Effective Educational Practices✤ for quality teaching and learning
*Five National Benchmarks of EffectiveEducational Practice Level of Academic Challenge Challenging intellectual and creative work is central to student learning and collegiate quality. Colleges and universities promote high levels of student achievement by setting high expectations for student performance. Student Interactions with Faculty Members Students learn firsthand how experts think about and solve practical problems by interacting with faculty members inside and outside the classroom. As a result, their teachers become role models, mentors, and guides for continuous, life-long learning. Active and Collaborative Learning Students learn more when they are intensively involved in their education and are asked to think about and apply what they are learning in different settings. Collaborating with others in solving problems or mastering difficult material prepares student to deal with the messy, unscripted problems they will encounter daily, both during and after college. *Adapted from the 2004 Annual NSSE Survey Report
Five Benchmarks Continued... Enriching Educational Experiences Complementary learning opportunities inside and outside the classroom augment the academic program. Experiencing diversity teaches students valuable things about themselves and other cultures. Used appropriately, technology facilitates learning and promotes collaboration between peers and instructors. Internships, community service, and senior capstone courses provide students with opportunities to synthesize, integrate, and apply their knowledge. Such experiences make learning more meaningful and, ultimately, more useful because what students know becomes a part of who they are. Supportive Campus Environment Students perform better and are more satisfied at colleges that are committed to their success and cultivate positive working and social relations among different groups on campus. *Adapted from the 2004 Annual NSSE Survey Report
Putting the benchmarks into practice✤ What are the principles for great teaching and learning
The 7 Principles for Good Practice encourage contact between students and faculty, develop reciprocity and cooperation among students, encourage active learning, give prompt feedback, emphasize time on task, communicate high expectations, and respect diverse talents and ways of learning. Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987, March). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHEBulletin 39: 3-7, March 1987
Two thoughts....1. While these 7 principles can stand on their own, if we put them together we arrive at some very powerful forces for effective teaching and learning....just think about the following words...activity, expectations, cooperation, interaction, diversity, and Responsibility.2. Think of effective teaching and learning like the mechanics of a clock. We can picture in our minds the gears, cogs and wheels, and how these move together so that time can be represented on the outward part of the machine - the clock face. This is a universal image, represented and replicated throughout our world...but the capturing of time is a profound concept...Just as the mechanics of teaching and learning, nebulous and profound requiring symbiotic movement, just as in the workings of a clock!
Encourage contact between facultyand student Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans.
Encourages Contact BetweenStudents and Faculty Provide multiple ways for students to contact you Hold Office Hours and Virtual Office Hours (and encourage appointments) Provide guidelines for communication – i.e. how and when to best reach you, when to reasonably expect a response from you Send class emails regularly (whole class, individuals) Assign Reflective journals Provide feedback quickly – tell them what your turnaround will be. Encourage them to follow-up with you
Develops Reciprocity andCooperation Among Students Learning is enhanced when it is within the context of a team. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing ones own ideas and responding to others reactions sharpens thinking and deepens understanding.
Develops Reciprocity andCooperation Among Students Model expectations Case Studies Form small learning teams Note sharing Problem based learning Peer editing/reviewing Book discussion groups Team Discussion facilitation Collaborative (team) learning Debate and assignments Collective resources and Wikis (Google Docs) bookmarks Presentations
Encourages Active Learning Learning is not for spectators. Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre- packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.
Encourages Active Learning Clickers (polls, surveys) Ask “Why is this relevant to Case Studies, Critical you?” Incidents, Problem Based Stump your classmate Learning exercise Model critical questioning Concept mapping Then “assign” them to Notes/Resource Sharing challenge each other during Metacognitive journal class discussion What? So what? Now what?
Gives Prompt Feedback Knowing what you know and dont know focuses learning.Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefitfrom courses. When getting started, students need help in assessing existingknowledge and competence. In classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform andreceive suggestions for improvement. At various points during college, and at the end, students needchances to reflect on what they have learned, what they stillneed to know, and how to assess themselves.
Gives Prompt Feedback Regular formative assessment Check for understanding (in and out of class) quizzes Information and With permission, use student acknowledgement feedback samples Comment: Provide detailed rubrics for assignments During and end of discussion Use them also for self and peer On reflective journals assessment On assignments KWL exercise to open and close new content
Emphasizes Time on Task Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use ones time well is critical for students and professionals alike. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations for students, faculty, administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis of high performance for all.
Emphasizes Time on Task Be organized and prepared for class Include objectives throughout the course Require groups to submit a task analysis with timelines and responsibilities (Learning Contracts) Estimate for students how much time they should spend on things Focus learners attention on provided resources, reading assignments, etc.
Communicates High Expectations Expect more and you will get more. High expectations are important for everyone -- for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations for themselves and make extra efforts.
Communicates High Expectations Clearly defined syllabus and Authentic and problem based assignments learning Include learning objectives with units Publicly praise quality and insight and assignments (know your Learners publish their work taxonomy!) Link feedback to objectives. Invite the library in (to work with you in setting up scholarly Post samples of assignments assignments, and into your class Provide detailed rubrics session for your students.) Give challenging assignments (and Require scholarly resources and avoid "busy work") references
Respects Diverse Talents andWays of Learning There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory. Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.
Respects Diverse Talents andWays of Learning Vary your content delivery Invite the learners experience (imagery, illustration, audio, video, Take the VARK inventory and ask reading, writing, websites) your learners to. Post results. Choices of assignments and Create a chart. delivery Pursue own area of interest within Vary your assessments (and more content subjective than objective) Frequent Formative assessment Provide materials to provide Integrate new knowledge about background and "for further study" under-represented populations into Show value and relevance for your content learner contributions
A few resourcesChickering, A., Gamson, Z. (1987) Seven Principles For Good Practice In Undergraduate Education. The American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, March 1987. Accessed online: http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guideb k/teachtip/7princip.htmVARK: http://www.vark-learn.com/Problem Based Learning Clearinghouse: https://primus.nss.udel.edu/Pbl/Second Story productions (interactive websites): http://secondstory.com/portfolio