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Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
Lecture 10   hybridomas and the production of antibodies
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Lecture 10 hybridomas and the production of antibodies

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Industrial Microbiology Dr. Butler 2011

Industrial Microbiology Dr. Butler 2011

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  • Dark blue – constant heavy chainDark pink – constant light chainLight blue – heavy chain variable regionLight pink – light chain variable regionLight blue and light pink domains contain the antigen binding site, contain hyper variable regions, 3 in each chain – antigen binding sites
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    • 1. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodiesButler, M. 2004. Animal cell culture and technology 2nd ed. London and New York:Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. P145.
    • 2. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodiesMonoclonal antibody (Mab) production• also known as immunoglobulins (Ig)• glycoproteins found in the blood plasma, lymph and secretions (tears, saliva, and gastrointestinal fluid)• five classes of antibodies found in humans: → IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, and IgD• synthesized by B-lymphocytes (white blood cells) Y Y Y
    • 3. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: The antibodyButler, M. 2004. Animal cell culture and technology 2nd ed. London and New York:Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. P136.
    • 4. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies• consists of two heavy chains and two light chains• isotypes differ in heavy chain structure – length, number of domains, and glycan structures• each Ig has unique antigen binding region, binds to specific antigen with high affinity
    • 5. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodiesMajor uses:1. diagnostic → blood typing, detection of pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, levels of drugs in blood stream, pregnancy, contaminants in food, antigens shed by tumors2. therapeutic → treatment of disease3. protein purification Kuby, J. 1997. Immunology 3rd ed. New W.H. Freeman and Company. P135.
    • 6. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies• in 1975 George Kohler and Cesar Milstein developed a technique to produce hybrid cells of B-lymphocytes and myelomas → myelomas are transformed lymphocytes that grow indefinitely• used to produce large scale quantities (kilograms) of monoclonal antibodies (Mab) → antibody specific for one type of epitope• hybrid cells were called hybridomas• grown in suspension in large bioreactors, produce large quantities of Mab’s
    • 7. Lecture 12 Animal Cell BiotechnologyHybridomas and the production of antibodies Kuby, J. 1997. Immunology 3rd ed. New W.H. Freeman and Company. P131.
    • 8. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusionButler, M. 2004. Animal cell culture and technology 2nd ed. London and New York:Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. P141.
    • 9. Kuby, J. 1997. Immunology 3rd ed. New W.H. Freeman and Company. P134.
    • 10. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusionGeneration of hybridomas involves four steps:1. immunization2. cell fusion3. genetic selection4. clonal cell selection
    • 11. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusion1. Immunizationi) in vivo immunization• antigen injected into spleen of mouse or rat• incubation time for antibody synthesis 3-4 weeks → larger molecules provoke stronger response in shorter amount of time → smaller molecules may need carrier proteins (albumin), with multiple injections over time• spleen then removed and homogenized, lymphocytes collected by centrifugation
    • 12. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusionii) in vitro immunization• cells removed from spleen of non-immunized mouse• cells suspended in medium containing antigen and growth and differentiation factors• activation may be shorter (3-4 days)• low concentrations of weak antigens can be used• certain Ig types produced preferentially (IgM)
    • 13. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusion2. Cell fusion• ab-secreting B-lymphocyte fused with myeloma• choice of myeloma partner selected for two characteristics: → does not produce antibodies → possesses a genetic marker• cells induced to fuse if two populations are brought close together at high cell concentration
    • 14. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell fusion• cell membranes destabilized, eventually fuse to form a hybrid cell• initially form a heterokaryon (two distinct nuclei), eventually fuse to form a stable hybrid• fusion assisted by: → UV-inactivated Sendai viruses → polyethylene glycol (PEG) → electrofusion
    • 15. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell selection3. Genetic selection• cell fusion results in a heterogenous population of cells → unfused parental cells, lysed cells, hybrid cells• lymphocyte cells have limited life span, will eventually die – hybrids, myeloma parent survives• select for hybridomas using Hypoxanthine Aminopterin Thymidine medium (HAT) → myelomas are HGPRT- (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase), B-lymphocytes are HGPRT+• Only hybridomas will survive, myeloma parent will not grow (afer a few days only hybridomas survive)
    • 16. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell selectionButler, M. 2004. Animal cell culture and technology 2nd ed. London and New York:Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. P144.
    • 17. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: Cell selection4. Clonal cell selection• only 10% of hybridomas secrete antibody• clones diluted and dispensed into multi-well plates (one cell per well)• growth supported by feeder cells• after 1-2 weeks medium in each well tested for antibody content → ELISA – enzyme-linked antibody assay → RIA – radioimmunoassay → Affinity chromatography
    • 18. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies: ELISAButler, M. 2004. Animal cell culture and technology 2nd ed. London and New York:Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers. P146.
    • 19. Lecture 12 Animal Cell Biotechnology Hybridomas and the production of antibodies• mouse produced Ig may induce human immune response• must “humanize” mouse antibody before human therapeutic use → mRNA taken from hybridomas, expressed as cDNA, spliced with human genes to form humanized antibodies• mouse variable regions linked to human constant regions (chimeric antibody)• replace V-regions not required for antigen binding – only murine-derived complimentarity determining regions (CDR) bound to human antibody (CDR-grafted antibody) → may have loss of affinity for antigen → may still have immune response against antigen binding site Kuby, J. 1997. Immunology 3rd ed. New W.H. Freeman and Company. P136.
    • 20. ...Fig. 8.8 Ways to humanize an antibody
    • 21. Lecture 12 Animal Cell BiotechnologyHybridomas and the production of antibodies Kuby, J. 1997. Immunology 3rd ed. New W.H. Freeman and Company. P137.
    • 22. Monoclonal antibodies approved by the FDA for clinical useAntibody Type Therapeutic treatment Company Date approvedOrthoclone Murine Ig2a Allograft rejection Ortho Biotech 1986(OKT3)ReoPro Chimeric (Fab) Coronary angioplasty Centocor/ Lilly 1994Zenapax Humanized IgG1 Allograft rejection Protein Design/ 1997 Hoffman-La RocheRituxan Chimeric IgG1 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Genentech 1997Synagis Humanized IgG1 Respiratory synctial virus Medimmune 1998Herceptin Humanized IgG1 Breast cancer Genentech 1998Simulect Chimeric IgG1 Allograft rejection Novartis Pharm 1998Inflixmab Chimeric IgG1 Rheumatoid arthritis/ Centocor 1998-1999 Crohn’s disease
    • 23. The demand for mammalian cell culture productsButler, M. (2005) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 68: 283-291.

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