Flexible digital approach to airport terminal design


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Flexible digital approach to airport terminal design

  1. 1. Flexible Digital approach toAirport Terminal designSarah Shuchi 1
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Background and Introduction Literature Review Research questions Research significance Research Methodology Research Progress 2
  3. 3. Background and Introduction ‘’Airports are 21st century buildings – fluid space for fluid functions using high technology architecture for spatial containment and cultural expression’’ -Brian Edwards Airport is comprised of number interacting services and stakeholders Technological advancement, changes in regulations, changes in terminal facilities, etc have significant impact on design Airport terminal is a complex system To deal with it the term ‘flexibility’ a prevalent concept – need to be incorporated in airport terminal deign. A detail understanding of airport terminal operations, facilities and their related space requirements facilitates architects and planners 3
  4. 4. Background and Introduction An integrated approach is required Building Information Model (BIM) could provide some well-built influences BIM) provides digital representation of buildings with integrated information in a digital format The Airport Information Model (AIM) is considered to be an extension of BIM Proposed research will use BIM tools to facilitate initial design process of flexible layouts 4
  5. 5. Research Objective The main objective is to understand and utilise role of flexible design in airport terminals The research will evaluate terminal space allocation for flexible design layouts Terminal facilities and corresponding space requirements will be given the main focus of interest The proposed research will focus on departing passenger terminals in Australian context 5
  6. 6. Overview of Literature review BIM and relevance with proposed topic Airport terminal design, operation and related facilities Flexible design concept Use of Business Process Models (BPM) and space layout planning in terminal design 6
  7. 7. Airport Terminal: Design, Operation and Facilities Airport design and operations are closely linked Poor design affects airport operations- increased cost Facility requirements depend on operations 2. Processing interface 1. Access interface Arriving Ticketing Waiting 3. Flight interface Departing Check- in Loading and Parking Security check unloading(both Circulating Claiming Baggage passenger and baggage) Checking customs Passenger terminal components (Horonjeff, McKelvey et al. 2010) 7
  8. 8. Airport Terminal: Design requirements Depends on number of traffic Formulas for translating number of traffic into space requirement is arithmetically simple Anticipation of level of traffics depends on forecast Forecast is unpredictable and unpredictable Selection of configuration is a vital issue, may cause economical losses, for example, London Stansted Airport (Odoni 2003) And also causes operational difficulties for example, Kansas City Airport (Odoni 2003) Kansas City Airport 8
  9. 9. Airport Design Configurations Which configuration is the best? Finger pier, Satellite, Midfield, Linear, Transporter or Hybrid ? Finger pier Satellite Linear Transporter Midfield 9
  10. 10. Airport Design Configurations Which configuration is the best? There is no single solution Varies with- walking distances between facilities - Arrangement of number of aircraft gates Finger pier at Brisbane International Walking distances are prime Level Of Service Airport (LOS) measures, LOS varies with spaces Finger pier configuration is widely adopted Hybrid configuration- more flexible Linear configuration at Darwin International Airport 10
  11. 11. Airport Design Simulation Based studies A number researches have been conducted in the area of modelling airport operations and performance evaluation ‘Fortran’ used to determine terminal facility requirement and dimensions (Seeman 1970) Other simulation tools such as SLAM, TRACKS, ARCPort, PAXSIM, OPAL etc are used to evaluate operational performance. Currently available tools could only measure existing design and operational performances (Andreatta, Brunetta et al. 2007) 11
  12. 12. Design and Concepts of Flexibility Flexible design is intend to respond in changing situations and operations (Kronenburg, 2007) The concept of flexible terminal design has given emphasis by many researchers (Edwards 2005; de Naufville and Odoni 2003) Airport terminal should be capable of multiple adaptation of future expansionsThree major design possibilities of flexible terminals developments (Odoni, 2003): 1. Connected buildings 2. Temporary facilities 3. Shared used facilities 12
  13. 13. Flexibility in Airport Design The overall perspective to achieve flexibility depends on large range of factors- economic shifts, regulatory changes, uncertainty in forecast etc (de Neufville and Odoni 2003) Functional effectiveness and flexibility in terminal design can be analysed under space, function and time (ACRP 25 2010) Examples of flexible terminal design Vancouver International Airport Large open hall divided by glass panel in spaces Easy accommodation of short and long term shifting pattern of traffic Vancouver International Airport 13
  14. 14. Airport Terminal and Inflexible Designs The landmark building of new New York opened in 1962 But the building eventually closed in 2001 when American Airlines bought TWA TWA Terminal, aerial view at left and interior at right (The Huffington Post 2011) Open plan interior Inflexible structural configuration made future expansion more difficult London Stansted Airport, aerial view at left and open plan interior at right (Foster+Partners) 14
  15. 15. Flexibility and Modular Airport Design Modular approach considered to achieve structural flexibility (Edwards 2007) Modular approach- expandable and flexible facilities Southampton Airport, UK 50% cost of legacy airport Quick construction Southampton International Airport, UK Southampton International Airport, UK 15
  16. 16. Flexibility and Modular Airport Design Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok Simple concept Series of modular terminal Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok Kitakyushu Airport, Japan Functionally simple Easy expandable modular roof structure Modular roofing at Kitakyushu Airport, Japan 16
  17. 17. Airport Design and Space Layout Planning The relationship exists between space and function assists to achieve spatial flexibility (Edwards 2005) Space layout planning and its form generation approach has been examined by many researchers (Humayouni, Eastman 1975, Fraser 1995) The elements are closely linked are tend to stay closely The movement of passenger between facilities provide key information for space layout The hierarchy of activities (Lee et al, 2007) 17
  18. 18. Airport Design and Business Process Model (BPM) Business process is a collection of activities designed to produce specific output for a stakeholder (The Enterprise Architects 2004) It also describes how the activities within a process are connected Evaluation of business process is equally important as well as the standard or formulas Movement of passengers in airport provides key information Workflow modelling (Lee et al, 2007) 18
  19. 19. Overview of Building Information Model (BIM) BIM is a digital representation of buildings, also known as a standard digital information storage area BIM consists of two type of information – Building elements and relationship of elements BIM also incorporates accessibility, energy saving, costing etc BIM also works as communication media between stakeholders Conventional CAD approach and BIM approach ArchiCAD, Autodesk Revit, Tekla, Bently: A comparison between conventional CAD and new approaches to BIMA comparison between conventional CAD and new approaches to BIM ( Azhar et al, 2010) 19
  20. 20. Use of BIM in Construction Industry More accurate visualisation Collaboration in multiple design disciplines Automatic and real time scheduling of spaces using ‘room/area’ tool Multi disciplinary clash detection system Automated scheduling and estimation Optimise construction sequencingAutomatic clash detection(Nadeem et al , 2008) Automated estimation(Nadeem et al , 2008) Construction sequencing model (Gammon Construction Ltd , KH) 20
  21. 21. BIM used in Airport Design Airport expansion project in India Design-to steel fabrication project using Tekla BIM software Reduced material wastage by 3.5%-4% Chennai Airport expansion model using TEKLA (TEKLA 2010) Design solution for enhancement of baggage handling system Accurate representation of structure Co-ordination of huge number of drawings BIM model of Cathay Pacific Cargo Terminal at Hong Kong International Airport (INTERLIBUILD) 21
  22. 22. Summery of Literature Anticipation of forecast is unpredictable A visionary approach required to deal with unpredictable future Researchers have identified the importance of flexible terminal design but practical implementation is yet to be discovered No evidence of utilising modelling techniques to identify flexible layouts Use of BIM tools in airport design is still limited Utilisation of business process in design is evident 22
  23. 23. Research Questions How can BIM tools support spatial flexibility in airport terminal design and operations? How can Business Process Models(BPM) help to determine spatial relationships within various operational activities? How spatial layouts can be generated for both greenfield and brownfield sites? 23
  24. 24. Research Significance Investigate the role of flexibility in airport terminal design 24
  25. 25. Research Contribution Investigate and utilise BIM technology in airport design Supplement domain information to provide a Airport Information Model The proposed research expects to utilise space layout planning tools to provide flexible yet feasible design layouts The research outcomes will assist architects/designers to understand and manage the interdependencies among various passenger activities 25
  26. 26. Research Methodology flowchart Literature Onsite-case study Business Phase 1 review analysis process models Indentify preliminary Hierarchical design parameters breakdown of spaces Define processes for Inputs from other AotF Phase 2 Create BIM models layout generation streams Define design metrics Form generation by Phase 3 research assistant Airport Layouts Analysis of AIM/BIM AIM/BIM algorithmic metrics Design guidelines guidelines specifications 26
  27. 27. Research Methodology Phase 1 Onsite case study Both international and domestic terminals around Australia analysis - Brisbane, Perth, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Sunshine Coast and Rockhampton Airport Case studies have been selected based on three categories Business Process Help to understand the passenger process in departure Models terminal Departure activities in Brisbane international Airport (Mazhar 2009) 27
  28. 28. Research Methodology Phase 1 Terminal facilities Design parameters Design attributesPreliminary Design parameters Terminal entry Entry from public transports Curb side entryDesign parameters will assists to Processing areas Entry hall Check-in area Queuing space Locationdetermine relationships among Security Service space Customs and immigrationpassenger activities and space Boarding Ramp Location Circulation Stair Orientation (position ofSpatial Hierarchy Elevator Escalator the design elements/functions in Automated people mover respect to the otherIdentify spatial relationship Wayfinding Signage Pamphletand hierarchical breakdown Discretionary activities Map Cafe and restaurant Locationof departure terminal Speciality shops Adjacency (of spaces News agent according to the relatedactivities Ticket counters functions) Orientation Toilet facilities Corridor space Money exchange Tax refund scheme Internet Kiosks Water fountainSelected preliminary design parameters Phone booths Waiting/meeting Seating area Location 28 Number of seating
  29. 29. Research Methodology Phase 3Identify spatial relationshipsSpace layout To determine flexible design layoutsplanning methods Network Method Craft Method Aims to determine the relative location of functional units Evolutionary approach Generates a list of possible configurations using hueristic algorithm 29
  30. 30. Research Methodology Phase 3 Relationship matrix and corresponding diagrammatic layout (Whitehead Network Method and Eldars 1965) One of the early methods of using computers to find out generative design layout The relationship between spaces represented by the number of journeys in between them The activities are presented in a relationship matrix 30
  31. 31. Research Methodology Phase 3 Evolutionary approach Aims to evolutionary approach of nature in built environment Approach architecture as a form of artificial life and propose a genetic representation in a form of DNA-like code script 31
  32. 32. Research Progress Case study : Brisbane International AirportIdentified spatial hierarchy at check-in facilities atBrisbane Airport 32
  33. 33. Research Timeline Time Elapsed (in months) 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 PhD Milestones Stage 2 Confirmation Annual progress Final seminar Course work AIRS Research phase Literature review P HASE 1 On-Site case study analysis Selection of preliminary design parameters IDENTIFY SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP CREATE BIM MODELS P HASE 2 LEARN S OFTWARE (REVIT ) DEFINE PROCESSES FOR LAYOUT GENERATOR INPUT FROM OTHER AOT F STREAMS DETERMINATION FINAL DESIGN PARAMETERS F ORM GENERATION BY OTHERS P HASE 3 GENERATE FLEXIBLE LAYOUTS DESIGN CRITERIA ANALYSIS ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMIC METRICS P ROVIDE DESIGN GUIDELINES Provide AIM/BIM specifications Publication and conference CONFERENCE PAPER J OURNAL PAPER Final examination Thesis draft 1 Thesis draft 2 Thesis Final draft and submission 33
  34. 34. Research Progress Brisbane International Airport Discretionary activities at Brisbane Check-in hall at Brisbane Airport Departurefacilities at Brisbane Airport AirportIdentified spatial hierarchy at check-in facilities atBrisbane Airport 34
  35. 35. Research Progress Brisbane International Airport Entry Lobby Check-in Discretionary spaces Security Customs Boarding and circulation Revit Model of departure activities at Brisbane Airport 35
  36. 36. Research Conclusion 36
  37. 37. 37