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Report in The Curriculum and Development in the Philippines (sources are acknowledged after the presentation)

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  • 1. The Pre-Spanish and the Spanish-devised Curriculum
  • 2.  Touched on the religion, economic, political and social influences and events that took place in the country.
  • 3.     What learning objectives should be included? What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs and interests, or rather on the needs of the society? Will the selection depend on tradition, the nature of knowledge, or the learners’ characteristics?
  • 4.    What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content? Will the methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles? Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning that is taking place?
  • 5.           Sari-sari (Hodgepodge) Pira-piraso (Piemal) Tagpi-tagpi (Patchwork) Sabog (Lack of Focus) Malabo (Vague) Lakas ng Loob (Gutfeel) Hula-hula (Hunches) Gaya-gaya (Paterned from an Existing Model) Bahala Na (By Chance) Patama-tama (Non-deliberate)
  • 6.     Cultural Values Knowledge of Learner Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Theories and Principles Body of Knowledge
  • 7. Visible  Rules  Food  Dress  Language  Music  Dance  Means of Livelihood  Political Behaviour  Family  Community Norms Non-Visible  Philosophy  Beliefs  Value System
  • 8.  Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) Content Based (not on the learner and learning process)  The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) – addresses the learner and learning process
  • 9.  Educational Development Project Implementing Task Force (EDPITAF) – revealed that community and home variables have greater impact on learning than school factors. Factors: • Use of electricity • Parental education • Parents’ perception of academic abilities and interests of the children • • • • Parents’ attitude Geography (Region) School Type Socio economic status of the Family
  • 10.    Behaviorism Cognitive Development Psychology Cognitive Field Psychology The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) - demonstrate ample evidence of the inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles through the use of behavioral objectives, drills, practices, and homeworks reinforces learning.
  • 11. MAED512-GS CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL DR. Rey S. Guevarra Prepared by: Sarah Joyce Del Mundo
  • 12.         Before 1521 1521 – 1896 1896 – 1898 – Education before the coming of Spaniards – Education during the Spanish Regime – Education during the Philippine Revolution 1899 – 1935 – Education during the American occupation 1935 – 1941 – Education during the Philippine Commonwealth 1941 – 1944 – Education during the Japanese occupation 1944 – 1946 – Education after the World War II 1946 – Present – Education under the Philippine Republic
  • 13.  The Filipino possessed a culture of their own and were civilized people, possessing their systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a well-organized government. The Jesuit missionary, Father Pedro Chirino wrote in his diary that there was hardly a man or a woman who did not know how to read and write.
  • 14.  They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia, India, China, Indo-China, and Borneo. Foreign influences was inevitable because of the trade between the Philippines and her neighbours. The Chinese, Indians, Malays, Indonesians and Arabs made the most influences in our language and culture until now.
  • 15.  Education was oral, practical and hands-on and it was not formal. Due to the lack of formal schools before the coming of Spaniards, the children of school age were taught in their own homes by their mother or father. This includes reading, writing, music, religion, agriculture, irrigation, fi shing, mining, ship building, poultry, stockraising, lumbering and weaving.
  • 16.  As shown in the rule of Barangays, their code of laws – the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas, their belief in Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced. There is a system of justice that was approved by the council of elders and was strictly being followed.
  • 17. WRITING SYSTEM • System • Baybayin – For poetry, personal writings • Tools • Points of daggers • Small pieces of iron • Colored plant saps • Writes on: • Tree Barks • Used wood • Bamboo • Informal • Vocational training for kids • Examples – hunting, cooking, farming, fishing • Less academics for kids • 3 R’s – Reading, wRiting , Religion • Devoid of methods Pre-Spanish Education TEACHERS • Tribal Tutors • Parents • Students learn in their own home
  • 18. March 17, 1521 – Marked the coming of the first Spaniards in the Philippines.  Education was carried out by the religious orders.  Missionaries studied the local languages and the Baybayin to communicate better with the locals and teach the Christian faith easily. 
  • 19.     1565 – Augustinians opened a school in Cebu 1577 – Franciscans immediately took to the task of teaching improving literacy, aside from teaching of new industrial and agricultural techniques. 1581 – Jesuits 1587 – Dominicans started a school in their first mission in Bataan.
  • 20.  The Spanish Missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos, both body and soul. Spain claimed the Philippines by the right of “discovery” and by the right of actual occupation and conquest.
  • 21.  The curriculum then consisted of 3 R’s (reading, writing and religion) to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule. The friars refused to recognize any other religion but the catholic religion.
  • 22.  The schools were parochial or convent schools and was linked with churches to teach catechism to the natives.
  • 23.  The method of instruction was mainly individual memorization.
  • 24.  Instruction was in the dialect. The Spanish-Curates did not teach the Spanish Language to the Filipinos but this language was learned by many Filipinos who had contacts with Spaniards. (even the first printed book in the Philippines, Christian Doctrine were in Tagalog and in Chinese)
  • 25.  Education in the country was not uniform. The Spaniards founded many colleges for men and women but these were exclusively for the Spaniards and the Spanish mestizos. Only the Filipinos with those who had money and talent were given a chance to study.
  • 26.  The system of schooling was not hierarchical and not structured. Thus there were no grade levels. In the 19th century, primary schools were opened. It was only during the second half of the 19th century that the primary schools were opened to all the Filipino children of school age but these were hated by the Filipino pupils because of method of teaching was crude.
  • 27.    Lack of trained teachers. Lack of teachers (150 teacher-missionaries to instruct over half a million inhabitants). Lack of funds, instructional materials, and in many instances school houses.
  • 28. • Created a free public education system in the Philippines, run by the Government. • The first such education system in Asia. • Mandated the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and one for girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government and establishment of normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. • Primary education was FREE and available to every Filipino, regardless of race or social classes.
  • 29.  Colegios  Beaterios
  • 30.       Languages (Latin, Spanish grammar and literature, elementary Greek, French and English) History (Universal, Spanish) Mathematics (Arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, geometry ) Philosophy (rhetoric, logic, ethics) Geography Psychology
  • 31. EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863 • As a result of the implementation of public education, a new social class of educated Filipinos arose, that came to be known as the Ilustrados. • It was these educated Filipinos who asked for reforms in the administration of the Philippines. They began to ask embarrassing questions about Spanish misdeeds, incompetence, inefficiency, greed and corruption.
  • 32.   Ilustrados spearheaded the Propaganda movement Curriculum reforms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Secularization of Education Instruction of Spanish Greater attention to natural science The design of a relevant curriculum Improvement of higher centers of learning 6. Improvement of educational system
  • 33.  Jose Rizal criticized unequivocally the friars’ method of instruction in his two novels Noli me Tangere and El Filibusterismo 1. Disproportionate focus on religion 2. Discourage the attempt of Filipino students to speak in English 3. Lack of pedagogical skills 4. Irrelevant courses in the curriculum
  • 34. To improve the existing curriculum, Rizal considered the ff. subjects as required courses in secondary schools:  Science  Math  History  Philosophy  Law  Language  P.E  Religion  Music  Social Sciences
  • 35. “The outstanding cause of the distressed situation of Filipinos today is the anomalous education received by the youth in schools. They learn to read correctly and write gracefully, but they do not learn anything useful because they are not taught any. They are taught how to pray and never go to work”
  • 36. WRITING SYSTEM • SYSTEM • Spanish Alphabet • Baybayin • TOOLS • Ink and Quill • Paper • Books • PRINTING • Xylography Printing Press introduced by the Dominicans • Typography – improved printing • FORMAL • Primary and Normal School • ACADEMICS • Latin and Spanish • Arithmetic • Philosophy • Theology and others • METHODS • Cruel and brutal • Punishments were inflicted on erring pupils Spanish Education TEACHERS • Missionaries • Friar – Curates • Students go to the Parochial or Convent Schools
  • 37.     THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) by Prof. Ronnie Espergal Pasigui http://www.slideshare.net/cuterodz042909/curriculumdevelopment-11473935 Historical Foundations of Philippine Education by Michael John Labog http://www.slideshare.net/mjlabog/historicalfoundations-of-philippine-education http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Education_in _the_Philippines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the _Philippines
  • 38. History of Curriculum in the Philippines by Wreigh http://wreigh.wordpress.com/2011/05/14/history-ofcurriculum-in-the-philippines/  CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES by Sittiehan B. Mante http://educatorssquare.blogspot.com/2011/04/educ106-lesson-3-curriculum.html  http://www.etravelpilipinas.com/about_philippines/ph ilippine_education.htm  Education in the Philippines by Michael Cabatlao http://philedufutureboytech.wordpress.com/history/e ducation-in-the-philippines/ 
  • 39.   Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas by Aurora L. Santiago, Eliseo D. Manaay and Jeanette I. Sales Introduction to Filipino History by Teodoro A. Agoncillo