ARH302 - Test 1 Review


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UT Austin, Papalalexandrou, Art History, ARH302, Review Exam 1

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ARH302 - Test 1 Review

  1. 1. ARH 302 TEST 1 REVIEW
  2. 2. Locations & Peoples
  3. 3. Prehistory
  4. 4. Prehistory: Paleolithic 2,000,000 – 10,000 Mesolithic 10,000 – 8,000 Neolithic 8,000 – 2,000 Bronze Age 3,000 – 1,100 Paleolithic: cave paintings & small carved objects. Naturalistic animals, abstract humans Neolithic: humans domesticated animals, improved building methods and focused more on death rituals, specialized skills (pottery)
  5. 5. Near East
  6. 6. Near Eastern: Mesopotamian Sumerians: wanted to please gods. First major civilization in Mesopotamia, built homes out of mud bricks **present day people in that area still do** Ziggurats built for burials, Ur and Uruk = Sumerian cities. “White temple” 3500bce in Uruk, Iraq; Tell Asmar 2700bce, limestone figures ranging in size, buried in temples, wide eyes. Standard of Ur 2600bce = visual narratives & hieratic scale; Bull Lyre 2600bce
  7. 7. Near Eastern: Mesopotamian Akkadians: 2300’s Sumerians began to speak Akkadian and Naram-Sin came to power; Head of Akkadian Ruler from Niniveh, Iraq, 2250bce, uses FRONTALITY; Stele of Naram- Sin 2250bce 6 ½ foot, diefies himself with horned crown (first time king diefies himself)
  8. 8. Neo-Sumarians: Ziggurat of Ur - 2100bce, legacy of King Urnammu, baked bricks, has thick buttresses (vertical supporting elements), three stairways **meanwhile in Lagash, Gudea became ruler, Gudea statues resemble Egyptian styles with expensive materials (diorite), frontality, and stiff compact form. **Stonehenge was also created in 2100bce – details of it’s construction are unknown Near Eastern: Mesopotamian
  9. 9. Near Eastern: Mesopotamian Babylonians: over 300 years of Babylonian rule starting in the late third and early second millennia bce (2000 bce and later); Hammurabi named himself the “favorite shepherd” propaganda with Stele of the Law Code of Hammurabi 1760bce (eye for an eye) Hammurabi and Shamash (sun god) are on top of stele to portray devine leadership
  10. 10. Near Eastern: Mesopotamian Assyrians: 7th century bce following the Babylonian fall; use of art was clearly propagandistic and public designed to proclaim and sustain supremacy of the Assyrian civilization through military power. Also built ziggurats but also shifted to royal palaces. Sargon II in Dur Sharrukin 720 bce Iraq, mud brick, wide courtyards and ramps, 30 courtyards, 200 rooms, Lamassu (winged human- headed bulls) Lamassu of Khorsabad (5th leg) are at the entrance to the palace. Limestone and also bronze (ward off evil spirits)
  11. 11. Near Eastern: Mesopotamian Assyrians continued: *distinctive to Assyrians were ORTHOSTATS (upright gypsum slabs lined the lower walls) the slabs protected the mud brick and had narrative images in low relief painted in places for emphasis to glorify the king with depictions of lion hunts or military conquests. Fugitives Crossing River 880 bce inNumrud Iraq. Palace of Ashurbanipal II; activities depicted (lion hunting) had become more symbolic than real, to show king’s strength
  12. 12. Near Eastern: Summary Sumerians Akkadians Neo-Sumerians Babylonians Assyrians 13th century BCE – 7th century BCE
  13. 13. Egypt
  14. 14. Egypt
  15. 15. Egypt Facts: *tombs were built for the afterlife of the deceased. Paintings, sculptures, and other objects had eternal purpose. Therefore art had permanance, and remained as the same forms for 10,000 years (statues etc) *art was made for elite patrons and was extremely hierarchical *two kinds of art: 1)royal commissions 2)funerary objects East and South (upper) Egypt = Life & Light West and North (lower) Egypt = Death & Darkness *Used Hieroglyphs *Had many gods in animal form. Sun god was the chief diety “Ra”
  16. 16. Egypt Palette of Narmer – king as unifier 3150bce, crown of upper and lower egypt, dieties, falcon = Horus (reincarnated Pharoah)large size indicates special use, make up, slate, Propaganda, strong and destined leader/warlord
  17. 17. Egypt Pyramids – 4th dynasty (2575 – 2465bce) step pyramids became smooth sided; Great Pyramids = (largest to smallest) Khufu, Khafra (with sphinx), Menkaure; granite, gold and limestone; Ra statues placed inside for king’s reincarnation and afterlife
  18. 18. Egypt Amarna Style Akhenaten – Sandstone 1355bce
  19. 19. Egypt Temple of Amun – Ra Temple of Hatshepset Tomb of Nebamun Tutankhamen
  20. 20. Aegean Important/Mentioned places are highlighted
  21. 21. Cycladic 3000bce Minoan 3000-1100 bce Mycenaean 1600-1100 bce Aegean: Timeline **1450-1375bce: Mycenaeans take over Knossos ***13th century bce (1200s) = most important period then Chaos
  22. 22. Aegean: Cycladic Bronze Age Civilization 3000-1100bce– KNOW GEOGRAPHY, *Apollo Sanctuary on Delos is most important sanctuary of the Aegean 1000bce Frying Pan 2500bce – Crossed Arm Figures 2500bce Marble
  23. 23. Aegean: Minoan On the island of Crete, Thera, or Acroteri (17th c bce volcano) Minoan = Minos king of Knossos in greek myth & judge of underworld Places: Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, Zakros Miniaturism, naturalism, playfulness, religiosity, impressive preoccupation with youthfulness/ CONTRASTS with Near Eastern Society, *heavy marine themes Kamares ware 1800bce – Octopus vase 1500bce – Snake Goddess 1600bce – bull rhyton 1500bce – Frescos 1500bce – Toreador 1500bce
  24. 24. Aegean: Minoan
  25. 25. Aegean: Mycenaean On Greek Mainland – lived in fortified citadels with what was called Cyclopian walls (made my cyclops) MYCENAE 1600bce- Mask of Agamemnon 1600bce, daggers in Niello 1600bce were found in Grave circle A. iconography of war and hunting. Lion Gate 1250bce is entrance to Mycenae TIRYNS 1400bce– MEGARON complex at its core, vaulted passageways with cyclopian masonry (limestone blocks, walls up to 20 ft thick, irregularly shaped blocks wedged together with smaller stones) PYLOS 1300bce– “palace of Nestor”; Frescos & archives w/clay tablets in Linear B (Greek syllabic script) Minoan influence on art ornimentation TREASURY OF ATRIUS 1300bce– vaulted or “beehive” tombs with dromos (great pathway), monumental entrance featuring relieving triangle above lintel ***1200bce – Troy & Mycenaean Palaces burnt down ** 1100bce – Mycenaean civ/Bronze Age ends
  26. 26. Aegean: Mycenaean
  27. 27. Compare and Contrast
  28. 28. Compare and contrast
  29. 29. “Mighty” Aphrodite or Venus
  30. 30. Compare and Contrast
  31. 31. Compare and Contrast: size, date, looks, effect, shape, materials
  32. 32. Uses of images: religious
  33. 33. Cf. materials, principles of construction, shapes, orientation, context: they both serve the need of worshipping communities and their cosmological concerns and beliefs.
  34. 34. Palette of Narmer – Vase of Uruk
  35. 35. Seated scribe (Saqqara, painted limestone): 25th c compare with/Khafra
  36. 36. Extreme Conservatism: cf. Menkaure (Khafra’s successor, ca 2515 BCE) with Mentuemhet (6th c. BCE)
  37. 37. Cf. and contrast:
  38. 38. Compare and contrast
  39. 39. Compare and contrast
  40. 40. Bull rhyton: one more link in an endless Mediterranean story
  41. 41. Cf. Pylos and Knossos
  42. 42. Details & Interpretation
  43. 43. Palette of King Narmer: unification of Upper and Lower Egypt • Heads of Hathor • Narmer’s name in hieroglyphic form • Horus • Land of Lower Egypt (hieroglyph) • *study royal attributes: crown of Upper Egypt and club, hieratic style, relationships of superimposition • Once again: ideographic language
  44. 44. Flip it over and look/read: • Narmer with crown of Lower Egypt • Dead of the fallen enemy (notive the bird’s eye view-no attempt to suggest real space relationships) • Procession performed (think in terms of what you learned studying the Warka vase) • Intertwined felines: unification? • Read: king’s victory (makers and viewers thing in terms of metaphors)
  45. 45. Book of the Dead Hu-Nefer’s last judgment (papyrus scroll, 13th c. BCE, British Museum) Anubis, Maat (feather), Ammit, Thoth (the bureaucrat), Horus, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys
  46. 46. Near East big wealth agricult., husbandry early literacy a world of images states and empires not associated with western origins Aegean small poverty fishing, trade preliterate society Images rare and special small scale societies “origins of west. civilization”
  47. 47. Knossos: lower level
  48. 48. Palaces: bureaucratic centers of administration • Systematic archives of resources: Tablets of logistical character in Linear A (non Greek) and Linear B (Greek).