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Final Portfolio for Psychology Major

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  • This presentation is a culmination of my studies while attaining my bachelors degree in psychology. Throughout these courses, we have studied many theories and schools of thought. Some have been more credible than others, but each one provides valuable insight into the world of psychology. I have chosen to discuss a few of my favorite theories within this presentation as well as some of my least favorite for comparison. Additionally, my opinion of the future of psychology will be discussed along with a new method to research, EMDR, for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. This is followed by how my worldview has changed after these courses and how critical and creative thinking were used to create this portfolio.
  • Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov as a way to train and teach desired behavior. For classical conditioning to take place, an unconditioned stimulus must be present and elicit a natural response from an organism. Additionally, an unconditioned response must be present, which is the natural response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus as well as a conditioned stimulus or a neutral stimulus that does not elicit response from an organism. A conditioned response occurs when these factors combine in a specific manner. To produce a conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus must be presented, followed by the unconditioned stimulus so that each time the unconditioned stimulus occurs, the unconditioned response occurs (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). When the conditioned stimulus can be presented alone and elicit the same unconditioned response as it does when presented with the unconditioned stimulus, classical conditioning has occurred. A conditioned response is dependent upon the unconditioned stimulus, also referred to as the reinforcer. Without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus could not produce the conditioned response. When a conditionsedstimulus has been linked to an unconditioned stimulus through the process of classical conditioning, it can take on the form of an unconditioned stimulus. Pairing the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus causes the conditioned stimulus to develop reinforcing properties to be paired with a second conditioned stimulus to create a conditioned response (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). This is known as higher-order conditioning. The conditioned stimulus is called the secondary reinforcer because secondary reinforcement cannot develop without the unconditioned stimulus, known as the primary reinforcer. I like and can agree with this theory because it is based on empirical evidence as shown with Pavlov’s dogs. In this experiment, the meat powder is the US and the salivation by the dogs is the UR (unconditioned response). The bell is the neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. The bell becomes the CS which produces the CR of salivation after repeated pairings. This evidence proves this theory to be true and valuable when looking at how learning takes place. Instrumental conditioning is another form of learning in which the relationship between reinforcement and behavior is distinctively different. In instrumental conditioning, the behavior must be displayed before it is reinforced. This means that the reinforcement is contingent upon the behavior. If the desired behavior is not displayed, it is not reinforced. “…the animal’s behavior is ‘instrumental’ in getting it something it wants, that is, a reinforcer” (Olsen & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 8). Through the utilization of a Skinner box, instrumental conditioning can be seen. Simply stated, the box has a lever that emits an animal’s food. While the animal explores the box, it will eventually activate the lever and cause food to appear. Eventually, the animal will discover the association between pressing the lever and receiving the food. In this case, the pressing of the lever is the conditioned behavior, and the food is the reinforcement. When the behavior is completed, the reinforcement is received. I don’t necessarily “like” this theory, but I respect it because it is based on observation and experimentation with the Skinner box. I do agree that behavior when not reinforced, is likely not to continue. When good behavior is reinforced, it will continue, as shown with the Skinner box, especially when it comes to basic needs like getting food. However, I do not fully like this theory because it does not account for every nuance of behavior. Much more than instrumental conditioning, I like the theory of operant conditioning.In operant conditioning, the individual can produce response instead of just extracting response caused by an external stimulus (Kearsley, 1994). Operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike ,and John Watson to describe the effect of consequences of behavior on future occurrences of that behavior and proposed learning as the result of the application of consequences. The five types of operant conditioning include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, response cost, punishment, and extinction. Positive reinforcement is believed to be a successful way to strengthen behavior through the experience of a positive condition. A positive stimulus is introduced and after the response, the reinforcer is implemented. This increases the likelihood of the response or desirable behavior to continue (Huitt & Hummel, 1997). Negative reinforcement is used to strengthen a specific behavior through the use of a negative condition. A negative stimulus is introduced and in order for the desired behavior to be continued, the reinforcer is removed (Huitt & Hummel, 1997). Response cost weakens behavior by eliminating a positive stimulus and the positive reinforcer, thus causing the behavior to be weakened. Punishment is also used to weaken a particular behavior through the experience of a negative condition. By adding a negative stimulus, the frequency of the response is weakened (Huitt & Hummel, 1997). Extinction is used to weaken behavior through the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or stopping a negative condition. This results in the weakening of the frequency of the response. I like the theory of operant conditioning because it encompasses all five types of conditioning. Unlike instrumental conditioning, operant conditioning includes positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, response cost, punishment, and extinction to strengthen and weaken behavior. I believe this method works when teaching and changing behavior because people are motivated by reward.
  • I like the stage theory by Jean Piaget because it is based on observations. From these observations, Piaget concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, rather they simply think in a different way (Cherry, 2010). The stage theory describes the cognitive development of children which involves changes in cognitive processes and abilities and also involves processes based upon actions, which later progresses into changes in mental operations (Cherry, 2010). Schemas are both mental and physical actions used in understanding to help one interpret the world. Schemas include knowledge and obtaining knowledge. Through experiences, schemas can modify based on the experience (Cherry, 2010). Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into already existing schemas. This process is subjective because individuals modify experiences and information to somewhat fit into preexisting notions (Cherry, 2010). Accommodation is adaptation that involves changing existing schemas in light of new information (Cherry, 2010). This involves altering schemas because of new experiences and can also include the development of new schemas. Equalibration is the way in which children attempt to balance assimilation and accommodation (Cherry, 2010). For children to successfully change and add schemas, they must be able to balance previous knowledge and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (Cherry, 2010). This helps explain how children can move from one stage of thought to the next (Cherry, 2010). Mostly, I like this theory because it is relatable and makes sense logically. Anyone who has observed children would be able to say that this theory speaks truth and can shed light on how children learn, acquire new information, and change preexisting thoughts based on experiences. I also agree logically with the stages Piaget observed and incorporated into this theory. The first stage is the sensorimotor stage from birth to age two in which the infant builds understanding of the self and reality through interactions with the environment. The infant learns the difference between itself and other objects and learning takes place through assimilation (Schunk,2007). The preoperational stage takes place from 2 to 4 years of age when the child cannot yet conceptualize abstract thoughts and needs concrete psychical situations. In this stage, objects are classified simply (Schunk,2007). The concrete operational stage takes place from age 7 to 11 and is when the physical experiences accumulate and accommodation increases. The child is also able to begin thinking abstractly and conceptualize and create logical structures to explain experiences (Schunk,2007). Formal operations takes place from ages 11 to 15 when cognition reaches its final form. By this stage, concrete objects are no longer necessary to make rational judgments as the individual is capable of making deductive and hypothetical reasoning. Thinking in this stage is similar to the abstract thinking of adults (Schunk,2007). These stages address learning in age appropriate ways, defining what individuals of particular ages are able to conceptualize based on how developed the brain is. As individuals grow from infants to adolescents , the brain develops and is able to function on higher levels. This theory accounts for the way the brain grows and allows for further growth and development through the stages. Learned happens in different ways, depending on what the brain is capable of in the particular age, meaning that it is age appropriate according to the capabilities of the brain at that age.
  • I really like the attachment theory, first theorized by John Bowlby. I feel a connection to this theory because it seems to natural. As a mother, I can see why this theory can work with children and why mother’s are naturally drawn to it. The theme of this theory is that a mother who makes herself available and responsive to the needs of her infant can establish a sense of security in her children (Cherry, 2010). This is because the infant knows the mother is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to explore the world in. The four key components of attachment are very clear and make perfect sense as to why and how it would build trust between baby and mother. Secure attachment is seen when children are parted from parents and are happy upon their return (Cherry, 2010). Also, when frightened, securely attached children seek comfort from their mother because they know she can provide comfort and reassurance. Ambivalent attachment is seen when a child is distressed at a parents absence (Cherry, 2010). These children cannot depend on their mother when they are in need. Avoidant attachment is seen when parents avoid their mother and when offered a choice, prefer a stranger to their mother. This could be a result of abusive or neglectful mothers (Cherry, 2010). It is clear by this theory that secure attachment results in the most balanced child, which should be every parent’s goal. I agree with this theory and use it with my own children because I believe it builds a strong personality and a very capable child that can eventually feel comfortable when I cannot physically be with him, but also seek comfort from me in times of need.
  • Holistic Dynamic Theory Maslow developed the idea of holistic-dynamic theory in which he believed the whole person is constantly motivated by one need or another and that people have the potential to grow and reach self-actualization. To reach self-actualization, individuals must satisfy needs of hunger, safety, love, and esteem (Feist & Feist, 2009). Maslow’s theory of personality is based on several basic ideas about motivation. He believed the whole person is motivated rather than a single part. Once a need is satisfied, it loses its motivational power and is replaced with another need (Feist & Feist, 2009). Additionally, he believed that needs are arranged in a hierarchy. This concept assumes that lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs become motivators (Feist & Feist, 2009). When these needs are not met, it can lead to difficulties in one’s life and prevent self-actualization. This can lead to metapathology, which Maslow defines as “…the absence of values, the lack of fulfillment, and the loss of meaning in life” (Feist and Feist, 2009, p. 286). I like the notion of this theory. I agree that the whole person is motivated by various needs and that individuals attempt to reach their own highest “best.” I also agree that to reach one’s best, they must first fulfill basic needs of safety, love, and esteem. Existentialism The other humanist theory I enjoy is that of Rollo May’s existential personality theory. Rollo May developed existential personality theory from philosophies of Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and other European philosophers (Feist & Feist, 2009). May’s approach involved looking at humans based on clinical experience. He viewed people as responsible for the outcome of their lives and who they become. I love this aspect of responsibility for the self as well as self-regulation. May believed in facing and challenging destiny to gain freedom, recognize the inevitability of death and be courageous enough to live in the present (Feist & Feist, 2009). I really enjoy the “real-ness” of this theory and the aspect of accepting life for what it is. In this theory, existence takes precedence over essence, meaning the process of changing is more significant than being static and final (Feist & Feist, 2009). Existentialism rejects the split of subject and object and instead looks at a combination of the two as a way to judge an authentic life. May also believed people look for meaning in their lives and humans are ultimately responsible for whom they become (Feist & Feist, 2009). As Sarte said, “Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself. Such is the first principle of existentialism” (Feist & Feist, 2009). Additionally, existentialists are anti-theoretical and believe theories dehumanize people by making them into objects (Feist & Feist, 2009). Instead they believe in authentic experiences. In existentialism, being-in-the-world is an important concept. In this idea, Umwelt represents one’s relationship with the world of things; Mitwelt represents one’s relationship with the world of people; and Eigenwelt represents one’s relationship with oneself (Feist & Feist, 2009). I like this theory because it offers insight into how the whole person can be studied as one whole. The fulfillment of needs within each theory shows how important every factor of life is to the development of personality and living a fulfilled life. As it seems, fulfilling basic needs in each theory leads to a happy, fulfilled, and meaningful life.
  • Personality Theories Personality is a key factor in why people behave the way they do. When looking at personality theory, it is hard not to see it as a flawed system, biased by the personalities of the theorists who developed the theories. Additionally, the broadness of personality makes pinpointing one theory of explanation difficult to accept. However, these types of theories can be helpful and provide valuable information into the study of personality.How Theories can be SkewedTo understand individual personality theories, one must look at the personality of the theorist. Because personality is all-encompassing, when looking at each theorist’s personality, one must also look into the theorist’s historically, socially, and psychologically. Personality differences among theorists provide the varied theories on personality and the argument between the quantitative side and the clinical and qualitative side (Feist & Feist, 2009). Behaviorists, social learning theorists, and trait theorists believe much different ideas than psychoanalysts, humanists, and existentialists in terms of personality theory, dependent upon their own personalities. How information is used Regardless of the biases that may exist in personality theory, these theories can still serve a purpose. For a theory to be useful, it must have a mutual and dynamic interaction with research data (Feist & Feist, 2009). A theory creates a hypothesis, the hypothesis is tested and creates data that flows back into the theory and allows for restructure. From this, other hypotheses can be created, which leads to further theory development. When a theory can no longer generate useful data, it is replaced by a more useful one that can generate useful data. When looking at personality theories, it is important to look for several criteria to ensure the theory is valuable. Psychoanalytic Social Theory The personality theory that I enjoy the most is that of the psychoanalytic social theory. The psychoanalytic theory is based on the assumption that childhood experiences are responsible for shaping personality. Feist and Feist (2009) stated, “People who do not have their needs for love and affection satisfied during childhood develop basic hostility toward their parents and, as a consequence, suffer from basic anxiety” (Chapter 6).  This theory can be accepted as valid because, not only did Horney use personal experience, but she also relied on clinical experience, as well. Children do need to be shown love and affection, or their personalities will be affected, causing internal and external issues (such as suffering from anxiety). This theory can also be applied when learning how to assist and understand the development of neurotic individuals. This theory can be applied to the understanding of why it is important to show love and affection to children; this understanding can possibly help prevent neurotic personalities. I enjoy this personality because in addition to the evidence I mentioned above, I also have seen this to be true in my life with my children. I have shown my children much love and affection and they are very emotionally balanced, loving, and affectionate people.
  • Social psychology is a relatively young science, developing through the early 1900s and assuming its current form in the 1930s (Myers, 2010). Social psychology is the study of how experiences are influenced and how humans influence, think about, and relate with each other. Social psychology is a combination of psychology and sociology. Social psychology studies social thinking in how humans perceive the self and others, beliefs, judgments, and attitudes. Social psychology also studies social influence on culture, pressures to conform, persuasion, and groups of people as well as studying social relations in prejudice, aggression, attraction and intimacy, and helping others (Myers, 2010). Social Thinking In social psychology, it is believed by social psychologists that humans construct their own social reality through powerful and sometimes perilous social intuitions. Intuitions are powerful and can shape the fears, impressions, and relationships of humans, but they can also cause misdirection in feelings and thoughts. Because thinking happens both consciously and deliberately as well as unconsciously and automatically, it is important to distinguish between them to fortify thinking. Individual Attitudes It is also believed that attitudes shape behavior and are also shaped by behavior. These internal forces cause humans to choose their preferences or make decisions as well, displayed through behavior. Personalities also affect behavior. Individual personalities are based on experience, and individuals react differently in any given situationSocial InfluencesSocial influences and dispositions also shape behavior. Social behavior is biological and feelings and attitudes can be both positive and negative. Social influences are displayed in culture. Culture tells society what the norms are, thus influencing individuals to chose the cultural acceptable norms in life. These can be as simple as who a man or woman finds attractive, to the appropriate way to spend money and how to address others in the society. Biologically Based Many human social behaviors can be seen as biologically based. Natural selection predisposes humans to make certain choices and decisions shown through behavior. Therefore, every psychological occurrence is also a biological occurrence. Neurobiology also underlies social behavior. The study of social neuroscience looks at areas of the brain for causes of behavior and decision-making and what it is in the brain that enable experiences of emotion. Because humans are bio-psycho-social organisms, the mind and body are constantly working together, so it is important to look at all aspects when studying behavior (Myers, 2010).
  • Freud The problem with personality theories is that although some may seem reliable, none of them can be validated. Additionally, many can neither be verified nor falsified. Take Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud was known for his popular theory associated with psychoanalysis, which involves sex and aggression (Feist & Feist, 2009). According to Freud, there are three levels of mental life, and these are as the unconscious, preconscious, and the conscious levels. The assumptions on these developments are that each one of them has an influence in behavior, and therefore, control personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). The preconscious level allows for individuals to forget their anxieties, the conscious level allows for awareness, and the unconscious level allows for an individual to be out of contact with reality. The reliability of Freud’s theory has been scientific, verifiable and testable (Feist & Feist, 2009). With cognitive psychology on the rise, many psychologists started doing research in the importance of the conscious and the unconscious state of mind. This had a tremendous impact in neuroscience and in cognitive psychology (Feist & Feist, 2009). Much of Freud’s critique surrounded his association with being a scientist and whether he understood women. Most of his findings was geared and associated towards men. This is the source for my strong dislike for this theory. Another critique was that he was associated with being a scientist than a psychologist (Feist & Feist, 2009). Part of the reason was due to his psychoanalysis and calling it a science. Though he was not attempting to be labeled as a scientist, he did this so that he could separate it from philosophy and that psychoanalysis was not a natural science, but somewhere along the lines of natural and human science (Feist & Feist, 2009). Another theory I am not a fan of is also by Freud. This particular theory is called the psychosexual stage theory in which Freud believed people go through 5 stages through life, which must be fulfilled to become a whole person with a healthy personality. If they are not completed successfully and issues arise in any of the stages, the id becomes focused on erogenous areas and fixation can occur (Cherry, 2010). I am not a fan of this theory because it is mainly male focused and does not account for women. Additionally, Freud’s theory is difficult to test scientifically because concepts like libido cannot be measured. Much of the research done actually discredits Freud. Also, the future predictions are vague. One cannot definitively say that current behavior was caused by childhood experience and the length of time between cause and effect is too long to assume it to be so. Freud’s theory is based on case studies of adults (not children) rather than empirical research. Although Freud’s theories may be the most well-known, they are also the most controversial and least liked by me because of the lack of empirical research.
  • The future of psychology is dependant upon the theories I mentioned within this presentation. This is because new theories and ideas are formed from preexisting theories; built upon the basis of these theories. This is true even for the outdated and criticized theories like those of Freud. All theories lay the groundwork for future theories to be built upon. Additionally, many of these theories offer valuable information and insight into behavior, motivation, learning, and human life in general. The future depends on new methods of treatment for psychological disorders. One disorder that I am interested in treating is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There is a fairly new treatment method for PTSD known as EMDR. I would like to explore this further. It is the development of new treatment methods like these, and also the contribution to various treatment methods, that the future of psychology relies on.
  • EMDR is a fairly new idea that is evidence based psychotherapy for PTDS and many other psychiatric disorders, mental health problems, and somatic symptoms (APA, 2000).This new method is something I would like to research further because of my interest in traumatic disorders such as PTSD. In my research, I discovered how this method works through the eight phases. EMDR was developed by a psychologist Dr. Francine Shapiro in 1987 (EMDR International, n.d.). Shapiro made the observation that eye movements can reduce intensity of disturbing thoughts under certain conditions (EMDR International, n.d.). Since then, EMDR has developed and evolved through various contributions of therapists and researchers worldwide (EMDR International, n.d.). EMDR seems to have a direct effect on how the brain processes information. When a person is upset, the brain cannot process information as it normally does (EMDR International, n.d.). A traumatic moment becomes frozen and remembering that moment can sometimes feel as bad as the original experience (EMDR International, n.d.). EMDR effects the way the brain processes this information by returning the processing to normal so the person no longer relives the images, sounds, and feelings of the traumatic event (EMDR International, n.d.). The memory is not gone, it is just less upsetting (EMDR International, n.d.). This method attempts to treat disorders to alleviate human suffering while minimizing the risk of harm in its application (APA, 2000).There are eight phases of EMDR. In the client phase, the clinician gains an understanding of the client through learning the client’s history. This includes a treatment plan. In the Preparation phase, the clinician discusses the therapeutic framework of EMDR with the client (APA, 2000).The therapist prepares the client for EMDR reprocessing by establishing a trust relationship. The third phase is the assessment phase in which the clinician identifies components of the target/issue and establishes a baseline response (APA, 2000).This is followed by the fourth phase which is the desensitization phase in which the memory is activated and the clinician asks the client to notice his or her experiences while the clinician provides alternating bilateral stimulation, followed by the client reporting the observations. The fifth phase is the installation phase in which the therapist asks the client to check for potential new positive belief related to the target memory. The client is asked to hold this in mind along with the target memory and rate the positive belief on the VOC scale of 1 to 7 (APA, 2000).Bilateral stimulation is continued by the therapist until the client’s rating reaches level 7. The next phase is the body scan phase in which the therapist asks the client to hold in mind the target event and positive belief and to mentally scan the body (APA, 2000).The client is then asked to identify positive or negative body sensations while the therapist continues bilateral stimulation. The next phase is the closure phase which occurs at the end of any session in which unprocessed or disturbing material has been activated (APA, 2000).The client is informed that processing may continue after the session and is provided with instructions for maintaining stability (APA, 2000).In the final phase, reevaluation takes place. This is when the clinician uses the standard of the three-pronged protocol and assesses the effect of previous reprocessing of targets (APA, 2000). This method fascinates me and I hope to research it further. EMDR has helped an estimated 2 million people of all ages relieve various types of psychological stress.
  • The material presented in this presentation has affected my worldview, and at some level, has become my world view. The courses I have taken at University of Phoenix have taught me to be more understanding to the struggling of others and that hardships people face are not always their own fault. Many people are suffering from psychological disorders at no fault of their own. Many of these people are too embarrassed to seek out help or do not have the means to seek out help. These courses have changed my view on health care reform. I now believe that all people have the right to affordable health care, including psychological health care and prescription coverage. Additionally, treatment is not just for the one that is ill, and it is not just as easy as “fixing” one problem. Often, psychological disorders affect more than just the individual, including family, friends, and careers, and ever part of the person suffering. This means that a holistic approach is the most beneficial to treating the person. Learning is something that can be as individualistic as the person. Some learn better through hands-on approaches, while other learn better by reading material. We must be sensitive to these differences and be patient with those we are teaching and even those we are not teaching. We should be sensitive to the differences of all people and understand that all people are battling their own private battles.
  • Throughout this assignment, I utilized both critical and creative thinking techniques. As I approached the assignment, I asked myself the following questions. (ABOVE). My goal was to make the assignment a reflection of my psychological beliefs based on what I have learned throughout these courses. This meant that I really had to reflect on all the theories we studied, the various sub-disciplines of psychology along with reflecting on how these things have changed my world view, where I think the field of psychology is headed and what new methods I would like to explore. To make all of these ideas flow in a clear manner, I needed to think about it from a critical and creative thinking standpoint. Critical thinking involves a level of thinking that questions assumptions and decides what is true and false. I had to look at each of the theories we have discussed in this way and search out my favorite, or those I thought brought the most relevant information to the forefront of the discussion. The same was true with selecting which theories I do not like. For this, I focused on a theorist that I felt was not as credible as others because his theories were not empirically based and had a lot of holes in explanations. This was the reason I chose Freud. To determine the future of psychology, I used creative thinking. Because none of us can predict the future, I had to think creatively for this, which really meant that there was no wrong answer. I based my prediction on the facts I had learned and assumptions, which is what creative thinking is all about; thinking outside of the box.
  • My time here at University of Phoenix has taught me a great deal about people. Through working with others on team assignments to studying various theories, theorists, and philosophers, I have learned what it means to be a human, truly. Seeing into the world of psychology through the study of behavior and the interworkings of the mind has been a fascinating ride. Exploring the different views on what causes behavior and really, what makes each person “tick” has been eye opening; so much so that it has completely changed how I interact with others. I look at individuals with a concerned, thoughtful eye as I now realize each individual is battling their own battles in an attempt to make it through this life we have. Studying the facts and theories about behavior has made me think this way on a more empathetic level, whereas before, I did not give much thought to a person’s behavior other than it being a direct implication of “who” that person is. I know now there is more to a person than just their behavior. We have to look beyond the behavior to what is causing the behavior to get a clear view of why it is happening. The various behavioral, cognitive, developmental, humanist, personality and social psychology theories have provided much information into how experiences create certain behaviors, and how experiences are unique to the individual. I see the future of psychology as being a booming field with the development or improvement of theories to further explain behavior and the mind. Psychology is an ever advancing field that will continue to research and develop with new theories, treatments, and medications to serve the greater good and health of the people.
  • Final portfolio

    1. 1. Sarah Swindell January 20th, 2012University of Phoenix Dr. Vicki Koenig
    2. 2.  Behavioral Theories Cognitive Theories Developmental Theories Humanist Theories Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories Freud Future of Psychology EMDR (My new method to research) My World View Critical and Creative Thinking (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    3. 3. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING  Skinner Box  Ivan Pavlov  Reinforcement contingent upon  Learning associated with stimulus behavior  Unconditioned stimulus  When desired behavior is not displayed, it is not reinforced ▪ Causes natural reaction  Eventually association between ▪ Reinforcement action and reward is seen, and  Conditioned stimulus behavior is learned ▪ Neutral reaction OPERANT CONDITIONING  When US and CS are paired with Behavior is: CS first, CS can be cause of • reinforced by desirable natural reaction from US results • Punished by undesirable results(Microsoft Office, 2007). • Extinguished by no result
    4. 4. PIAGET’S THEORY OFCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 4 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Schemas  Sensorimotor Stage  Mental and physical actions  Birth to 2 years old involved in understanding and knowing  Preoperational stage Assimilation  2 to 4 years old  Process of taking new  Concrete Operations information into previously  7 to 11 years old existing schemas Accommodation  Formal Operations  Adaptation involving changing or  11 to 15 years old altering schemas Equalibration  Balance between assimilation and accommodation (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    5. 5. Attachment Theory 4 Key Components Emotional bond to  Safe haven another person ▪ Comfort and soothing when threatened or afraid John Bowlby  Secure base ▪ Secure, dependable base for child to explore world “lasting psychological  Proximity Maintenance connectedness ▪ Child stays near between human caregiver, keeping child beings” safe  Separation distress ▪ When separated from caregiver, child is upset (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    6. 6. MASLOW’S HOLISTIC DYNAMIC THEORY MAY’S EXISTENTIALISM Whole person motivated  Looking at humans based Self-actualization on clinical experience  Satisfy needs of  Individuals are responsible safety, love, esteem for life and outcomes Motivation  Face and challenge destiny  Once satisfied, loss of to gain freedom motivational power replaced  Recognize inevitability of with other need death  Needs arranged in hierarchy  Umwelt, Mitwelt, and Eigenwelt(Microsoft Office, 2007).
    7. 7. PSYCHOANALYTIC SOCIALPERSONALITY THEORY •Childhood experiences shape From Latin word personality “persona,” referring to •Based on personal theatrical masks (Feist & experience Feist, 2009). •Based on clinical experience Psychological term refers •Children need to be shown to a pattern of traits and love and affection characteristics •Lack of love and affection  give consistency and individuality to an individual’s can lead to internal and behavior. external issues (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    8. 8.  Social Thinking  Humans construct their own social reality Social Influences  Shapes behavior  Displayed in culture Individual Attitudes  Attitudes shape behavior and are shaped by behavior Biologically Based  Natural selection  Neuroscience (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    9. 9.  Freud  Freud  Psychosexual Development  Psychoanalytic Theory Theory ▪ Personality established by age 5 ▪ Sex and Aggression ▪ Most controversial ▪ Unconscious, Preconscious ▪ Male Focused , and Conscious ▪ Difficult to test scientifically ▪ Vague  Critique ▪ Case studies, not empirical research ▪ Scientist, not Psychologist ▪ Id, Ego, Superego ▪ No understanding of ▪ Stages ▪ Oral women ▪ Anal ▪ Phallic ▪ Latent ▪ Genital (Halberstadt, 1921).
    10. 10.  Dependant upon relevant theories Dependant upon outdated theories Groundwork for further research and theory development Offer valuable information and insight  Behavior  Motivation  Learning New Treatments (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    11. 11.  Eye Movement  8 phases Desensitization 1. Client History Reprocessing 2. Preparation Psychotherapy 3. Assessment Trauma treatment 4. Desensitization Incorporates elements 5. Installation from different 6. Body Scan approaches 7. Closure One or more 60-90 8. Reevaluation minute session required (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    12. 12.  Empathy Understanding Education Psychological disorders don’t = shame Health care reform Treatment is all-encompassing Learning differences (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    13. 13.  Deciding which theories to use  Which do I like? ▪ Why do I like them?  Which do I agree with? ▪ Why do I agree?  Which do I not like? ▪ Why do I not like them? Future of Psychology? (Microsoft Office, 2007).
    14. 14.  Theories  Behavioral  Cognitive  Developmental  Humanist  Personality  Social Psychology  Freud Future of Psychology EMDR Views (Microsoft Office, 2007).
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