a2 govt. and politics fascism origins and themes
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a2 govt. and politics fascism origins and themes






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a2 govt. and politics fascism origins and themes a2 govt. and politics fascism origins and themes Presentation Transcript

  • Fascism Origins and development and key themes Thursday 20 March 2008
  • fasces
  • 'strength through unity'
  • '1789 is dead'
  • Strong 'anti-character'
  • 2 distinct traditions
  • Statism
  • Racial theories
  • Origins and development
  • 20th Century ideology
  • 'Believe, Obey, Fight'
  • World War One 1914-1918
  • Italy Fascist Party
  • Germany Nazis
  • Inter-war period
  • Democracy in infancy
  • Industrialisation
  • Counter-revolution
  • World Economic Crisis of 1930s
  • Frustrated nationalism
  • World War Two 1939-1945
  • 'the fear of freedom'
  • Neo-fascism
  • Core Themes
  • Why is fascism a difficult ideology to analyse?
  • Ideology?
  • 'an ill-assorted hodge-podge of ideas' Hugh Trevor-Roper
  • 'Weltanschauung'
  • Political movement
  • 'fascist minimum'
  • Which movements can be classified as genuinely fascist?
  • 'the total charismatic community' A.J. Gregor (1969)
  • 'palingenetic ultranationalism' Roger Griffin (1993)
  • 'holistic-national radical Third Way' Roger Eatwell (1996)
  • Core Themes
    • Anti-rationalism
    • Struggle
    • Leadership and elitism
    • Socialism
    • Ultranationalism
  • Anti-rationalism
  • Counter-Enlightenment
  • 'Will to power' Nietzsche
  • 'Political myths' Georges Sorel (1847-1922)
  • Vitalism Henri Bergson (1859-1941)
  • What are the 3 ways in which anti-rationalism has influenced fascism?
  • 'Action not Talk' Mussolini
  • 'Anti-philosophy'
  • Volksgemeinschaft
  • 'Strength through Unity'
  • Struggle
  • 'Natural selection'
  • What impact did Social Darwinism have on fascism?
  • Social Darwinism impacted upon fascism in 3 main ways: Struggle as natural an inevitable. Power and strength are worshipped for their own sake and weakness is despised. National qualities can only be cultivated through conflict and expansion..
  • 'Victory is to the strong and the weak must go to the wall' Hitler, 1944
  • 'War is to men what maternity is to women' Mussolini
  • Strength= Goodness Weakness= Evil
  • Eugenics
  • Life as an 'unending struggle'
  • Leadership and elitism
  • Patriarchy
  • Fascists believe that society is composed of 3 kinds of people.
  • 'Ubermensch'
  • Nietzsche
  • Charisma
  • 'Adolf Hitler is Germany, Germany is Adolf Hilter'. 'Mussolini is always right'.
  • Fuhrerprinzip
  • 'totalitarian democracy'
  • Socialism
  • Dislike of large-scale capitalism
  • Collectivism
  • 'Capitalism is a system by which capital uss the nation for its own purposes. Fascism is a system by which the nation uses capital for its own purposes'. Oswald Mosley (leader of the BUF)
  • Limitations of fascist socialism
  • Leftist elements were marginalised once fascists came to power
  • Pragmatism not ideology determined fascist economic policy
  • Anti-communism more prominent within fascism than anti-capitalism.
  • Ultranationalism
  • Chauvinism
  • Aryanism
  • 'integral nationalism' Charles Maurras
  • Germany, Italy and Japan
  • Autarky