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Translation 4 file

  1. 1. Translation 4
  2. 2. Novel Translation Features of descriptive text: 1. description of animals/characters. 2. focus on adjective. 3. adverbs of place and manner. 4. stative verbs. Features of narrative text: 1. description of events and actions. 2. focus on adverbs of time to stress the sequential order of events and actions. 3. dynamic verbs. 4. idiomatic language. 5. choice of strongly expressive words.
  3. 3. Drama Translation Difficulties in translating drama 1. The basic problem with drama translation is that the translator has to make the decision whether to deal with the play as a work to be read, or as a work to be performed.1 2. Dialect: if a play was written originally in dialect, the translator has to make a decision to which dialect in the TL it may be translated. For example, Pygmalion. In Pygmalion, the main idea is that a professor of linguistics finds a young lady, Eliza, who belongs to the lower class in London. Her social class is shown through her accent. This professor tries to elevate her behavior and the way she speaks to make her appear like an upper-class lady. The dialect is shown through the pronunciation, sounds, use of words, and structure. For a translator dealing with such a text, which Arabic dialect would convey this idea of Eliza being a lower-class lady? Dr. Nora said we don’t have such association with Arabic dialects. The best solution is to use a distorted modern Arabic. 3. Slang: terms of endearment and abuse, which may provide an inappropriate audience response when rendered too literally in another language. 3. Topical allusion: implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text. e.g. biblical figures, figures from classical mythology, historical figures. Based on common knowledge between the author and the reader. 4. Forms: variety of verse and prose. 5. Sociocultural differences: costumes and attitudes differ among different cultures. 6. Sociocultural differences: the use of irony, for example, is not a universal phenomenon. If a play depends on irony and was translated into language that doesn’t recognize irony it’d make no sense. 7. Sociocultural differences: concepts being either misinterpreted or not fully comprehended among similar cultures. 8. Sociocultural differences: cultural norms or habits may be known but felt to be conjuring up the wrong associations among similar cultures. 9. Reader vs. audience: Readers are in a different position from the audience. They can stop, reflect, and consult if further clarification is required. 10. Translation of drama into lesser-known languages: English, as a language, is widely used all around the world. Therefore, we know about English language, its culture, and literature. Consequently, translating from English into another language is easier than otherwise. The changes made on the original text will be kept to the minimum. Whereas, translating plays from lesser-known languages into English needs to be adapted to the target culture. Adaptations which take the form of ‘creative rewrites” is more successful with comedies because comedy has to do with manner, language an situation. On the other hand, every society has its own defects therefore it’s not easy for social criticism drama to be adapted. The least adaptable type of drama is the psychological drama. 1 the difference is that a play written to be performed has a stage direction: the lighting, costumes, the way actors move, and situational context. 3
  4. 4. Shakespeare Translation [19 problems]: 1. textual cruxes. 2. obscure cultural illusions. 3. archaisms. 4. daring neologisms. 5. contrastive use of words of Anglo-Saxon and Romance origin. 6. the use of homely images. 7. mixed metaphors. 8. iterative imagery. 9. the repetitions of thematic key words. 10. personifications. 11. puns. 12. ambiguities 13. malapropisms. 14. the form of address. 15. elliptical grammar. 16. general compactness of expressions. 17. flexible iambic patterns. 18. musicality of his verse. 19. the presence of performance-oriented theatrical signs inscribed in the text. Reasons of diversity of Shakespeare translations: 1. dependence on critical editions. 2. use of intermediate translation. Evaluating Othello: 1. Type of translation: complete: everything in the original has an equivalent in the text. semi-complete: deletion of some words, a sentence, or a part of a sentence. abridged: deletion of more than one sentence. 2. Form: prose or verse. 2. Change of a technique: from direct speech into a narrative prose. (!"#$ %&‫)آ*)( أ‬ 3. register: classical Arabic, modern Arabic, colloquial. 4
  5. 5. Othello translations ‫10/#ن -#$%ر‬ type: abridged form: prose register: colloquial ‫8765 *43ان‬ type: complete form: prose register: classical ‫:93ا إ&3ا"6; :93ا‬ type: complete form: prose register: modern =1#)- >/?* .‫د‬ type: complete form: verse register: modern, but he used some classical words to make it suitable for the meter. !"#$ %&‫آ*)( أ‬ type: semi-complete form: narrative prose register: modern a translation of another English version. type: abridged form: prose register: modern ‫#زي :/#ل‬D type: complete form: prose register: modern 5
  6. 6. Poetry Translation In translating poetry there are four issues: 1. the [im]possibility of the task. Poetry translation is harder than prose translation because: - the language of poetry will always be further removed from ordinary language than the most elaborate prose. - the poetic use of language deviates in a number of ways from ordinary use. - poetry represents writing in its most compact, condensed and heightened form, in which the language is predominantly connotational rather than denotational and in which form and content are inseparably linked. - poetry is informed by a ‘musical mode’ or inner rhythm, regardless of whether or not there is any formal meter or rhyming pattern, which is one of the most elusive yet essential characteristics of the work. - the translator is expected to produce a text that function as a poem in the TL. - the translation must stand on its own as a poetic text, to a large extent unsupported by glosses commentary, whether they take the form of footnote or are embodied in the text. 2. Is poetry translatable? there are two views: - one view: it’s impossible to translate poetry. We can have only a prose account of poetry. - the other: it’s possible to translate it into verse “creative transposition.” 3. strategies and methods adopted by translators of poetry. - the method depends on the faithfulness, whether to the SL or the target audience. If you’re faithful to the SL you’ll have to reveal everything that is there in the original text even if doesn’t make sense (or doesn’t make sense as it does in the original language). - concepts of literal and creative methods. Does literalness mean success? Does the translator want to convey everything in the original text? or is he more concerned with creating the same effect of the original text on the reader? 4. problems involved in translating poetry. - content problems. - form problems. What is crib translation? the use of someone with knowledge of the SL who prepares a draft translation which is known as a crib translation. The draft is used by a poet who is ignorant of the SL but able to create a poetic text both aesthetically pleasing and intuitively accurate. NOTES: - A translator of poetry should be a poet himself. - Arabic is a repetitive language. - English is brevity. 6
  7. 7. 1. Decide the type of the translation. 2. Which one is the most or least literal? Near yonder thorn, that lifts its head on high, Where once the sign-post caught the passing eye, Low lies that house where nut-brown draughts inspired, Where grey-beard mirth and smiling toil retired, Deserted Village, by Oliver Goldsmith Translation Answer ‫>ا‬EFGH‫ وا‬JK‫> ز‬L ‫#د‬GL M6N #)"#" ‫>روب‬P‫?%اري وا‬P‫/#ء ا‬H‫?/5 أ‬R SN%7P‫ ا‬T1#K #)" U* ‫%ارى‬R >L ‫#ق‬X3P‫ ا‬YZ1‫ وا‬S[3ZP‫] ا‬Z* ‫]?#ب‬P‫^93اء *#&! ا‬P‫>ح ا‬ZP‫>ار ا‬R T1#K #)`X #&34P‫= ا‬KaR‫ و‬bc)P‫= ا‬X ScdP‫ ا‬M09R #&#9$ ‫9ً# أو‬f6$ (6X (:‫5 و‬K %70R S/E9P‫ ا‬T1#K Type: verse Form: not literal, there is additions it is more effective #ً6P#- #`H‫ رأ‬gX3R =GP‫#د ا‬GZP‫3ة ا‬i$ U* ‫3ب‬ZP#&‫و‬ ‫#ره‬k‫ -6%ن ا‬Tc7R ‫?%اري‬P‫/#ء ا‬H‫ أ‬SN%P T1#K M6N (6X ‫>ار‬R T1#K ‫ي‬aP‫] ا‬Zk‫ ا‬lP‫4#م ذ‬N >L3[ ‫3ورا‬H bc)P‫0; ا‬cGX ‫^93اء‬P‫3اب ا‬oP‫>اح ا‬L‫أ‬ ‫67`%ا و[709%ا‬P ‫9#ب‬oP‫643&%ا وا‬P ‫6%خ‬oP‫وي ا‬q[ M6N Type: prose Form: literal imitates the original 7
  8. 8. 1. Decide the type of the translation. 2. Which one is the most or least literal? 3. Point out the problematic items. I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; It’s an original text written by Wordsworth Form: lyric poem Content: - daffodils is a kind of flowers that doesn’t exist in our region. - negative picture of a cloud. William Wordsworth Translation S&#?H 5r* ‫6>ًا‬N‫%ل و‬iR‫ أ‬T)K ‫ل‬sGP‫%د[#ن وا‬P‫%ق ا‬X #ً6P#- %c4R Answer Type: prose. Form: the most literal. ،‫>ًا‬oN ‫ة‬qiX ‫)>*# أ&]3ت‬!S69"aP‫= ا‬N#Lv‫ ا‬U* #ً0/: ‫6>ًا ذات [%م‬N‫4%ات و‬dP‫$3دت &= ا‬ ‫/#ء‬EP‫ و:( ا‬J7- %c4R S&#?EK ‫3اء‬wdP‫`# ود[#1`# ا‬G?R‫ل و‬sGP‫%ق ا‬X ‫#ر‬xG1‫= دون ا‬P ‫ح‬y ‫إذ‬ Type: verse. Form: not literal, the least literal. Problematic items: wandered is translated into many words. floats also is translated into many words. golden daffodils is explained by the word ‫ز"#ر‬v‫.ا‬ =N#Lv‫3 ا‬cz U* ‫ز"#ر‬v‫ ا‬U* >oN ‫3واد‬P‫ب ا‬s8 =9"aP‫%1`# ا‬P ‫6>ًا‬N‫ و:`= و‬J7- ;6"‫ أ‬T)K ‫/#ء‬EP‫ و:( ا‬J7- %c4R S&#?EK ‫3اء‬wdP‫%د[#ن ا‬P‫%ق ا‬X‫ل و‬sGP‫%ق ا‬X >$#N >oN ‫#ر‬xG1‫= دون ا‬P ‫ح‬y !N Type: prose. Form: not literal. Problematic items: wandered is translated into many words. floats also is translated into many words. golden is explained by ‫3اء‬c]P‫.ا‬ S69"aP‫3اء ا‬c]P‫= ا‬N#Lv‫ ا‬U* 8
  9. 9. Quran Translation I. Source of authority which underpin muslim religious life: 1. the glorious Qur’an. 2. The prophet Muhammed’s PBUH sunnah: Hadith (sayings), action ((P#0X‫ ,)أ‬reports (‫3[3ه‬ZR). 3. a ‫.ا|:/#ع‬ 4. .analogy ‫`#د‬G:|‫6#س و ا‬ZP‫ا‬ II. In the Qur’an, we find the following ayas: ”#6&3- #1‫3آ‬L ‫)#ه‬P~1‫“إ1# أ‬ In the light of the ayas, do you think that the Qur’an is translatable? Or, is it legitimate to translate the Qur’an? There are two opposing views: [201-202] First, Qur’an cannot be translated (absolutely untranslatable). Non-Arab muslims have to recite in Arabic. If translated at all use “translation” or graphic markers to show that the term is used in a uniquely context-sensitive sense, Second, translations of Qur’an are only interpretation or paraphrasing of its meaning. In this sense it is a form of exegesis. Non-Arab muslims can recite in their language in prayers. III. Qur’an translation: a historical overview [202-203] IV. In the Qur’an, there are 114 suras, each divided into ayas; each has a title (or name). Is the arrangement of suras in the Mushaf, ayas and titles tawqifi2 or twfiqi3 ? Some translators deviated this (Bell, Rodwell, Arberry) V. Styles and strategies of Qur’anic translation: issues related to ... (a) format and (b) content [203-204] VI. Necessity for translating the meanings of the Qur’an. 1. to present the message of Islam to non-muslims (da’wa). 2. to makes it easier for non-Arab muslims to read it and understand it. 3. to render some of its literary beauty and scientific i’jaz. VII. Types of translations (in term of linguistic levels 1): 1. word-for-word translation (literal S6X3?P‫ ا‬S/:3GP‫ )ا‬impossible. 2. transference of the content (S[%)0* S/:3R). 3. free translation (S[36EcR) exegesis in SL while free in TL. VIII. Classification of translation (in terms of value - quality 2): 1. Good: transferring form & content: Pickthall، =Ps" ،‫ 8#ن‬UE?*. 2. Bad: in terms of understanding the Qur’anic text, its meanings and accuracy. e.g. Rodwell 1861. 3. Distorted and malicious: aims deviate the image of the Qur’an and Islam in general. e.g. E. H. Palmer 1880, George Sale 1734. -------------- 2 revelation. 3 human effort. 9
  10. 10. IX. Problems in translating the Qur’an: 1. nature of the message (divine) (legitimate or illegitimate) 2. differences between the SL and TL. 3. purpose of the translation: respect for the content of the work. Palmer considers the style of the Qur’an “rude.” X. Requirement for who should translate the Qur’an: 1. done by a muslim (a correct belief) 2. competent translator (in both SL and TL) 3. well-acquainted with the related sciences: Hadith, tafsir, Qur’anic rhetoric, reasons behind revelation studies. XI. Framework for analyzing suras in translation: 1. macro-level: variation. a. title of sura. b. division of ayas (following or deviating from Qur’anic division) . c. format: English and original in parallel. d. commentary and notes. 2. micro-level: variation. a. lexis: word level. b. syntax: grammar - verb tenses. c. semantic: textual level - sign for stops. d. register: Modern English, Middle English. 10

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