Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor

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Yaqoub almatouq, ministry of social affair & labor

  1. 1. District coolingenvironmentally STRATEGIC option <br />Eng. Yaqoub Almatouq<br />Refrigeration Expert<br />Kuwait National Ozone Unit <br />25 – 26 January 2011 - Kuwait<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Environmental viewpoint<br />Potential role of district cooling <br />Implementation related concerns <br />2<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />Environmental viewpoint<br />Potential role of district cooling <br />Implementation related concerns <br />3<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  4. 4. Current Environmental Challenges<br />Stratospheric Ozone Depletion<br />Addressed by the Montreal Protocol, 1987 (196 countries)<br />Mandatory phase-out of ODSs (CFCs, HCFCs,… etc.)<br />Global Climate Change<br />Addressed by Kyoto Protocol, 1997 (150 countries) <br />Control greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, SF6, PFC)<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />4<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  5. 5. Montreal Protocol Adjustment <br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />5<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  6. 6. Highest HCFC Consuming Parties (above 5,000 MT)<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />6<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  7. 7. Options For HVAC Refrigerants<br />“Natural” Refrigerants<br />Fluorocarbons<br />Non- Ozone Depleters<br />(Kyoto Protocol)<br />Ozone Depleters<br />(Montreal Protocol)<br />Class 1<br />High ODP <br />CFC’s<br />Class 2<br />Low ODP <br />HCFC’s<br />Lower GWP<br />Higher GWP <br />R-134a<br />R-410A<br />R-407C<br />R-32<br />R-152a<br />Propane<br />Butane<br />CO2<br />Ammonia<br />R-11<br />R-12<br />R113<br />R-500<br />R-22<br />R-123<br />GWP<br />ODP<br />ODP<br />GWP<br />GWP<br />GWP<br />ODP<br />ODP<br />GWP<br />GWP<br />ODP<br />GWP<br />ODP<br />GWP<br />-Toxicity Concerns<br />-Efficiency Concerns<br />-Cost Concerns<br />-ODP Concerns<br />-GWP Concerns<br />- Flammable<br />ODP<br />GWP<br />
  8. 8. TEAP 2010 Progress Report<br />The report “scoping study on alternative to HCFCs refrigerant under high ambient temperature conditions” was published by UNEP Technology and economic assessment panel.<br />The TEAP report stated that the current known replacement refrigerants for the HCFC-22 are blends of refrigerants some of which have low critical point temperature, such as R-407C and R-410A.<br />From thermodynamic viewpoint, the capacity and efficiency of the AC decline rapidly as the condensing temperature approaches the critical temperature of the refrigerant.<br />According to TEAP report, R-410A degrades 10% compared to R-22 at 65 C condensing temperature (i.e., approximately 55 C ambient temperature)<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />8<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  9. 9. Capacity Relative to HCFC-22 (% of HCFC-22)<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />9<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  10. 10. Outline<br />Environmental viewpoint<br />Potential role of district cooling <br />Implementation related concerns <br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />10<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  11. 11. Why DC is an Option<br />Maturity of the technology<br />Renewable energy can be easily employed (variety of refrigeration cycles, such as VCRC and ARC).<br />Sound technology for utilizing:<br /> toxic refrigerants.<br />flammable refrigerants. <br />Higher potential for optimization of:<br />Energy efficiency (e.g., network diversity, chillers operating at optimal conditions, and thermal storage)<br />System performance. (e.g., availability of prompt and large thermal capacity)<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />11<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  12. 12. Outline<br />Environmental viewpoint<br />Potential role of district cooling <br />Implementation related concerns <br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />12<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  13. 13. Implementation Related Concerns<br />Cost (initial and running cost)<br />Durability: longevity of district cooling components compared to conventional AC systems.<br />Reliability: capability to provide the required cooling capacity at sever condition.<br />Serviceability: the repair period in case of malfunctions.<br />Expandability: cost of more cooling due to building expansion, and the ease of system (e.g. plant and piping network) capacity improvement.<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />13<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  14. 14. More Concerns<br />Technical support: the professionalism of the DC operators and technicians.<br />Validity of design: sizing, selection, integration of the DC components with the buildings they will serve. <br />Monopoly of DC service.<br />can the end user select/change between different providers of DC.<br />How and who will control the cost of DC service.<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />14<br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />
  15. 15. “ The only way you can predict the future is to build it “ - Alan Kay<br />Eng. Yaqoub Almatouq <br />almatouq1@hotmail.com<br />15<br />District Cooling: Environmentally Strategic Option <br />Kuwait District Cooling Summit 2011<br />

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