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Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor
 

Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor

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    Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor Presentation Transcript

    • District coolingenvironmentally STRATEGIC option
      Eng. Yaqoub Almatouq
      Refrigeration Expert
      Kuwait National Ozone Unit
      25 – 26 January 2011 - Kuwait
    • Outline
      Environmental viewpoint
      Potential role of district cooling
      Implementation related concerns
      2
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Outline
      Environmental viewpoint
      Potential role of district cooling
      Implementation related concerns
      3
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Current Environmental Challenges
      Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
      Addressed by the Montreal Protocol, 1987 (196 countries)
      Mandatory phase-out of ODSs (CFCs, HCFCs,… etc.)
      Global Climate Change
      Addressed by Kyoto Protocol, 1997 (150 countries)
      Control greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, SF6, PFC)
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      4
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Montreal Protocol Adjustment
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      5
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Highest HCFC Consuming Parties (above 5,000 MT)
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      6
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Options For HVAC Refrigerants
      “Natural” Refrigerants
      Fluorocarbons
      Non- Ozone Depleters
      (Kyoto Protocol)
      Ozone Depleters
      (Montreal Protocol)
      Class 1
      High ODP
      CFC’s
      Class 2
      Low ODP
      HCFC’s
      Lower GWP
      Higher GWP
      R-134a
      R-410A
      R-407C
      R-32
      R-152a
      Propane
      Butane
      CO2
      Ammonia
      R-11
      R-12
      R113
      R-500
      R-22
      R-123
      GWP
      ODP
      ODP
      GWP
      GWP
      GWP
      ODP
      ODP
      GWP
      GWP
      ODP
      GWP
      ODP
      GWP
      -Toxicity Concerns
      -Efficiency Concerns
      -Cost Concerns
      -ODP Concerns
      -GWP Concerns
      - Flammable
      ODP
      GWP
    • TEAP 2010 Progress Report
      The report “scoping study on alternative to HCFCs refrigerant under high ambient temperature conditions” was published by UNEP Technology and economic assessment panel.
      The TEAP report stated that the current known replacement refrigerants for the HCFC-22 are blends of refrigerants some of which have low critical point temperature, such as R-407C and R-410A.
      From thermodynamic viewpoint, the capacity and efficiency of the AC decline rapidly as the condensing temperature approaches the critical temperature of the refrigerant.
      According to TEAP report, R-410A degrades 10% compared to R-22 at 65 C condensing temperature (i.e., approximately 55 C ambient temperature)
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      8
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Capacity Relative to HCFC-22 (% of HCFC-22)
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      9
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Outline
      Environmental viewpoint
      Potential role of district cooling
      Implementation related concerns
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      10
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Why DC is an Option
      Maturity of the technology
      Renewable energy can be easily employed (variety of refrigeration cycles, such as VCRC and ARC).
      Sound technology for utilizing:
      toxic refrigerants.
      flammable refrigerants.
      Higher potential for optimization of:
      Energy efficiency (e.g., network diversity, chillers operating at optimal conditions, and thermal storage)
      System performance. (e.g., availability of prompt and large thermal capacity)
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      11
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Outline
      Environmental viewpoint
      Potential role of district cooling
      Implementation related concerns
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      12
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • Implementation Related Concerns
      Cost (initial and running cost)
      Durability: longevity of district cooling components compared to conventional AC systems.
      Reliability: capability to provide the required cooling capacity at sever condition.
      Serviceability: the repair period in case of malfunctions.
      Expandability: cost of more cooling due to building expansion, and the ease of system (e.g. plant and piping network) capacity improvement.
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      13
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • More Concerns
      Technical support: the professionalism of the DC operators and technicians.
      Validity of design: sizing, selection, integration of the DC components with the buildings they will serve.
      Monopoly of DC service.
      can the end user select/change between different providers of DC.
      How and who will control the cost of DC service.
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      14
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011
    • “ The only way you can predict the future is to build it “ - Alan Kay
      Eng. Yaqoub Almatouq
      almatouq1@hotmail.com
      15
      District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option
      Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011