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Unidad 8
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Unidad 8


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  • 1. RELIEF
  • 2. The lithosphere is divided ( like a jigsaw puzzle) into tectonic plates that move slowly The movement has formed relief (separation or collision) Emerged land Submerged land - Continents: - Surrounded by oceans and seas: Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean Southern Ocean, Arctic Ocean. Asia, Africa, America Antarctica ,Europe, Oceania. - 200 million years ago there was a single continent: Pangea Its fragmentation created the existing continents
  • 3. Continents occupy 29% of the surface of the Earth Oceans and seas occupy 71 %
  • 4. 2.1 Continental relief The relief features are the result of processes that began millions of years ago Relief was formed by two kind of forces Internal forces: create the relief (Movement of tectonic plates, volcanic eruptions) External agents: erode the relief (wind, rain, rivers, seas, etc) Simple landforms of the continental relief are: mountains, valleys, plains, mesetas/plateau Erosion: destroy the surface of something through the action of wind, rain, sea,etc
  • 5. erosion
  • 6. Mountains: high elevations on the Earth's surface Valleys: Sunken areas between two mountains. River valley: V-shape Glacial valley: U-shape Plateau Flat area at high altitude Plain: Flat areas not higher than 200 m above sea level 2.1 Continental relief
  • 7. River valley Glacial valley Plateau
  • 8. 2.2 Continental waters FRESHWATER SALTWATER Rivers, glaciers, groundwater, lakes Inland sea, sea. Definition: Continuous courses of water that flow naturally. They are created by The volume is the amount of water carried by the river River bed: Route followed by the river from the source to the mouth Tributary: river that flows into the main river Drainage basin: It is formed by a river and their tributaries Rivers accumulation of rainwater, melted snow and ice from mountains and springs.
  • 9. There are 3 parts or courses of a river -The first part of the river -The river flows fast: erosion - Waterfalls, rapids Rivers Upper part Middle part -Middle part of the river -The river flows more slowly -Rivers star to bend. -Bends in a river are called meanders Lower part -The final part -The river flows very slowly -It leaves the sediments -The mouth of a river can be Estuary: wide part were it flows into the sea. Delta: accumulation of materials, often triangular shape. River divides into lot of smaller channels Upper part Lower part Middle part
  • 10. Meander Drainages basins
  • 11. Estuary Delta
  • 12. Glacier Mass of ice that forms at the top of the mountains Groundwater Underground water. Created by filtration. It creates stalactites and stalagmites Inland lake Permanent accumulation of freshwater in a sunken area of land Permanent accumulation of saltwater in a sunken area 2.2 Continental waters Inland sea Piece of rock hanging down from the roof of a cave Piece of rock upwards from the floor of a cave Formed from drops of water
  • 13. Groundwater
  • 14. Estuary Delta Groundwater Glacier
  • 15. 3.1Coastal relief Cliff: high steep rocks at the edge of the sea. Cape: part of the coast that Stick out into the sea Gulf: deep inlets of the sea Beach: accumulation of sand Peninsula: Area of land surrounded almost completely by water except for a part that is join to the mainland
  • 16. 3.2 Relief on the ocean floor Continental shelf: Underwater extension of a continent. It has a depth of 200-500 m Continental slope: The incline after the continental shelf Abyssal plain: Large flat area at the bottom of the ocean Ocean trench: Sunken area Ocean ridge: Underwater mountain
  • 17. Ocean floor
  • 18. 4.1 Volcanic eruptions Definition: Volcano is an opening in the Earth´s crust through which lava, fire, smoke, and ash are ejected. They are caused by movements inside the Earth. -They can be active, extinct or dormant. Parts:
  • 19. Crater
  • 20. Lava
  • 21. 4.2Earthquakes Definition: tremors or shaking in the Earth´s crust that can cause fissures and movements on the Earth´s surface. - To measure the strength of the tremors we use a seismograph and create scales: Richter Scale -Earthquake with an epicentre at the bottom of the sea cause tsunamis ( enormous waves, can be up to 40 m) Parts: