A Brief History of Graphic Design
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A Brief History of Graphic Design Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A GUIDE TO G R A PHIC D ES I G N B Y S C O T T W. S A NTORO CH AP TER 2 : A BRIEF HISTORY OF FAL L 2 0 1 3 • G R A PHIC D ES I GN 1 • S A R A G O N Z ALEZ G R A P HI C D E S I GN
  • 2. GRAPHIC DESIGN IS SHAPED BY...
  • 3. SOCIETY CULTURE POLITICS TECHNOLOGY
  • 4. C AV E PA I N T I N G S E G Y P I TA N H Y R O G LY P H I C S / L A N G U AG E & L E T T E R F O R M S ABC INVENTION OF PAPER REPLACES PARCHMENT BOOKS/BIBLES/ MONKS/ SCRIBES /EDITING GUTENBURG PRESS M O VA B L E T Y P E INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION MANUAL LABOR TO MACHINE MANUFACTURING AC C E L E R AT I O N O F T E C H O LO G Y MORE PRODUCTS MADE AND DISTRIBUTED NEED FOR ADVERTISING / BRANDS PA R C H M E N T
  • 5. 1769 1814 FREDRICH KOENING STEAM POWERED PRINTING THOMAS NEWCOMEN INVENTION OF STEAM ENGINE 1799 NICOLAS ROBERTS MAKES PAPER BY THE ROLL
  • 6. What did these inventions mean for the field of graphic design?
  • 7. $ REDUCED COST OF PRINTED PROMOTIONS AVAILABLE TO MORE PEOPLE GREATER DEMAND FOR DESIGN
  • 8. 1826 THE JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE 1ST PERMANET PHOTOGRAPH DEVELOPMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHY 8 HOUR DEVELOMPENT PROCESS 1839 LOUI JAQUEZ DEGUERRE DAGUERREOTYPE ACCELERATED DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF PHOTOGRAPHS FROM 8HRS TO 30 MIN. 1841 WILLIAN HENERY FOX TALBOT CALOTYPE/PHOTO NEGATIVE UNLIMITED NUMBER OF PRINTS COULD BE MADE
  • 9. What did this mean for designers?
  • 10. New communication tool Did not have to rely only on illustration as the main visual elements Newspapers & advertisers began to rely on photographs to sell their products.
  • 11. Turn of the Century Dehumanizing effect of Mechanizaation and Industry
  • 12. SCREW Industry & Commercialization Go against “THE MAN” [ Embrace Hancrafted THE GOTHIC REVIVAL ]
  • 13. ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1880-1910 Recapturing the handcrafted art form. “Art for Art’s Sake” -Victor Cousin
  • 14. AESTHETICISM 1870-1914 A Search for Ideal Beauty
  • 15. ART NOUVEAU 1890-1910 Use of natural forms, high contrast shapes & patterns
  • 16. 1880-1910 ARTS & CRAFTS 1890-1910 ART NOUVEAU CUBISM 1907-1921 1910-1918 FUTURISM 1915-1934 SUPREMATISM 1916-1923 DADA 1917-1931 DE STIJIL 1919-1933 BAUHAUS 1919-1934 CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • 17. CHARACTARISTICS: MIND SET: Figures broken up into semi-abstract forms. . Visual arts, literature music and science were all influencing one another. Disregard of techniques of the past. Did not imitate natural forms and shapes INFLUENCERS: Albert Einstein Paul Cezanne Pablo Picasso Erik Satie CUBISM 1907-1921
  • 18. Letters were now expressive elements of design. AO CH FLU IN ENCES: SCIE NCE Grids, alignment, & typography were disregarded. SO FW AR CHARACTARISTICS: EN ER M Y, G O M VE E NT SP D EE ,& I NO SE Emphasized the attributes of motion and speed fused with cubism abstraction. 1910-1918 http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/ba/43/1d/ba431dea553ace90e7cb0b150966c5ae.jpg
  • 19. K M AZ F U AL IM C U T U EV IR BI RI S M S M ICH IN CHARACTARISTICS: FL UE NC E: Focused on creating pure geometric abstraction & a metaphysical reality. Fractured and energized compositions. MINDSET: 19 15 -19 34 Reducing everything down to the basics. The supremacy of pure feeling and creative art. http://www.invisiblebooks.com/malevichsupremus58.1915.jpg
  • 20. 23 19 - 16 19 IN U FL Ch S CE a RC ANA Y• ALIT TION IRRA TS • EN ATEM T AL S LITIC PO DADA ET: DS MIN EN AOS CH HY • : M f so o ar c W u lD e or ld a ch W ar A MINDSET: t mp I W ld or G e on M ad Movement rejected all traditions and set standards in art.
  • 21. DE STIJL 1917-1931 CHARACTARISTICS: Straight lines Right angles Primary colors Strategic use of space Structured Layout Tyoefaces - Deletion of curves INFLUENCES: Piet Mondrian International Style
  • 22. MINDSET: Eliminate distinction between fine and applied arts & creating a union of arts, crafts and industry working for the greater good. CHARACTARISTICS: Functionalism Intuition Universality Cosmopolitan International Style Serve the masses BAUHAUS 19 19-1933 Founder: Architect Walter Gropius INFLUENCES: Expressionist Theories Johanness Itten Josef Albers Lyonel Feininger Paul Klee Wassily Kandinskey Theo Doesburg El Lissitzky Moholy Nagy Herbert Bayer http://interdisciplinaryleeds.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/10-bauhaus-plakat-1923.jpg
  • 23. MindSet: An embrace of technology. Characteristics: Machine Inspired Sleek lines Bold Geometric Shapes Decorative movement Lavish Ornementation Lack of any scientific inner philosophy Art Deco 1925 http://rt.com/files/art-and-culture/news/ metropolis-poster-fetches-auction-071/i1a6b4 e2e85dd9281327696d01c686287_metrosh.jpg
  • 24. SWISS 1950’s INTERNATIONAL CHARACTARISTICS: Cleanliness Readability Objectivity Asymmetric layouts Use of a grid Sans-serif typefaces Type Flush Left MINDSET: Formulated philosophy of universality refined by type and image.
  • 25. THE NEW YORK SCHOOL CHARACTARISTICS: MINDSET: Focuse on Advertising Conceptually harmonizing text and image. Witty Playful Austere Connects with the audience Word and image association Conceptual INFLUENCES: Advertising Copywriting Paul Rand & Bill Burnbach Helmut Krone George Lois 1960’s