1. The Treaty of Versailles(1919)Harsh terms intended In reality the treaty to make Germany had the opposite powerless effect.1. accept total blame It gave Germans for WW1 grievances that2. reduced military Hitler would attempt to solve,3. reparations of $33 such as restoring billion national pride4. loss of territory
2. Europe: The Emergence ofNew Countries After WW1 Europe 1914 Europe 1919-1939•After WW1 German people were living in new countries (Poland,Czechoslovakia, Austria) that had previously been Germany•Many Germans felt these countries should “belong” to Germany Lebensraum
3. Economic Depression 1930’s The Great Depression (1930’s) made times hard for all people especially Germans Depression + ($33 billion Reparations) desperation! a people that will agreed to almost anything enthusiastically in return for a better life
4. Rise of Extremism - Dictators(Fascism / Communism)1. Political democracies Political Spectrum (of sorts!) were new to many post WW1 European nations – voters had Left Right difficulty judging the Communism Fascism new politicians USSR NAZI Germany State Italy2. Great Depression Individual caused social, economic, political Canada, Britain, France, US problems – People were ready to follow Centre any leader that Democracy promised to make things better!
4. Rise of Fascism –Totalitarianism(Dictators)Fascism A form of government (dictatorship) backed by secret police and the army Based on nationalistic and racist theories The state (nationalism) is more important than the individual All opposition is suppressed (political, labour, religion)
Rise of Fascism –Totalitarianism(Dictators) Secret police Military support No political opposition DICTATORS create an us and them Control the citizenship Scapegoat media (to blame for all the prison or problems) death Jews, Gypsies
Rise of Extremism:Fascism & Communism Fascism Hitler Communism Stalin Fascism Franco Fascism Mussolini
Rise of Adolph Hitler -Hitler, leader of Nazi party, conducts an 1923 armed revolt in Munich -Thrown in prison – writes “Mein Kampf” (My propaganda Struggle) -Hitler re-organized the NAZI (National Socialist) party. 1928 -Established NAZI s throughout Germany – wins 12 seats -NY Stock Market Crash and economic world Depression 1929 -Hindenburg government fails to solve economic problems -Hitler widespread campaigns – using the airplane – rallies 1932 -Hindenburg president appoints Hitler chancellor to gain support of the Reichstag (German parliament) – believed Hitler could be controlled. 1933 -Hitler seizes power. Proclaims himself FuhrerThe establishment of a totalitarian state. State before the Individual.
Why Germans Supported Hitler1. Glad to see a strong man in charge2. Didn’t realize his intentions even though they were documented in Mein Kampf3. Inspiring leader4. Brilliant and hypnotizing speaker5. Inspiring Nazi rallies: songs, parades6. People felt they were part of a new movement7. Propaganda offered a source of all problems – the Jews8. Made being a Nazi exciting – uniforms, songs, symbols
1933 -Hitler becomes the “Fuhrer”His policies – What he did!1. “Lebensraum” (living room) to take over all German-speaking countries annexed by the Treaty of Versaille (Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia)2. Secret police – Gestapo Search-out, seize, torture and terrorize all opposition3. Propaganda – gave people targets to blame for all problems: The Treaty of Versailles, Jews and communists. Preached “racial purity” - Germans were a ‘master race’4. Jobs - Got Germans back to work – poured money into construction and factories: new roads, weapons (forbidden by T of Versailles.) men flocked to the army