Nationalism overview - Unit 5B Other Ideological Traditions


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Nationalism overview - Unit 5B Other Ideological Traditions

  1. 1. Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind. Albert Einstein
  2. 2. Soviet Union foreign policy is a puzzle inside a riddle wrapped in an enigma, and the key is Russian nationalism. Winston Churchill
  3. 4. A private man, however successful in his own dealing, if his country perish is involved in her destruction; but if he be an unprosperous citizen of a prosperous city, he is much more likely to recover.  Seeing, then, that States can bear the misfortunes of individuals, but individuals cannot bear the misfortunes of States, let us all stand by our country.  Thucydides
  4. 5. Nationalism A2 Govt. and Politics Unit 5B 5 March 2009
  5. 6. Nation versus state
  6. 7. A state is a sovereign, political power over a given territory (which may be multinational). A nation (a much more recent concept that that of the state) is a cultural entity, a collection of people with a shared sense of common heritage.
  7. 8. Nationalism
  8. 9. States
  9. 10. Nations
  10. 11. UK State Northern Irish nation Scottish nation English nation Welsh nation
  11. 12. Nation state
  12. 13. A Nation state is when the common cultural group equates with a sovereign political unit.
  13. 14. The methods of most nationalist groups include: <ul><li>Unification </li></ul><ul><li>Secession </li></ul><ul><li>Irredentism </li></ul><ul><li>The replacement of a foreign leadership by an indigenous one. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Nationalism is often perceived as a single doctrine that can attach itself to almost any wider political ideology, such as liberalism, conservatism, fascism and even socialism. It is therefore one of the most flexible of all modern political tenets.
  15. 16. Liberal nationalism
  16. 18. What is Liberal nationalism? It regards nations in the same way as liberal theory regards individuals; they are moral entities deserving of freedom, autonomy and self-determination.
  17. 19. Self-determination
  18. 20. Internationalism
  19. 21. Our true nationality is mankind. H.G Wells
  20. 22. Liberal individualism verses nationalist collectivism
  21. 23. Liberal nationalism <ul><li>Peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Reformist </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking self-determination and popular sovereignty. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Liberalism is ambivalent about nationalism
  23. 25. Elie Kedourie
  24. 26. Liberalism is not compatible with expansionist nationalism
  25. 27. 'national ideal'
  26. 28. Paradox
  27. 29. Conservative nationalism
  28. 30. What is Conservative nationalism? From the 19 th century onwards, conservatives came to support nationalism because its emphasis on common culture, history and tradition corresponded well with conservative values.
  29. 33. The flag and monarchy
  30. 34. Old maids on bicycles and cricketers playing on the village green. John Major
  31. 35. Conservative nationalism <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasising cultural heritage, social stability and the primacy of the state over the individual. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Conservatism fears cultural diversity
  33. 37. Germany end of 19th century
  34. 38. Conservative nationalism
  35. 39. Chauvinist nationalism
  36. 41. What is Chauvinist nationalism? It is expansionist, aggressive, militarist and ethnocentric , justifying the nation’s right to impose its control and culture upon other ‘inferior’ nations and states through war and conquest.
  37. 43. Age of Empire
  38. 45. 'Jingoism'
  39. 46. Examples of chauvinist nationalism
  40. 47. All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state. Benito Mussolini
  41. 48. Chauvinist nationalism <ul><li>Expansionist </li></ul><ul><li>Militarist </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes tending to racism </li></ul><ul><li>Main example is fascism. </li></ul>
  42. 49. Integral nationalism
  43. 50. Pan-Slavism
  44. 52. Fascism
  45. 53. Anti-colonial nationalism
  46. 55. What is anti-colonial nationalism? It is found mainly in less economically developed countries seeking freedom from capitalist, imperial rule and economic modernisation.
  47. 56. Communism and Nationalism
  48. 57. Examples of anti-colonial nationalism
  49. 58. Anti-colonial nationalism <ul><li>Anti-imperialist </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in less developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Often revolutionary and socialist in character </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking economic modernisation </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe peaceful or violent. </li></ul>
  50. 59. Religious Fundamentalism
  51. 60. Nationalism – progressive or reactionary? Liberal and anti-colonial nationalisms are seen as broadly progressive, rational, liberating and reformist or revolutionary. Conservative and chauvinist nationalisms are seen broadly as static, reactionary, irrational, illiberal or oppressive. Chauvinist nationalism, especially, is seen as inherently expansionist, violent and destructive. All forms may exhibit negative traits to some degrees.
  52. 61. Political and Cultural Nationalism
  53. 62. What is Political nationalism? It is defined by the principle of self-determination, whether it is expressed by the desire for some measure of autonomy, in the form of devolution or federalism, or in the fully developed form of sovereign statehood. This is the most common of the two kinds of nationalism. It may be liberal, Communist, chauvinist, expansionist or anti-colonial.
  54. 64. What is Cultural nationalism? It is associated with the defence of a nation’s cultural heritage, without any strong desire for political autonomy It places primary emphasis on the regeneration of the nation as a distinctive civilisation, rather than as a discrete political community. It often leans to conservatism. Cultural nationalism may also seek to defend or strengthen a national religion. Cultural nationalism may sometimes develop into political nationalism.
  55. 65. Overview of nationalism National identity has at least 3 dimensions: cultural, political and psychological. The concept of nationalism originated in late 18 th century Europe, with the French Revolution and industrialisation. Cultural nationalism differs from political nationalism. Many writers regard nations as ‘invented traditions’ or ‘imagined communities’. Many states, such as the UK and the USA, are multinational or multicultural. Nationalism may or may not overlap with racism.
  56. 66. 'chameleon ideology'