0
A GUIDE TO G R A PHIC D ES I G N B Y S C O T T W. S A NTORO CH AP TER 2 :

A BRIEF
HISTORY
OF
FAL L 2 0 1 3 • G R A PHIC D...
GRAPHIC DESIGN IS SHAPED BY...
SOCIETY

CULTURE

POLITICS

TECHNOLOGY
C AV E PA I N T I N G S

E G Y P I TA N H Y R O G LY P H I C S / L A N G U AG E & L E T T E R F O R M S

ABC

INVENTION OF...
1769

1814
FREDRICH KOENING
STEAM POWERED PRINTING

THOMAS NEWCOMEN
INVENTION OF
STEAM ENGINE

1799
NICOLAS ROBERTS
MAKES ...
What did these inventions mean
for the field of graphic design?
$
REDUCED COST OF PRINTED PROMOTIONS

AVAILABLE TO MORE PEOPLE

GREATER DEMAND FOR DESIGN
1826

THE

JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE
1ST PERMANET PHOTOGRAPH

DEVELOPMENT OF
PHOTOGRAPHY

8 HOUR
DEVELOMPENT
PROCESS

1839
L...
What did this mean for designers?
New communication tool

Did not have to rely only on illustration as the main visual elements

Newspapers & advertisers be...
Turn of the
Century
Dehumanizing effect
of Mechanizaation
and Industry
SCREW Industry &
Commercialization
Go against “THE MAN”

[

Embrace Hancrafted
THE GOTHIC REVIVAL

]
ARTS & CRAFTS
MOVEMENT
1880-1910
Recapturing the
handcrafted art form.
“Art for Art’s Sake”
-Victor Cousin
AESTHETICISM
1870-1914

A Search for Ideal Beauty
ART NOUVEAU
1890-1910
Use of natural forms, high
contrast shapes & patterns
1880-1910
ARTS & CRAFTS

1890-1910
ART NOUVEAU

CUBISM 1907-1921
1910-1918
FUTURISM

1915-1934
SUPREMATISM

1916-1923
DADA...
CHARACTARISTICS:

MIND SET:

Figures broken up into
semi-abstract forms.
.

Visual arts, literature music and
science were...
Letters were now
expressive elements
of design.

AO
CH

FLU
IN

ENCES:

SCIE

NCE

Grids, alignment, &
typography were
dis...
K
M AZ
F U AL IM
C U T U EV IR
BI RI
S M S M ICH

IN
CHARACTARISTICS:

FL

UE

NC

E:

Focused on creating pure
geometric ...
23
19
-

16
19

IN

U
FL

Ch

S
CE

a

RC

ANA
Y•
ALIT
TION
IRRA
TS •
EN
ATEM
T
AL S
LITIC
PO

DADA
ET:

DS
MIN

EN

AOS

...
DE STIJL
1917-1931

CHARACTARISTICS:
Straight lines
Right angles
Primary colors
Strategic use of space
Structured Layout
T...
MINDSET:
Eliminate distinction between fine
and applied arts & creating a
union of arts, crafts and industry
working for t...
MindSet:
An embrace of technology.

Characteristics:
Machine Inspired
Sleek lines
Bold Geometric Shapes
Decorative movemen...
SWISS
1950’s
INTERNATIONAL
CHARACTARISTICS:
Cleanliness
Readability
Objectivity
Asymmetric layouts
Use of a grid
Sans-seri...
THE NEW YORK
SCHOOL
CHARACTARISTICS:

MINDSET:

Focuse on Advertising

Conceptually
harmonizing text and
image.

Witty
Pla...
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A Brief History of Graphic Design

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Transcript of "A Brief History of Graphic Design"

  1. 1. A GUIDE TO G R A PHIC D ES I G N B Y S C O T T W. S A NTORO CH AP TER 2 : A BRIEF HISTORY OF FAL L 2 0 1 3 • G R A PHIC D ES I GN 1 • S A R A G O N Z ALEZ G R A P HI C D E S I GN
  2. 2. GRAPHIC DESIGN IS SHAPED BY...
  3. 3. SOCIETY CULTURE POLITICS TECHNOLOGY
  4. 4. C AV E PA I N T I N G S E G Y P I TA N H Y R O G LY P H I C S / L A N G U AG E & L E T T E R F O R M S ABC INVENTION OF PAPER REPLACES PARCHMENT BOOKS/BIBLES/ MONKS/ SCRIBES /EDITING GUTENBURG PRESS M O VA B L E T Y P E INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION MANUAL LABOR TO MACHINE MANUFACTURING AC C E L E R AT I O N O F T E C H O LO G Y MORE PRODUCTS MADE AND DISTRIBUTED NEED FOR ADVERTISING / BRANDS PA R C H M E N T
  5. 5. 1769 1814 FREDRICH KOENING STEAM POWERED PRINTING THOMAS NEWCOMEN INVENTION OF STEAM ENGINE 1799 NICOLAS ROBERTS MAKES PAPER BY THE ROLL
  6. 6. What did these inventions mean for the field of graphic design?
  7. 7. $ REDUCED COST OF PRINTED PROMOTIONS AVAILABLE TO MORE PEOPLE GREATER DEMAND FOR DESIGN
  8. 8. 1826 THE JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE 1ST PERMANET PHOTOGRAPH DEVELOPMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHY 8 HOUR DEVELOMPENT PROCESS 1839 LOUI JAQUEZ DEGUERRE DAGUERREOTYPE ACCELERATED DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF PHOTOGRAPHS FROM 8HRS TO 30 MIN. 1841 WILLIAN HENERY FOX TALBOT CALOTYPE/PHOTO NEGATIVE UNLIMITED NUMBER OF PRINTS COULD BE MADE
  9. 9. What did this mean for designers?
  10. 10. New communication tool Did not have to rely only on illustration as the main visual elements Newspapers & advertisers began to rely on photographs to sell their products.
  11. 11. Turn of the Century Dehumanizing effect of Mechanizaation and Industry
  12. 12. SCREW Industry & Commercialization Go against “THE MAN” [ Embrace Hancrafted THE GOTHIC REVIVAL ]
  13. 13. ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 1880-1910 Recapturing the handcrafted art form. “Art for Art’s Sake” -Victor Cousin
  14. 14. AESTHETICISM 1870-1914 A Search for Ideal Beauty
  15. 15. ART NOUVEAU 1890-1910 Use of natural forms, high contrast shapes & patterns
  16. 16. 1880-1910 ARTS & CRAFTS 1890-1910 ART NOUVEAU CUBISM 1907-1921 1910-1918 FUTURISM 1915-1934 SUPREMATISM 1916-1923 DADA 1917-1931 DE STIJIL 1919-1933 BAUHAUS 1919-1934 CONSTRUCTIVISM
  17. 17. CHARACTARISTICS: MIND SET: Figures broken up into semi-abstract forms. . Visual arts, literature music and science were all influencing one another. Disregard of techniques of the past. Did not imitate natural forms and shapes INFLUENCERS: Albert Einstein Paul Cezanne Pablo Picasso Erik Satie CUBISM 1907-1921
  18. 18. Letters were now expressive elements of design. AO CH FLU IN ENCES: SCIE NCE Grids, alignment, & typography were disregarded. SO FW AR CHARACTARISTICS: EN ER M Y, G O M VE E NT SP D EE ,& I NO SE Emphasized the attributes of motion and speed fused with cubism abstraction. 1910-1918 http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/ba/43/1d/ba431dea553ace90e7cb0b150966c5ae.jpg
  19. 19. K M AZ F U AL IM C U T U EV IR BI RI S M S M ICH IN CHARACTARISTICS: FL UE NC E: Focused on creating pure geometric abstraction & a metaphysical reality. Fractured and energized compositions. MINDSET: 19 15 -19 34 Reducing everything down to the basics. The supremacy of pure feeling and creative art. http://www.invisiblebooks.com/malevichsupremus58.1915.jpg
  20. 20. 23 19 - 16 19 IN U FL Ch S CE a RC ANA Y• ALIT TION IRRA TS • EN ATEM T AL S LITIC PO DADA ET: DS MIN EN AOS CH HY • : M f so o ar c W u lD e or ld a ch W ar A MINDSET: t mp I W ld or G e on M ad Movement rejected all traditions and set standards in art.
  21. 21. DE STIJL 1917-1931 CHARACTARISTICS: Straight lines Right angles Primary colors Strategic use of space Structured Layout Tyoefaces - Deletion of curves INFLUENCES: Piet Mondrian International Style
  22. 22. MINDSET: Eliminate distinction between fine and applied arts & creating a union of arts, crafts and industry working for the greater good. CHARACTARISTICS: Functionalism Intuition Universality Cosmopolitan International Style Serve the masses BAUHAUS 19 19-1933 Founder: Architect Walter Gropius INFLUENCES: Expressionist Theories Johanness Itten Josef Albers Lyonel Feininger Paul Klee Wassily Kandinskey Theo Doesburg El Lissitzky Moholy Nagy Herbert Bayer http://interdisciplinaryleeds.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/10-bauhaus-plakat-1923.jpg
  23. 23. MindSet: An embrace of technology. Characteristics: Machine Inspired Sleek lines Bold Geometric Shapes Decorative movement Lavish Ornementation Lack of any scientific inner philosophy Art Deco 1925 http://rt.com/files/art-and-culture/news/ metropolis-poster-fetches-auction-071/i1a6b4 e2e85dd9281327696d01c686287_metrosh.jpg
  24. 24. SWISS 1950’s INTERNATIONAL CHARACTARISTICS: Cleanliness Readability Objectivity Asymmetric layouts Use of a grid Sans-serif typefaces Type Flush Left MINDSET: Formulated philosophy of universality refined by type and image.
  25. 25. THE NEW YORK SCHOOL CHARACTARISTICS: MINDSET: Focuse on Advertising Conceptually harmonizing text and image. Witty Playful Austere Connects with the audience Word and image association Conceptual INFLUENCES: Advertising Copywriting Paul Rand & Bill Burnbach Helmut Krone George Lois 1960’s
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