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  • We did not collaborate with Not For Sale in the practical sensePractical sense: using supplies, using an office as a “home base,” completing specified tasks with an explicit deadline, directly benefiting the specific organizationWe had very little communication with Not For Sale representatives throughout the project (only Tony)Their headquarters are in Half Moon Bay, California Tony was the liaison between us and Not For Sale, but he was only on Grounds every Friday- we had to figure out a way to adhere to the overall aims of Not For Sale without working directly with the organization We created a “cell” under the umbrella of Not For SaleUsed our own resources to further the mission of the larger organizationCreated a local sub-movement within the UVA community Project aims that reflected the larger goals of Not For SaleAlthough we only met with Tony once directly, he provided us with some valuable starting points for a very large projectTony gave us some goals that reflected two of the overall goals of Not For Sale ( Education and awareness- creating “open source activism” (“we need to shift to a paradigm that recognizes the possibility of slavery in order to be able to identify it”- we need to uncover human trafficking and bring it into the collective consciousness of our society- we can’t afford to keep the fact that 27 million people today are enslaved hiddenSo how could we uncover facts, statistics, and stories?Tony wanted us to conduct research on the human trafficking movement by interviewing various individuals involved in different sectors of the movement itself- former victims, local law enforcement officials, workers for Non-Profits such as Polaris Project, elected officialsHe also wanted us to learn more about the local impact of human trafficking through investigating court cases and other materials that could help us understand the human trafficking going on in our own backyardThe reports were to be written in newspaper article format and actually submitted to various local newspapers (such as The Hook, the Cville, the Daily Progress, and the Cav Daily) in the hopes that they would be published and readers would be educated about human trafficking globally and locally- what it looks like, why it exists and in what forms, and what individuals not directly involved in the movement can do to end modern-day slavery locally and internationally These reports were also designed to attract readers to the Human Trafficking Movement and provide them with resources (websites, organizations, statistics) to help them get involved- educating their peers, donating money to specific non-profits, attending awareness-raising events2. Recruiting “modern-day abolitionists” ( also wanted us to somehow involve the UVA community in the fight to end modern-slaveryHe said we could conduct awareness-raising events such as a conference or other UVA-wide event to educate our community and recruit members for a UVA CIO that would be formedHe suggested we form a UVA CIO dedicated to raising awareness of human trafficking locally and internationally, as well as funding for non-profits such as Not For SaleThe goal: educate members of the University community who may know next to nothing about modern-day slavery in the hopes that they will be moved to join the campaign to end human trafficking as well- recruiting “modern-day abolitionists” through education
  • Unified under the same aimsReiterate- we may have acted independently but we want the same things as the larger organization- we are passionate students who chose this project because something about Tony’s presentation touched us and provoked us to actSpread awareness and educate the publicRecruit activists to join the movementWe are the STUDENTS Not For Sale is dedicated to reaching out to- we employed “smart activism”coined by Jeffrey Brand (Dean at the University of San Francisco School of Law, on the board of Not For Sale)use the education we gain from the experience to teach othersuse our specific fields of interest to learn more about human traffickinglook for connections between issues (ACE and class work)flexible, creative, make up our own rules Reaching out to the UVA/Charlottesville Community: An “insider’s perspective”We were at an advantage in targeting the UVA and Charlottesville community because we live hereWe are students at UVA- we know the process of forming a CIO, we know the difficulties in organizing events on our Grounds, we know from experience what marketing techniques work best to attract attentionWe are residents of Charlottesville- we know who our local elected officials are, we know local organizations that may be involved in the human trafficking movement (SARA, IRC), we know local newspapers whose editors we can contactIt is a lot easier for us to start our own sub-movement than for a representative from Not For Sale to try to start one- we have an “insider’s perspective” and “insider experiences” with local social activismIt helps to know your “audience” when trying to market and research a social movement- you will encounter specific obstacles and need to know specific contacts to further your goals  A cost-free initiativeWe worked with our own resources to learn about and spread awareness of human trafficking- we did not rely on any funding from Not For SaleThus, our work was a “cost-free initiative” for Not For SaleThey did not have to allocate any funding to usWe could further their goals and aims without hindering their ongoing projects by taking funding or other resources awayMost of the work we did required little to no money- interviews, research, putting together a presentationWe only had to fund a little- transportation to and from the Walk to End Modern Slavery, printing the newspaper articles for the classThis is one of the benefits of operating independently as a sub-movement under the umbrella organization- we can help them the way a program working in conjunction with the larger organization can, but without the allocation of money to our projects 
  • Transcript

    • 1. If you think that slavery ended in 1863…
    • 2. Think again.
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5. The fastest growing trade today??
    • 6.
    • 7. Did YOU know?
      In 2007, the trafficking industry generated 32 billion dollars…
      That’s more than Nike, Google, and Starbucks…
    • 8.
    • 9.
    • 10. “The chains of modern slavery are
    • 11.
    • 12. There are an estimated
      people enslaved today—
      that is more than the number of slaves seized from Africa in
      of the Transatlantic slave trade.
      27 million
      four centuries
    • 13.
    • 14. What is human trafficking?
      Human trafficking is the modern day .
      Human trafficking is the and of humans by means of deception and coercion and under the threat of violence.
      Trafficked, , and
      are under the control of another and as slaves, they are treated as property and are stripped of their rights.
      slave trade
    • 15. Where does slavery exist today?
      in third world countries?
      all through Africa?
      in poor countries?
      in Haiti?
      in Southeast Asia?
      in South America?
    • 16. The Answer—
      Slavery is illegal in every nation in the world, yet it exists
    • 17. Global Hotspots
    • 18. Victims
      flow from poorer countries to richer countries
      -Victims generally and a recent study found that the citizens of more than 35 countries, from regions such as are enslaved in the U.S., with the majority coming from
      South Asia, Central America,
      Africa, Europe, Mexico, China, and Vietnam
      Soviet Union
      -The former is believed to be the
      of trafficking for prostitution and the sex industry.
      largest new source
      large cities, vacation and tourist areas
      -Victims usually end up in
      where the demand is highest.
      or near military bases
      -Trafficking cases are often treated as a problem of illegal immigration causing
      victims to be treated as criminals.
    • 19. Contributing Factors
      Globalization and Increase in Labor Migration
      Globalization has set the stage for a huge new industry and “the migrants are the supply and the unwitting props in a tragedy of enormous proportions.”
      The continuing subordination of women in many societies
      The high demand, worldwide, for trafficked women and children for sex tourism, sex workers, cheap sweatshop labor, and domestic workers.
      The inadequacy of laws and law enforcement in most origin, transit, and destination countries, hampers efforts to fight trafficking.
      The disinterest and in some cases even complicity of governments
    • 20.
    • 21. Human Trafficking Industry
      -The Council of Europe states that “people trafficking has reached epidemic proportions over the past decade, with a global
      annual market of about $42.5 billion.”
      -In general, the criminal business
      feeds on
      poverty, despair, war, crisis, and ignorance.
      -It is the
      fastest-growing criminal
      industry in the world.
    • 22. Human trafficking is an umbrella term used to describe all forms of modern-day slavery:
      -Bonded Labor
      -Forced Child Labor
      -Labor Trafficking
      -Involuntary Servitude
      -Involuntary Domestic Servitude
      -Child Sex Tourism
      -Children for Commercial Sex
      -Child Soldiers
      -Sex Trafficking
    • 23.
    • 24.
    • 25.
    • 26. Sex Trafficking
      Between U.S. children are enslaved in sex trafficking each year.- Ernie Allen (President of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children)
      • Each year more than are exploited in the global commercial sex trade. Many of these children are
      • 27. The commercial sexual exploitation of children is trafficking, regardless of circumstances. The commercial sexual exploitation of children is trafficking, regardless of circumstances.
      two million children
      trapped in
    • 28.
      THE LIE: Human trafficking and prostitution are completely unrelated.
      THE TRUTH: Prostitution in some cases is human trafficking.
      THE LIE: Human trafficking happens to poor people or people with no education.
      THE TRUTH: Although poverty is one of the biggest risk factors, anyone can become a victim of human trafficking.
      THE LIE: Human trafficking must involve violence and confinement.
      THE TRUTH: Although human trafficking can include both violence and confinement, it might be based solely on deceit, psychological manipulation and/or threats of violence.
    • 30.
    • 31.
    • 32.
    • 33.
    • 34. Human Trafficking
      in the United States
      “Let freedom ring?”
    • 35. The truth isand it is happening in our own
      Slavery Still Exists
    • 36. The FBI estimates that well over 100,000 women and children are trafficked into the U.S. every year. They generally range in age from 9 to 19, with the average age being 11.
      Although almost 50% of trafficking victims are sold into prostitution, the other half are forced to work in factories, harvest crops, wash dishes in restaurants and clean in motels and offices
      There are more than 25,000 people living in slavery, in America, right now
    • 37.
    • 38. Human trafficking has been reported in
      91 cities across the country
      The US Department of Justice reports that human trafficking has occurred in nearly
      every state of the nation
    • 39. Hot Spots in the U.S.
    • D.C. and Northern Virginia
      In 2005, the FBI identified the Washington, D.C. area including Northern Virginia as one of the 14 major child sex trafficking centers in the U.S.
      -Yet out of all the states, D.C. had the lowest prostitution arrest rate in 2005 with 1 arrest per 100,000 people
    • 45.
    • 46. “Despite Law, Few Trafficking Arrests”
      The New York Times- March 2, 2010
      “D.C. Couple Charged with Sex Trafficking”
      The Examiner- February 22, 2008
      “Police Stop Three Human Trafficking Operations”
      NBC Washington- March 3, 2010
      “Recession boosts global human trafficking, report says”
      CNN- November 6, 2009
      “When American Dream Leads to Servitude”
      The New York Times- April 24, 2007
    • 47.
    • 48. Like the slaves of the past, slaves in America
      They have lost control of their lives,
      and they are being
      in terrible ways
      can not walk away
      exploited and brutalized
      But times are changing…
    • 49. Before 2008, the New York state federal government would not even recognize child prostitution as sex trafficking.
    • 50. In 2008, the tireless efforts of
      New York Anti-Trafficking Coalitionresulted in the state passing its
      first ever Anti-Human Trafficking Law.
      This anti-trafficking law was the
      harshest the nation has ever seen.
    • 51. Momentum is building...
      In 2000, Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act making forced labor a federal crime
      When Bush addressed the U.N. General Assembly in 2003, it was the first time a major world leader addressed the issue of human trafficking
      In 2008, Bush signed the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act in order to strengthen America’s anti-slavery laws
    • 52. “This has to be a top priority… What we have to do is create better, more effective tools for prosecuting those who are engaging in human trafficking… Sadly, there are thousands who are trapped in various forms of enslavement here in our country… It is a debasement of our common humanity.”- President Barack Obama
    • 53. “Nobody is free until everybody is free”
      -VivekPandit, Indian anti-slavery campaigner
    • 54. Progress in D.C. and Virginia
      Up until February of last year, Virginia was one of a handful of states with no criminal provision against human trafficking
      The passing of the Virginia Anti-Human Trafficking/Abduction Bill was a first step toward a comprehensive law to address human trafficking
      The bill:
      Defined human trafficking for the first time in the Virginia code
      Created a defense for human trafficking victims who are accused of prostitution or other crimes committed while in a trafficking situation
      Created stiff penalties when human trafficking is committed by an organized criminal operation
      Required traffickers to forfeit profits earned through exploiting victims
      Last month, Virginia Legislature finally passed a Crime Commission Study Resolution to enable the VA Crime Commission to shed further light on human trafficking in Virginia
      Before the passing of this resolution, the Crime Commission had virtually no reliable statistics on human trafficking in VA
    • 55. How are men, women, and children forced into modern day slavery?
      Human Traffickers often prey on people in poverty who have little access to education, health care, or jobs. They disguise themselves as recruiters or employment brokers and promise paid work and sometimes education to men, women, and children. It seems like an amazing opportunity, but these people are often never seen again.
    • 56. Fighting Human Trafficking:
      Requires a two-front war:
      1. going after the criminals
      2. addressing the poverty factor that motivates trafficking in the first place
    • 57. There are more slaves alive now than ever before in .
      So how can we believe it’s possible to bring human trafficking to an end?
    • 58. Because even though there may be more slaves now, they represent a of the world’s population than
      smaller %
      ever before
    • 59. The Cost of Freedom:
      $14 = pays for books, uniforms and a satchel so a former child slave can go to school
      $92 = cost per child to rescue a group child slaves from the fishing industry in Ghana
      $94 = provides a year of specialized education for a former child slave in India
      $132 = pays for a raid to free child slaves in India who are then helped to rebuild and recover their lives
      $174 =provides a family in Ghana the means to start a small-scale business, this helps prevent children from being re-enslaved
      $500 = provides a sewing machine, spare parts, and materials to a Sudanese women’s cooperative to help former slaves earn a sustainable living
      $400 = average cost of freeing and rehabilitating one person
    • 60.
    • 61. How expensive will it be to eradicate slavery?
      An estimated $10.8 billion
      (based on the average cost of freeing and rehabilitating one person)
      This is less than Americans spend on movies each year
      Spread over 25 years, this is realistically doable
    • 62. What is needed to abolish human trafficking?
      AWARENESS: educational campaigns to spread information through pamphlets, speeches, films, presentation, forums, word of mouth, and online
      ACTION: service projects and fundraising events to engage the local community
      3. AID: fundraising and donation efforts to support international charities and organizations working towards the eradication of modern-day slavery
    • 63. According to J.F. Rischard, author of High Noon: 20 Global Problems, 20 Years to Solve Them if every nation in the world gave a small percentage of their Gross Domestic Product per year, world poverty would be SOLVED.
      World Gross Domestic Product in 2008:
      $70.65 trillion
      If .05% of the GDP of the world in a year was donated to solving global poverty
      $353.3 million dollars
      would be contributed.
      To regulate this money and it’s use, an ambassador representing the interests of each nation could be appointed towork with international organizations.
    • 64. Everyone has a role to play in this enormous endeavor
      Businesses: must make sure that slave labor is not being used in the supply line of their products
      Communities: must work to become slave-free by refusing slave-made goods and learn how to identify slavery and trafficking so that traffickers will have nowhere to hide
      Governments: must make their nations slave-free and start enforcing their anti-trafficking laws
      Organizations: must coordinate their efforts and become united in solving global poverty and slavery
    • 65.
    • 66. The United Nations
      One of the best possible organizations to fight slavery
      Must lead the way in fighting this war against human trafficking
      Should do this by:
      Appointing UN Slavery Inspectors to inspect and enforce the UN’s global anti-slavery rules
    • 67. In order for the UN to take these actions, the five permanent members of
      the Security Council
      (Britain, China, Russia, France and the U.S.)
      must first make a serious commitment to
      ending slavery
      This requires funds and resources and in order for this to happen,
      pressure needs to come from
    • 68. YOU
      can make the difference between for someone in your community
      slavery and freedom
    • 69. What can YOU do?
      Educate yourself: go online, contact a local organization, or read the newspaper
      Sign up for e-mail updates from Polaris and/or Free the Slaves
      Join the DC Stop Modern Slavery Group
      Involve your community
      Spread the truth about slavery
      Buy goods that are made with fair labor standards
      Get your voice heard by contacting local government officials and sign petitions in support of strict anti-trafficking legislation
      Donate to a local organization
      Keep an eye out for suspicious signs of slavery in your neighborhood
    • 70. How can we find slaves in our communities?
      Watch for the following signs of slavery. The worker is likely to be enslaved if he or she:
      Is not free to leave or come and go as he/she wishes
      Is under 18 and is providing commercial sex acts
      Is in the commercial sex industry and has a pimp / manager
      Is unpaid, paid very little, or paid only through tips
      Works excessively long and/or unusual hours
      Is not allowed breaks or suffers under unusual restrictions at work
      Owes a large debt and is unable to pay it off
      Was recruited through false promises concerning the nature and conditions of his/her work
      High security measures exist in the work and/or living locations (e.g. opaque windows, boarded up windows, bars on windows, barbed wire, security cameras, etc.)
    • 71. If there is any sign of suspicious activity YOU can contact the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC)
      Report a tip 24/7 and toll-free anywhere in the United States:
      Please take a moment to put this number into your phone!
      YOU can make the difference
    • 72. “In this new century, many of the world's poorest countries remain imprisoned, enslaved and in chains. They are trapped in the prison of poverty. It is time to set them free. Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings.”
      -Nelson Mandela
    • 73.
    • 74. “Imagine that after 5, 000 years of slavery we commit ourselves to achieving it’s eradication in our lifetime.
      Imagine that your generation will be the one that is looked back on in history as the generation that ended slavery.
      Imagine that your children and your grandchildren will grow up in a world where slavery is just seen as an ugly blot on our history.
      Imagine a world where every person is born in freedom and lives in liberty.”
      Kevin Bales (Co-Founder and President of Free the Slaves)
    • 75. Let’s join and make slavery a thing of the past once and for all
    • 76. On your way out, please take a moment to pick up Free the Slaves stickers, pamphlets, and other resources
      If you’re interested in learning more about human trafficking or joining a club in the future please contact:
      Thank You!
    • 77. Sources
      1. Bales, Kevin. Interview with Amy Goodman. Democracy Now! “The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today”. 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2010. (
      2. Bales, Kevin. Winning the Fight: Eradicating Slavery in the Modern Age”. Harvard International Review, 31:1. 2009. “ Retrieved March 4, 2010. (
      3. Berger, Joseph. “Despite Law, Few Trafficking Arrests”. 2009. The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2010 (
      4. Borenstein, Arlene. “Police Stop Three Human Trafficking Operations”. 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2010
      5. Gonzalez, David. “When American Dream Leads to Servitude”. 2007. The New York Times. Retrieved Leads March 2, 2010 (
      6. Jordan, Ann. “Human Trafficking and Globalization.” 2004. Center for American Progress. Retrieved March 23, 2010. (
      7. Labbot, Elise. “Recession boosts global human trafficking, report says”. 2009. Retrieved March 3, 2010 (
      7. McCabe, Scott. “D.C. couple charged with sex trafficking”. 2008. The Examiner. Retrieved April 20, 2010. (
    • 78. 8. Shelley, Louise. “Preventing Human Trafficking in Virginia.” 2008. Retrieved February 18, 2010. Transnational Crime and Corruption Center. (
      9. “Slavery Still Exists And it Could Be in Your Backyard: A community members’ guide to fighting human trafficking and slavery.” 2008. Free the Slaves. Retrieved February 7, 2010. (
      10. “Slavery Still Exists Campaign. ” Stop Modern Slavery. Retrieved February 18, 2010. (
      11. Swecker, Chris. “Congressional TestimonyBefore the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe”. 2005. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 20, 2010. (
      12. “Teen Girls' Stories of Sex Trafficking in U.S.” ABC News. 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2010. (
      13. “Trafficking in Persons Report 2009”. US Department of State. Retrieved April 20, 2010. (
      14. “What is Human Trafficking?” Polaris Project. Retrieved February 18, 2010. (
      15. Welch, Claude E., Jr. 2009. “Defining Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Updating a Venerable NGO”. Human Rights Quarterly, 31:1. Retrieved March 3, 2010 (
    • 79. Goals and Obstacles
      On-Grounds awareness of the cause
      Engaging UVA community on large scale
      Gaining enough legitimacy as a group
      Little connection to ‘Not For Sale’ organization
      Making human trafficking a priority to students
      Achieving cohesiveness within our group
      Lack of unifying identity
      Forming a UVA chapter
    • 80. What problem does Not For Sale address?
      Human trafficking as a form of modern-day slavery
      Definition of human trafficking
      Global human trafficking and human trafficking in the US
      Sex trafficking vs. Labour trafficking
      Laws against trafficking in the US
      US State Department statistics
    • 81. How does Not For Sale Help?
      Developing an all-encompassing, comprehensive response to human trafficking
      “Stand with those who are enslaved”
      “Work together to free them”
      “Empower them in their freedom to break the cycle of vulnerability”
      Spreading awareness
      Understanding human trafficking
      Inspiring activism
    • 82. What We Did
      • Interviews & Newspaper Articles
      • 83. DC Stop Modern Slavery Walk
      • 84. Cases in VA, MD, & DC
      • 85. Student Interviews on campus
      • 86. Presentation Team
    • DC Stop Modern Slavery Walk
      October 23, 2010
      DC Stop Modern Slavery founded in 2004
      5K walk through the National Mall & Constitution Gardens
      Over 2,000 walkers participating to reach $200,000 goal
      Raised $100,000+
      Speakers & Performers
      Partners & sponsors, over 30 organizations
    • 87. Our Work with Not For Sale
      We did not collaborate with Not For Sale in the practical sense
      Creating a “cell” under the umbrella organization of Not For Sale
      Project aims reflecting the larger goals of Not For Sale (
      • “Open-Source Activism”
      • 88. “Modern-day Abolitionists”
    • How We Helped Not For Sale
      Unified under the same aims:
      • Spread awareness/educate the public
      • 89. Recruit activists to join the movement
      • 90. “Smart Activism” (Jeffrey S. Brand, 2010)
      Reaching out to the UVA/Charlottesville community: an “insider’s perspective”
      A cost-free initiative
    • 91. What can YOU do?
      Educate yourself: go online, contact a local organization, or read the newspaper
      Sign up for e-mail updates from Polaris and/or Free the Slaves
      Join the DC Stop Modern Slavery Group
      Involve your community
      Spread the truth about slavery
      Buy goods that are made with fair labor standards
      Get your voice heard by contacting local government officials and sign petitions in support of strict anti-trafficking legislation
      Donate to a local organization
      Keep an eye out for suspicious signs of slavery in your neighborhood