The Pre-Spanish and the Spanish-devised Curriculum
Touched on the religion, economic, political
and social influences and events that took
place in the country.
What learning objectives should be included?
What will be the bases for the choice of
Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs
and interests, or rather on the needs of the
Will the selection depend on tradition, the
nature of knowledge, or the learners’
What philosophical and psychological theories
regarding the nature of learners as well as the
learning process will underpin the organization
of the content?
Will the methodology be in line with accepted
Will the evaluation procedure be able to
measure the learning that is taking place?
Sabog (Lack of Focus)
Lakas ng Loob (Gutfeel)
Gaya-gaya (Paterned from an Existing Model)
Bahala Na (By Chance)
Knowledge of Learner
Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Theories
Body of Knowledge
Means of Livelihood
(PRODED) Content Based (not
on the learner and
Program (SEDP) –
learner and learning
Educational Development Project Implementing
Task Force (EDPITAF) – revealed that community
and home variables have greater impact on
learning than school factors.
• Use of electricity
• Parental education
• Parents’ perception of
academic abilities and
interests of the children
Socio economic status
of the Family
Cognitive Development Psychology
Cognitive Field Psychology
The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC)
and New Secondary Education Curriculum
(NSEC) - demonstrate ample evidence of the
inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles
through the use of behavioral objectives, drills,
practices, and homeworks reinforces learning.
MAED512-GS CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL
DR. Rey S. Guevarra
Prepared by: Sarah Joyce Del Mundo
1521 – 1896
1896 – 1898
– Education before the coming of Spaniards
– Education during the Spanish Regime
– Education during the Philippine
1899 – 1935
– Education during the American occupation
1935 – 1941
– Education during the Philippine
1941 – 1944
– Education during the Japanese occupation
1944 – 1946
– Education after the World War II
1946 – Present – Education under the Philippine Republic
The Filipino possessed a culture of their own and were
civilized people, possessing their systems of writing,
laws and moral standards in a well-organized
The Jesuit missionary, Father Pedro Chirino wrote in his
diary that there was hardly a man or a woman who did
not know how to read and write.
They had contacts with other foreign peoples from
Arabia, India, China, Indo-China, and Borneo.
Foreign influences was inevitable because of the
trade between the Philippines and her
Chinese, Indians, Malays, Indonesians and Arabs
made the most influences in our language and
culture until now.
Education was oral, practical and hands-on and it was
Due to the lack of formal schools before the coming of
Spaniards, the children of school age were taught in their
own homes by their mother or father. This includes
reading, writing, music, religion, agriculture, irrigation, fi
shing, mining, ship building, poultry, stockraising, lumbering and weaving.
As shown in the rule of Barangays, their code of laws –
the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas, their belief in
Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience
and respect had been practiced.
There is a system of justice that was approved by the
council of elders and was strictly being followed.
• Baybayin – For
• Points of daggers
• Small pieces of
• Colored plant saps
• Writes on:
• Tree Barks
• Used wood
• Vocational training for
• Examples –
• Less academics for
• 3 R’s –
• Devoid of methods
• Tribal Tutors
• Students learn in
their own home
March 17, 1521 – Marked the coming of
the first Spaniards in the Philippines.
Education was carried out by the
Missionaries studied the local languages
and the Baybayin to communicate
better with the locals and teach the
Christian faith easily.
1565 – Augustinians opened a school in Cebu
1577 – Franciscans immediately took to the
task of teaching improving literacy, aside
from teaching of new industrial and
1581 – Jesuits
1587 – Dominicans started a school in their
first mission in Bataan.
The Spanish Missionaries aim to control of
the Filipinos, both body and soul.
Spain claimed the Philippines by
the right of “discovery” and by
the right of actual occupation
The curriculum then consisted of 3 R’s (reading, writing and
religion) to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism
and the acceptance of Spanish rule.
The friars refused to recognize any
other religion but the catholic
The schools were parochial or convent
schools and was linked with churches to
teach catechism to the natives.
The method of instruction was mainly
Instruction was in the dialect.
The Spanish-Curates did not teach the Spanish Language to the
Filipinos but this language was learned by many Filipinos who had
contacts with Spaniards. (even the first printed book in the Philippines,
Christian Doctrine were in Tagalog and in Chinese)
Education in the country was not uniform.
The Spaniards founded many colleges for men and
women but these were exclusively for the Spaniards and
the Spanish mestizos. Only the Filipinos with those who
had money and talent were given a chance to study.
The system of schooling was not hierarchical
and not structured. Thus there were no grade
In the 19th century, primary
schools were opened. It was only
during the second half of the 19th
century that the primary schools
were opened to all the Filipino
children of school age but these
were hated by the Filipino pupils
because of method of teaching
Lack of trained teachers.
Lack of teachers (150 teacher-missionaries to
instruct over half a million inhabitants).
Lack of funds, instructional materials, and in
many instances school houses.
• Created a free public education system in the
Philippines, run by the Government.
• The first such education system in Asia.
• Mandated the establishment of at least one primary school
for boys and one for girls in each town under the
responsibility of the municipal government and
establishment of normal school for male teachers under the
supervision of the Jesuits.
• Primary education was FREE and available to every
Filipino, regardless of race or social classes.
Languages (Latin, Spanish grammar and
literature, elementary Greek, French and
History (Universal, Spanish)
(Arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, geometry
Philosophy (rhetoric, logic, ethics)
EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863
• As a result of the implementation of public
education, a new social class of educated
Filipinos arose, that came to be known as the
• It was these educated Filipinos who asked for
reforms in the administration of the
Philippines. They began to ask embarrassing
questions about Spanish misdeeds,
incompetence, inefficiency, greed and
Ilustrados spearheaded the
Secularization of Education
Instruction of Spanish
Greater attention to natural science
The design of a relevant curriculum
Improvement of higher centers of
6. Improvement of educational system
Jose Rizal criticized unequivocally
the friars’ method of instruction in
his two novels Noli me Tangere and
1. Disproportionate focus on religion
2. Discourage the attempt of Filipino
students to speak in English
3. Lack of pedagogical skills
4. Irrelevant courses in the curriculum
To improve the existing curriculum, Rizal considered the
ff. subjects as required courses in secondary schools:
“The outstanding cause of the
distressed situation of Filipinos today
is the anomalous education received
by the youth in schools. They learn to
read correctly and write gracefully, but
they do not learn anything useful
because they are not taught any. They
are taught how to pray and never go
• Spanish Alphabet
• Ink and Quill
• Xylography Printing Press
introduced by the
• Typography –
• Primary and Normal
• Latin and
• Theology and
• Cruel and brutal
• Punishments were
inflicted on erring
• Friar – Curates
• Students go to the
Parochial or Convent
THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT (PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) by Prof.
Ronnie Espergal Pasigui http://www.slideshare.net/cuterodz042909/curriculumdevelopment-11473935
Historical Foundations of Philippine Education by
Michael John Labog http://www.slideshare.net/mjlabog/historicalfoundations-of-philippine-education
History of Curriculum in the Philippines by Wreigh http://wreigh.wordpress.com/2011/05/14/history-ofcurriculum-in-the-philippines/
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
by Sittiehan B. Mante http://educatorssquare.blogspot.com/2011/04/educ106-lesson-3-curriculum.html
Education in the Philippines by Michael Cabatlao
Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas by
Aurora L. Santiago, Eliseo D. Manaay and
Jeanette I. Sales
Introduction to Filipino History by Teodoro A.