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Nuevo pre..

  2. 2.  The ancient name was Hellas Land of the Hellenes  Chronology: from 8th Century B.C to the 1st Century B.C  Location: In the Mediterranean Sea. It was composed of the Balkan peninsula, Peloponnese, Islands and later the coast of Asia Minor. Privileged position between Asia, Africa and Europe
  3. 3.  The natural environment influenced the development of ancient Greek Civilisation in the following ways: - Proximity to the sea: developed important commercial activities throughout the sea - Its mountains territory and islands: It contributed to the isolation and independence of the Greek cities( poleis), which never became an unified state.  Even though each polis was independent, they had some unity due to: - They had a common culture. They spoke the same language, Greek, and had the same religion. Greek culture spread along the Mediterranean coast and had big influence. Origin of the Western civilisation
  4. 4. Prehistoric period 3000 B.C to 750 B.C Archaic Age 8th to 6th centuries B.C Classical Age 5th to 4th centuries B.C Hellenistic Age 4th century to 1st century B.C
  5. 5. 2.1 The origins of Greek civilisation: Prehistory Cretan or Minoan civilisation Center: Island of Crete Splendour: Kingdom of King Minos Capital: Knossos •They built great palaces Mycenaean civilisation Location: Peloponnese Peninsula Capital: Mycenae Dark Age •Is so called because there is little information a and vey few artistic remains •Communities began to form poleis.
  6. 6. Knossos palace
  7. 7. 2.2 Archaic age: colonisation Chronology: 8th- 6th centuries B.C Poleis( city-state). During this period were created: - Independent. - Each had its own laws, its government, its army. - There were more than 200 poleis. The most important: Athens and Sparta. Each one began to produce coins Colonisation took place Poleis Started to founded colonies around the Mediterranean Sea were completely independent from their cities of origin (metropolis)
  8. 8. Colony in Spain Ampurias
  9. 9. Colonisation: Causes: - Population grew and there was not enough farmland to grow crops( not enough food for all the population) - Merchants and artisans wanted to expand their trade. Consequences: -Greek culture spread( money, alphabet, art, etc) Political organisation: Aristocracy began to hold public positions oppressed the weakest social groups “Aristoi” : the best Tyrants took power there was a tyranny (dictatorship)
  10. 10. 2.3 Classical Age Chronology: from 5th to 4th century The most splendid period. Athens and Sparta the most important poleis Athens People protested(revolution)against the abuse of power by the tyrants. Reforms were introduced Solon the Lawmaker created the democratic basis Democracy was created ( Citizens got political power) Government of the people Institutions of democracy system: Ekklesia(Assembly) Council( Boule) Magistrates
  11. 11. 2.3 Classical Age Institutions Ekklesia (Assembly) Council Every Athenian citizen. Citizens had to be over 18 years of age. They had to be male. Functions: Voted on the laws Elected magistrates Decided war and peace People who were part of the Boule were chosen among all the citizens. Function: Prepared the laws to be voted on by the Ekklesia Pericles was the most important ruler “The Age of Pericles” Magistrates They were civil servants that executed the decisions of the Assembly
  12. 12. 2.3 Classical Age Sparta The political system was oligarchy Few people held the power Few people had full rights Gerousia Presented the laws Two kings ruled the city They were assisted by other institutions: Apella Voted the laws Lycurgus the Lawmaker wrote the laws that ruled Sparta.
  13. 13. 2.3 Classical Age Military conflics In this period there were several conflicts. The most significant were: The Persian Wars = The Median Wars 494-479 B.C -They fought the Persians over control of the coast of Asia Minor. -There were two wars. - Athens organised the Delian League: military alliance between the poleis - Greeks won - Important battles: Marathon, Salamina, etc The Peloponnesian Wars 431- 404 B.C - Conflicts between Greek poleis (civil war) There were continuous struggles between Athens and Sparta in order to impose their supremacy over all the Greeks - Sparta won and dominated over the rest of poleis
  14. 14. 2.4 Hellenistic Age Macedonia was a kingdom to the north of Greece While the poleis were fighting each other , King Philip II of Macedonia organised a great army to control Greece and began the expansion of Macedonia Alexander the Great ( The son of Philip II) Continued the expansion Created a great empire from Greece to the Indian frontier
  15. 15. Acropolis: The poleis had two different parts Lower part Acropolis “upper city” -on the highest part -Religious space -numerous temples -fortified Where people lived The main square: Agora
  16. 16. ECONOMY • Agriculture and livestock: vines, olives and cereals “Mediterranean triad” • Crafts • Trade: with colonies. Silver coins SOCIETY • Citizens: Men over 18. Could vote, elected to hold public office and take part in political • Non citizens: foreigners, no political rights. • Slaves: no freedom.
  17. 17. The ancient Greeks were polytheistic Gods had human appearance and sentiments but they were immortal and had supernatural powers. It is said that they lived on Mount Olympus. The temple was the house of the gods. Each city worshipped its own gods. They made offerings and sacrifices to the gods. They also believed in heroes: born of a deity and a human. The tales of gods and heroes are known as mythology The Olympic Games were dedicated to Zeus. The Greeks believed in oracles: the gods ´answers to human questions. The messages were transmitted via signs that only priest could interpret. The messages expressed the will of the gods, so you should follow their advice.
  18. 18. Arts Sciences • Philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, etc • Literature: Invented the theatre( comedy and tragedy). Homer: Iliad and Odyssey. • History appeared for the fist time: Herodotus • Mathematics: Pythagoras.. • Hippocrates in medicine. • They made important advances in astronomy. Plato Aristotle
  19. 19. Alphabet
  20. 20. Architecture: Characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. Proportion and balance Materials: Stone or marble. They painted the buildings Support: Columns three styles Doric Ionic Corinthian 5. Buildings had a triangular pediment at the front Pediment
  21. 21. Capital Shaft Base Doric -The simplest -No base -Shaft wider at the bottom - Capital smooth Ionic -It has base -Shaft taller and thinner -Capital with scrolls Corinthian -It has base -Shaft thinner than the others -Capital decorated with acanthus leaves
  22. 22. Atenea nike
  23. 23. Zeus
  24. 24. Architecture: Types of constructions: Temples Tombs Theatres Stadiums Hippodromes Gymnasiums The layout of some Greek cities was grid-like with streets crossing each other.
  25. 25. Layout of a Greek city
  26. 26. Parts of a Greek temple opisthodomos Naos or cella pronaos
  27. 27. Stadium
  28. 28. Theatre of Epidaurus
  29. 29. Mausoleum of Halicanassus
  30. 30. Sculpture and ceramics General Characteristics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Humans represented Importance of the naked human body Idealised beauty Proportion Materials: stone ( marble) bronze Archaic Classical Hellenistic
  31. 31. Periods Archaic Classical Hellenistic -Rigid- static -Big eyes – almond shape eyes -Forced smile- archaic smile -Geometrical hair -Kouros ( nude athlets) and Kore Dressed women -Movement -More realistic -Idealised ( young, perfect body) -Proportioned bodies -Serene expression -Feelings, effort, pain -Realistic -Figures were full of movement ( different postures: forced, tragic)
  32. 32. Archaic Period: Kouros
  33. 33. Archaic period: Kore
  34. 34. Classical Period Discobolus of Myron
  35. 35. Classical Period Praxiteles
  36. 36. Laocoon and his sons
  37. 37. Ceramics -It is almost the only testimony of Greek painting -Different shapes and sizes -Decoration: geometrical patterns, animals, myths, daily life - Colours: 3 types Figures in different colours on a white background Figures in black on a reddish background Figures in red on a black background