• Men are seen to be more aggressive and dominant• Men represented as independent and adventurous, unemotional and competent• Stereotypical gendered occupations apparent i.e. males as mechanics and women as cheerleaders• Women more engaged in explicit and sexual and passive behaviour• Women represented as objects of sexual advances or as sexual objects• Women more to be presented provocative or revealing clothing• Women portrayed as decorative objects that dance and pose• Sex role stereotyping and negative attitudes towards females
Feminism 1960/1970’s• A movement in which women questioned their position within patriarchal society and the private sphere of home/children/domestic bliss• Women as domestic/based in the home• Women are inferior to men• Women as sex objects• Women as virgins, mothers or promiscuous• Women began to debates the narrow range of stereotypes present across all media• Serves to uncover, challenge and eliminate oppression and dominant gender imagery
Sexual objectification and the male gaze (Laura Mulvey 1975)• Definition of Voyeurism: Erotic pleasures gained from looking at a sexual object (who is unaware of being watched)• Presence of women solely for the purpose of display (rather than narrative function• Female on display is passive and objectified for a male gaze regardless of viewers gender• Voyeurism treatment of female body in male videos – use of dancers as adornments to the male ego• The inclusion of women for display is a staple element in music video’s – across all genres• Women connote to-be-looked-at-ness and are the object of the male gaze
Adrew Goodwin• Adrew Goodwin, in Dancing in the Distraction Factory (1992, Routledge) identified a key number of features in music videos:• Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics for example stage performance in metal video, dance routine for boy/girl band.• There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting)• There is a relationship between music and visuals• There is likely to be a reference to voyeurism, particularly in the treatment of women, but also in terms of systems of looking (screens within screens, binoculars, cameras etc)• The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work• There is often inter textual reference to films and TV programmes etc
Post feminism (1980’s)• A re-appraisal of feminist values• Does not strive for equality as this assumes men are the best – the wish to surpass male achievements• Objected to theories which position them as objects of the male gaze• Identifies a female gaze – women actively desiring men• Women began to assert their right to dress and be sexually attractive
Examples of feminist/post feministreadings in music videos Pussycat Dolls – Buttons - Females in the clip are control of the male gaze, shown as assertive and provocative - - females portrayed as sexy, confident, challenging traditional image of female sexuality ‘im a sexy mama’ - Challenging Snoop to ‘loosen up’ her ‘buttons’ and proof that they are ‘too hott to handle’ for Snoop
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