of it will be done collaboratively researchers are both producers and consumers of research outputs but they don’t necessarily share the same interests Governments invest in research because they believe it has a positive impact on society and the economy and they want to maximise that impact the costs of research, and of higher education, have increased, are increasing (and ought to be diminished?) cost-effectiveness an increasingly-dominant theme in current economic climate
  3. 3. The Role of Information in Research: a crude model defining a set of research questions, issues or problems identifying relevant existing knowledge accessing, analysing, and evaluating existing knowledge and data designing a methodology for generating new knowledge applying the methodology and discovering new knowledge combining old and new knowledge to answer research questions and to enhance understanding disseminating the outcomes of research in a form that is both sustainable and retrievable
  4. 4. Information in the Research Process gather evaluate create analyse manage transform present and communicate
  5. 5. The Research Process: Animal Genetics
  6. 6. The Research Process: Transgenesis and Embryology
  7. 7. The Research Process: Epidemiology
  8. 8. The Research Process differs even in apparently similar areas of work, and also between teams………
  9. 9. Composition of Research Groups big science vs small science small teams typical in life sciences amorphous and overlapping associations with other teams “primary research engagements tend to be local” divisions of expertise, labour and knowledge exchange PI/leader, senior researchers/lecturers, associates, computational specialists, postdocs, PhDs, technicians……… dangers of surveys that look at individual responses divorced from context
  10. 10. Key issues What are researchers’ Who provides what and needs? how? How can they best be Is that provision met? sustainable? Content Services Skills
  11. 11. Content: what do researchers want to find and use? Research Resources Yes No Journal articles 99.5% 0.5% Chapters in multi-authored books 97.0% 3.0% Organization’s web sites 90.8% 9.2% Expertise of individuals 90.1% 9.9% Conference proceedings 85.8% 14.2% Monographs 83.3% 16.7% Datasets – published or unpublished 62.0% 38.0% Original text sources, e.g. newspapers, historical records 61.5% 38.5% Preprints 54.7% 45.3% Non-text sources, e.g. images, audio, artifacts 47.0% 53.0% Other 18.0% 82.0%
  12. 12. Content: user expectations and needs Data sharing: published and non-”published” motivations and constraints grey literature, reports, workingNo clear benefits/incentives Evidence of benefits papers data: raw or refined? mine or yours? Citation esteem and Competition; desire to websites, blogs, wikis, emails extract maximum value good evaluation Explicit rewards Desire for/fear of quality-assured and non-”quality-assured”? Altruism commercial exploitation Reciprocity Access restrictions desired the good-enough source and/or or imposed version? Enhanced visibility pre or post-publication peer review? ethical problems Cultural/peer pressures Legal, Lack of time, funds, digital and non-digital Opportunities for collaboration, co-authorship expertise Sheer size of datasets perdurance of the book? Easy-to-do Nowhere to put it role of digitisation
  13. 13. Content: who provides? changing roles of researchers and research institutions personal websites, repositories etc publishers and aggregators direct relationship with authors and readers who aggregates? libraries from ownership to licensing consortia as aggregators?
  14. 14. Increases in research funding and article Content:tocostsyears: publication Impact of moves e-only and and sustainability production over 10 gold OA costs Increases in research funding and article 200 continued growth in the volumes Current funding Difference between scenarios over 10 years: funding production 93 of 0research 9 5 0 9.0 0 8 Publishing and 7 8.0 -200 constrainedbetween scenarios Difference university budgets Current Funding -318 distribution costs 1.6 -400 sustainability of the publishingReal terms increase -758 1.63 7 .0 business under challenges of of £1.6bn (25%) 6 -273 -983 Sources of funding £ B il lion s -600 “green” OA 5 6.0 £ million 1.0 and other 4 5.0 -800 “gold” OA -288 contributions move to gold OA £ Billions 6.4 publication 3 4.0-1,000 move to e-only 0.82 2 0.5 0.5 publication -1,200 3.7 6.4 3.0 -556 0.5 0.3 1 1 .9 0.2 2.0 -1,400 1 0.53 .8 1 .0 1 .0 0.8 3.4 0 -1,600 Non-cash Direct 1.9 fixed First copy Variable cost Indirect cost Surplus Total cost 1.0 peer rev iew cost Publishing 0.17 Research cost Access User search Reading Total 0.7 0.05 production* & 0.03 provision and print 0.1 0.2 0.03 0.1 0.0 Research Academ ic Distribution Other Author-side cost Adv ertising Mem bership Total cost funders (peer subscriptions subscriptions pay m ent fees & rev iew non indiv idual cash cost) subscriptions
  15. 15. Services: user expectations and needs researchers as creators quality assurance and enhancement distribution and marketing researchers and others as consumers quality assurance search and navigation services access, 24x7 and permanent links and interoperability text mining (published text as data) funders and research institutions assessment and evaluation services
  16. 16. Services: who provides? publishing services still needed? competition from other providers search, navigation, access & preservation overlapping roles of search engines individual libraries and consortia individual publishers, aggregators etc
  17. 17. Services: sustainability search, navigation and access invigorating competition or wasteful duplication? levels of usage of services provided by publishers and libraries sustainability/preservation of digital content roles of publishers and libraries grey literature, websites, blogs, wikis, emails……. increasing interest in assessment and evaluation services RAE/REF in the UK; ERA in Australia
  18. 18. Skills, expertise and competences: user expectations and needs specialist research skills and specialist information skills what’s easy, and what’s not and how that changes ‘information literacy’ approaches and their limitations enhanced needs in some areas eg business, management and communication skills; bibliometrics
  19. 19. Skills, expertise and competences: who provides? differences of view as between researchers, librarians and publishers changes in views over time de-skilling, up-skilling and complementarity
  20. 20. Skills, expertise and competences: sustainability continuing need for professional/skills development for both researchers and information providers and specialists generic and specialist skills complementarity engagement and communication
  21. 21. Some conclusions: seeing through a glass darkly 1. Users (creators and consumers) they are (or should be) the drivers but we are only beginning to understand how they use information resources and services imperfect understanding of the digital information environment; but they want content and services that are quick and simple to use are as comprehensive and interoperable as possible provide for both quality-assured and non-quality-assured content there’s an increasing demand for assessment and evaluation services
  22. 22. Some conclusions: seeing through a glass darkly 2. Providers growth in concentration of resources and services growth in overlaps (and competition?) between different types of provider researchers and research institutions libraries and library consortia publishers and aggregators search and navigation services complementarity and skill sets
  23. 23. Some conclusions: seeing through a glass darkly 3. Sustainability constraints on university funding, and need for a value proposition while research volumes continue to increase growing interest in the overall costs of the scholarly communications process, and in the (cost-) efficiency of the research process as a whole growth in support from Governments and funding agencies for “gold” OA policies; and from universities and research institutions for “green” OA growing concerns about the pace and the costs of transition
  24. 24. A particular view……….. from Microsoft
  25. 25. Questions? Thanks Michael Jubb www.rin.ac.uk

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