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  • 1. ANCIENT GREECE
  • 2.  The ancient name was Hellas Land of the Hellenes  Chronology: from 8th Century B.C to the 1st Century B.C  Location: In the Mediterranean Sea. It was composed of the Balkan peninsula, Peloponnese, Islands and later the coast of Asia Minor. Privileged position between Asia, Africa and Europe
  • 3.  The natural environment influenced the development of ancient Greek Civilisation in the following ways: - Proximity to the sea: developed important commercial activities throughout the sea - Its mountains territory and islands: It contributed to the isolation and independence of the Greek cities( poleis), which never became an unified state.  Even though each polis was independent, they had some unity due to: - They had a common culture. They spoke the same language, Greek, and had the same religion. Greek culture spread along the Mediterranean coast and had big influence. Origin of the Western civilisation
  • 4. Prehistoric period 3000 B.C to 750 B.C Archaic Age 8th to 6th centuries B.C Classical Age 5th to 4th centuries B.C Hellenistic Age 4th century to 1st century B.C
  • 5. 2.1 The origins of Greek civilisation: Prehistory Cretan or Minoan civilisation Center: Island of Crete Splendour: Kingdom of King Minos Capital: Knossos •They built great palaces Mycenaean civilisation Location: Peloponnese Peninsula Capital: Mycenae Dark Age •Is so called because there is little information a and vey few artistic remains •Communities began to form poleis.
  • 6. Knossos palace
  • 7. 2.2 Archaic age: colonisation Chronology: 8th- 6th centuries B.C Poleis( city-state). During this period were created: - Independent. - Each had its own laws, its government, its army. - There were more than 200 poleis. The most important: Athens and Sparta. Each one began to produce coins Colonisation took place Poleis Started to founded colonies around the Mediterranean Sea were completely independent from their cities of origin (metropolis)
  • 8. Colony in Spain Ampurias
  • 9. Colonisation: Causes: - Population grew and there was not enough farmland to grow crops( not enough food for all the population) - Merchants and artisans wanted to expand their trade. Consequences: -Greek culture spread( money, alphabet, art, etc) Political organisation: Aristocracy began to hold public positions oppressed the weakest social groups “Aristoi” : the best Tyrants took power there was a tyranny (dictatorship)
  • 10. 2.3 Classical Age Chronology: from 5th to 4th century The most splendid period. Athens and Sparta the most important poleis Athens People protested(revolution)against the abuse of power by the tyrants. Reforms were introduced Solon the Lawmaker created the democratic basis Democracy was created ( Citizens got political power) Government of the people Institutions of democracy system: Ekklesia(Assembly) Council( Boule) Magistrates
  • 11. 2.3 Classical Age Institutions Ekklesia (Assembly) Council Every Athenian citizen. Citizens had to be over 18 years of age. They had to be male. Functions: Voted on the laws Elected magistrates Decided war and peace People who were part of the Boule were chosen among all the citizens. Function: Prepared the laws to be voted on by the Ekklesia Pericles was the most important ruler “The Age of Pericles” Magistrates They were civil servants that executed the decisions of the Assembly
  • 12. 2.3 Classical Age Sparta The political system was oligarchy Few people held the power Few people had full rights Gerousia Presented the laws Two kings ruled the city They were assisted by other institutions: Apella Voted the laws Lycurgus the Lawmaker wrote the laws that ruled Sparta.
  • 13. 2.3 Classical Age Military conflics In this period there were several conflicts. The most significant were: The Persian Wars = The Median Wars 494-479 B.C -They fought the Persians over control of the coast of Asia Minor. -There were two wars. - Athens organised the Delian League: military alliance between the poleis - Greeks won - Important battles: Marathon, Salamina, etc The Peloponnesian Wars 431- 404 B.C - Conflicts between Greek poleis (civil war) There were continuous struggles between Athens and Sparta in order to impose their supremacy over all the Greeks - Sparta won and dominated over the rest of poleis
  • 14. 2.4 Hellenistic Age Macedonia was a kingdom to the north of Greece While the poleis were fighting each other , King Philip II of Macedonia organised a great army to control Greece and began the expansion of Macedonia Alexander the Great ( The son of Philip II) Continued the expansion Created a great empire from Greece to the Indian frontier
  • 15. Acropolis: The poleis had two different parts Lower part Acropolis “upper city” -on the highest part -Religious space -numerous temples -fortified Where people lived The main square: Agora
  • 16. ECONOMY • Agriculture and livestock: vines, olives and cereals “Mediterranean triad” • Crafts • Trade: with colonies. Silver coins SOCIETY • Citizens: Men over 18. Could vote, elected to hold public office and take part in political • Non citizens: foreigners, no political rights. • Slaves: no freedom.
  • 17. The ancient Greeks were polytheistic Gods had human appearance and sentiments but they were immortal and had supernatural powers. It is said that they lived on Mount Olympus. The temple was the house of the gods. Each city worshipped its own gods. They made offerings and sacrifices to the gods. They also believed in heroes: born of a deity and a human. The tales of gods and heroes are known as mythology The Olympic Games were dedicated to Zeus. The Greeks believed in oracles: the gods ´answers to human questions. The messages were transmitted via signs that only priest could interpret. The messages expressed the will of the gods, so you should follow their advice.
  • 18. Arts Sciences • Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, etc • Literature: Invented the theatre( comedy and tragedy). Homer: Iliad and Odyssey. • History appeared for the fist time: Herodotus • Mathematics: Pythagoras.. • Hippocrates in medicine. • They made important advances in astronomy. Plato Aristotle
  • 19. Alphabet
  • 20. Architecture: Characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. Proportion and balance Materials: Stone or marble. They painted the buildings Support: Columns three styles Doric Ionic Corinthian 5. Buildings had a triangular pediment at the front Pediment
  • 21. Capital Shaft Base Doric -The simplest -No base -Shaft wider at the bottom - Capital smooth Ionic -It has base -Shaft taller and thinner -Capital with scrolls Corinthian -It has base -Shaft thinner than the others -Capital decorated with acanthus leaves
  • 22. Atenea nike
  • 23. Zeus
  • 24. Architecture: Types of constructions: Temples Tombs Theatres Stadiums Hippodromes Gymnasiums The layout of some Greek cities was grid-like with streets crossing each other.
  • 25. Layout of a Greek city
  • 26. Parts of a Greek temple opisthodomos Naos or cella pronaos
  • 27. Stadium
  • 28. Theatre of Epidaurus
  • 29. Mausoleum of Halicanassus
  • 30. Sculpture and ceramics General Characteristics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Humans represented Importance of the naked human body Idealised beauty Proportion Materials: stone ( marble) bronze Archaic Classical Hellenistic
  • 31. Periods Archaic Classical Hellenistic -Rigid- static -Big eyes – almond shape eyes -Forced smile- archaic smile -Geometrical hair -Kouros ( nude athlets) and Kore Dressed women -Movement -More realistic -Idealised ( young, perfect body) -Proportioned bodies -Serene expression -Feelings, effort, pain -Realistic -Figures were full of movement ( different postures: forced, tragic)
  • 32. Archaic Period: Kouros
  • 33. Archaic period: Kore
  • 34. Classical Period Discobolus of Myron
  • 35. Classical Period Praxiteles
  • 36. Laocoon and his sons
  • 37. Ceramics -It is almost the only testimony of Greek painting -Different shapes and sizes -Decoration: geometrical patterns, animals, myths, daily life - Colours: 3 types Figures in different colours on a white background Figures in black on a reddish background Figures in red on a black background

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