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Nelson Mandela

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  • 1. Biography ofNelson Mandela Sara C ruz Sierra 2ºB
  • 2. * Summary of his life.* E arly life.* Political activity.* Presidency of South A frica.* Marriage and family.* Tributes to Nelson Mandela.
  • 3. * Summary of his lifeN e l s o n M a n d e l a wa s b o r n 1 8 j u ly o f1 9 1 8 in M v e z o ,S o u t h Af r ic a .S e r v e d As P r e s e n t o f S o u t h Af r ic af r o m 1 9 9 4 t o 1 9 9 9 a n d wa s t h e f ir s tS o u t h Af r ic a n p r e s id e n t t o b ee l e c t e d in a f u l ly r e p r e s e n tat iv ed e m o c r at ic e l e c t io n .M a n d e l a s e r v e d 2 7 y e a r s in p r is o n ,s p e n d in g m a n y o f t h e s e y e a r s o nR o b b e n Is l a n d . F o l l o w in g h isr e l e a s e f r o m p r is o n o n 1 1 F e b r u a r y1 9 9 0 , M a n d e l a l e d h is p a r t y in t h en e g o t iat io n s t h at l e d t o m u lt i-r a c ia ld e m o c r a c y in 1 9 9 4 . As p r e s id e n t, h ef r e q u e n t ly g av e p r io r it y t or e c o n c il iat io n , w h il e in t r o d u c in gp o l ic ie s a im e d at c o m b at in g p o v e r t ya n d in e q u a l it y in S o u t h Af r ic a .In S o u t h Af r ic a , M a n d e l a is o f t e n k n o w n a s M a d ib a , h is fat h e r c l a nn a m e . M a n d e l a h a s r e c e iv e d m o r e t h a n 2 5 0 awa r d s o v e r f o u rd e c a d e s , in c l u d in g t h e 1 9 9 3 N o b e l P e a c e P r iz e .
  • 4. * E arly life N e l s o n Ma n d e l a b e l o n g s t o a c a d e t b r a n c h o f t h e T h e m b u d y n a s t y, w h ic h r e ig n s in t h e T r a n s k e i R e g io n o f S o u t h Af r ic a s E a s t e r n C a p e P r o v in c e .H e wa s b o r n in M v e z o , a s m a l l v il l a g e l o c at e d in t h e d is t r ic t o f U m tata . M a n d e l a s fat h e r ,G a d l a H e n r y M p h a k a n y is wa , s e r v e d a s c h ie f o f t h e t o w n o f M v e z o .H e m o v e d h is fa m ily t o Q u n u . M a n d e l a s fat h e r h a d f o u r w iv e s , w it h w h o m h e fat h e r e d t h ir t e e n c h il d r e n (f o u r b o y s a n d n in e g ir l s ).M a n d e l a wa s b o r n t o h is t h ir d w if e , N o s e k e n i Fa n n y.M a n d e l a s p e n t m u c h o f h is c h il d h o o d .R o l ih l a h l a M a n d e l a b e c a m e t h e f ir s t m e m b e r o f h is fa m ily t o at t e n da s c h o o l , w h e r e h is t e a c h e r M is s M d in g a n e g av e h im t h e E n g l is hn a m e "N e l s o n ".
  • 5. W h e n M a n d e l a wa s n in e , h is fat h e r d ie d o f t u b e r c u l o s is , a n dt h e r e g e n t , Jo n g in ta b a , b e c a m e h is g u a r d ia n .M a n d e l aat t e n d e d a W e s l e ya n m is s io n s c h o o l l o c at e d n e x t t o t h ep a l a c e o f t h e r e g e n t. F o l l o w in g T h e m b u c u s t o m , h e wa s in it iat e dat a g e s ix t e e n , a n d at t e n d e d C l a r k e b u r y B o a r d in gIn s t it u t e .M a n d e l a c o m p l e t e d h is Ju n io r C e r t if ic at e in t w oy e a r s , in s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l t h r e e .D e s ig n at e d t o in h e r it h isfat h e r s p o s it io n a s a p r iv y c o u n c il l o r , in 1 9 3 7 M a n d e l a m o v e dt o H e a l d t o w n ,t h e W e s l e ya n c o l l e g e in F o r t B e a u f o r t w h ic hm o s t T h e m b u r o ya lt y at t e n d e d .A n in e t e e n , h e t o o k a n tin t e r e s t in b o x in g a n d r u n n in g at t h e s c h o o l .Af t e r e n r o l l in g , M a n d e l a b e g a n t o s t u d y f o r a B a c h e l o r o fAr t s at t h e F o r t H a r e U n iv e r s it y, w h e r e h e m e t O l iv e rTa m b o .Ta m b o a n d M a n d e l a b e c a m e l if e l o n g f r ie n d s a n dc o lleag u es .
  • 6. * Political activity Af t e r t h e 1 9 4 8 e l e c t io n v ic t o r y o f t h e Af r ik a n e r -d o m in at e d N at io n a l Pa r t y, w h ic h s u p p o r t e d t h e a p a r t h e id p o l ic y o f r a c ia l s e g r e g at io n ,M a n d e l a b e g a n a c t iv e ly p a r t ic ip at in g in p o l it ic s .D u r in g t h is t im e , M a n d e l a a n d f e l l o w l aw y e r O l iv e r Ta m b o o p e r at e d t h e l aw f ir m o f M a n d e l a a n d Ta m b o . M a h at m a G a n d h i in f l u e n c e d M a n d e l a s a p p r o a c h , a n d s u b s e q u e n t ly t h e m e t h o d s o f s u c c e e d in g g e n e r at io n s o f S o u t h Af r ic a n a n t i-a p a r t h e id a c t iv is t s .M a n d e l a l at e r t o o k p a r t in t h e 2 9 – 3 0 Ja n u a r y 2 0 0 7 c o n f e r e n c e in N e w D e l h i m a r k in g t h e 1 0 0 t h a n n iv e r s a r y o f G a n d h is in t r o d u c t io n o f s at ya g r a h a in S o u t h Af r ic a . In it ia l ly c o m m it t e d t o n o n v io l e n t r e s is ta n c e , M a n d e l a a n d 1 5 0 o t h e r s w e r e a r r e s t e d o n 5 D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 6 a n d c h a r g e d w it h t r e a s o n . F r o m 1 9 5 2 – 1 9 5 9 , a n e w c l a s s o f b l a c k a c t iv is t s k n o w n a s t h e Af r ic a n is t s d is r u p t e d AN C a c t iv it ie s in t h e t o w n s h ip s .
  • 7. T h e Af r ic a n is t s r id ic u l e d t h e 1 9 5 5 Fr e e d o m Ch a r t e r K l ip t o w n C o n f e r e n c e f o r t h e c o n c e s s io n o f t h e 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 - s t r o n g AN C t o j u s t a s in g l e v o t e in a C o n g r e s s io n a l a l l ia n c e . In 1 9 5 9 , t h e AN C l o s t it s m o s t m il ita n t s u p p o r t w h e n m o s t o f t h e Af r ic a n is t s , w it h f in a n c ia l s u p p o r t f r o m G h a n a a n d s ig n if ic a n t p o l it ic a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e T r a n s va a l - b a s e d B a s o t h o , b r o k e away t oAf r ic a n is t C o n g r e s s (PAC )u n d e r t h e d ir feo r m t hoef Paon b e r t S o b u k w e a n d c t io n RPo t l a k o Le b a l l o .
  • 8. * Presidency of South A frica. S o u t h Af r ic a s f ir s t m u lt i-r a c ia l e l e c t io n s in w h ic h f u l l e n f r a n c h is e m e n t wa s g r a n t e d w e r e h e l d o n 2 7 Ap r il 1 9 9 4 . T h e AN C w o n 6 2 % o f t h e v o t e s in t h e e l e c t io n . D u r in g t h e c o u r s e o f h is p r e s id e n c y, a w id e r a n g e o f p r o g r e s s iv e s o c ia l r e f o r m s w e r e e n a c t e d b y M a n d e l a s g o v e r n m e n t, a im e d at r e d u c in g l o n g e n t r e n c h e d s o c ia l a n d e c o n o m ic in e q u a l it ie s in S o u t h Af r ic a . Am o n g s t t h e m e a s u r e s c a r r ie d o u t b y M a n d e l a a n d t h is a r e s o m e m in is t e r s in c l u d e d : *T h e in t r o d u c t io n o f f r e e h e a lt h care. *T h e in thr eo l a ucn c hninogf op f t h e in g r a n t s . *T d u t io a r it y R e c o e x p a n s io io n f n e pDreovde u c t iv e n t a lt h s e r v ic e s . *An n s t r u c t n o a r d lo pm h e *T h e in t r o P r o g io a m m e .h il d s u p p o r t g r a n t s (1 9 9 8 )t o a l l e v iat e d uct r n of c c h il d p o v e r t y. *T h e c o n n e c t io n o f 3 m il l io n p e o p l e t o t e l e p h o n e l in e s . *T h e b r in g in g o f 1 .5 m il l io n c h il d r e n in t o t h e e d u c at io n s y s t e m . *T h e u p g r a d in g o r c o n s t r u c t io n o f 5 0 0 c l in ic s .
  • 9. *T h e c o n n e c t io n o f 2 m il l io n p e o p l e t o t h e e l e c t r ic it y g r id . *T h e c o n s t r u c t io n o f 7 5 0 ,0 0 0 h o u s e s , h o u s in g n e a r ly 3 m il l io n p e o p l e in the process. *T h e e x t e n s io n o f wat e r a c c e s s t o 3 m il l io n p e o p l e . *T h e in t r o d u c t io n o f c o m p u l s o r y s c h o o l in g f o r Af r ic a n c h il d r e n b e t w e e n s ix a n d f o u r t e e n y e a r s . *T h e p r o v is io n o f f r e e m e a l s f o r b e t w e e n 3 .5 t o 5 m il l io n s c h o o l c h il d r e n .*T h e p r o v is io n o f f r e e m e a l s f o r b e t w e e n 3 .5 t o 5 m il l io n s c h o o lc h il d r e n .*T h e l a u n c h in g o f t h e N at io n a l D r u g P o l ic y in 1 9 9 6 t o im p r o v e a c c e s st o e s s e n t ia l m e d ic in e s .
  • 10. * Marriage and family.M a n d e l a h a s b e e n m a r r ie dt h r e e t im e s , h a s fat h e r e d s ixc h il d r e n , h a s t w e n t yg r a n d c h il d r e n , a n d a g r o w in gn u m b e r o f g r e at-g r a n d c h il d r e n . H e isg r a n d fat h e r t o C h ie f M a n d l aMa n d e l a .M a n d e l a s f ir s t m a r r ia g e wa st o E v e ly n N t o k oM a s e .M a n d e l a s s e c o n d w if e ,M a nn diee M a d ik s r e m -M a n dd e, l a . h is 8 0 t h b ir t h d ay in 1 9 9 8 , t o G r a ç aW in l a wa iz e l a a r r ie o nMa c h e l .
  • 11. * Tributes to Nelson Mandela. The statue of Mandela in Parliament Square, London.
  • 12. Nelson Mandela Square,Sandton,Johannesburg.
  • 13. Nelson Mandela Gardens in Leeds.
  • 14. Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg.

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