Poetry |1st year
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Poetry |1st year



مجموعة دروس -مقدمة في الشعر- للفرقة الأولى في قسم اللغة الإنجليزية و آدابها

مجموعة دروس -مقدمة في الشعر- للفرقة الأولى في قسم اللغة الإنجليزية و آدابها



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 1

https://studyengliterature.blogspot.com 1



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • انا كلية الاداب جامعة نورة السنة الاولى
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • إذا أنتِ في كلية الآداب جامعة الأميرة نورة بتاخذونه السنة الأولى الترم الثاني.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • متى راح ناخذ بوتري !
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Poetry |1st year Document Transcript

  • 1. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year Poems * London, 1802 by Wi"iam Wordsworth * Sonnet LIVTopics by Edmund Spenser * Poetry Through the Ages * Sonnet XXIXGeneral Introduction by Wi"iam Shakespeare * Types of Poetry * Dyingsonnets, odes, lyric, narrative, ba"ad, #ee verse by Emily Dickinson * Stanza * How Do I Love Thee “Sonnet 43”couplet, triple, quatrain, sestet, and octave by Elizabeth Barrett Browning * Musical Devices * Excerpt "om Macbetha"iteration, assonance, consonance, rhyme, onomatopoeia, by Wi"iam Shakespearerhythm, rhyme scheme, meter * The Mermaid * Sensuous Imagery by Author Unknownauditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, organic, kinesthetic * Acquainted with the Night * Figurative Language by Robert Frostdenotation and connotation, simile, metaphor, * The Road Not Takenpersonification, apostrophe, metonymy, symbol, a"egory, by Robert Frostparadox, overstatement, understatement, irony * Traveling Through the Dark by Wi"iam Stafford * Dreams by Langston Hughes * The Negro Speaks Rivers by Langston HughesSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 2. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Poetry Through the Ages- 1st Week)Classical PeriodA. Greek PoetryThe earliest known western poetry consists of two acknowledged Greek masterpiece, The iliad and theodyssey. Both of these works are attributed to the legendary Homer.The Iliad and The Odyssey are epics, that is they are long narrative poems about the deeds of heros.The Greek used poetry not only to celebrate their heros but to instruct, to sing, to love and to enrichtheatre through plays by such revered writers as Sphodes (c. 497-405 b.c)B. Roman PoetryFrom its beginning, Latin or Roman poetry was heavily influenced by the Greeks.The earliest Latin poetry was translation of Odyssey. Example. Lucretius who is in the first centuryB.C wrote on the nature of things, which has been called the west’s greatest philosophical poem, andVirgil who among other works wrote the celebrated natural epic, The Aeneid.Medieval PeriodThe epic masterpiece of the age included the old English poem beowulf.The great names among medieval poets included. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), and Geoffrey Chaucer(c. 1340-1400).The Renaissance In England:The renaissance period started around (1509) .The English renaissance extended until the restoration in (1660).Metaphysical PoetsThe early 17th century saw the emergence of this group of poets who wrote in witty, complicated style.The most famous of the metaphysical is probably John Donne, others include Geurge Haerbert, HenryVoghahThe Romantic MovementRomanticism started in late 18th century western europe, the birth of Romanticism is often dated tothe publication in 1798 of Wordsworth Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads.Romantic poets include William Bloke, Lord born, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor, Coleridge,John Keats and Percy Shelley.* It stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom mithin or even from classical notions of form on art, and the rejection of established social conventions.* It stressed the important of “nature” in language and celebrated the achieveents of those perceived as heroic individuals.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 3. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearVictorian PoetryThe Victorian period literary describes the events in the age of queen Victoria reign of (1837-1901)* The Victorian area was period of great political, social economic change.* The age provided a signification development of poetic indeeds such as the increased use the sonnet as poetic form which was influence later modern poets.* The major Victorian poets were Alfred, Tord Tynnson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Matthew Arnold and Gerard Hopkins. Victorian Poetry was an important period in the history of poetry providing the link between the Romantic Movement and the modern.Modern PoetryThe age of the modern poetry began in the early 20th century, at a time when poetry that had oncepredominately originated in England was being found in places such as Scotland, US, France.* The British poetry movement of past centuries had begun to fact from view* Examples of modern poets, Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Jane Joyce (1882-1941) and Joseph Conrad (1857-1924).Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 4. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Types of Poetry- 2nd & 3rd & 4th Weeks)A: sonnets> basic sonnet types of sonnets:1- Italian 2- Spenserian 3- EnglishThe Italian (or pavarchan) sonnet. Is divided into two sections by two different groups ofrhyming sounds. The first 8 lines are called Octave and it rhymes:Abbaabba The remaining 6 lines is called the Sestet and can have either two or three rhyming soundsor ranged in variety of ways cd cd cd - cddcdc - cdecde - cdeced - cdcedc Sonnet = 14.  Octave= 8.  Sestet= 6. Volta or turn      12= 4 lines = 3 groups (3 pattern) 8= quatrain      2= couple The sestet never end with a couple cdde-reel The change of the idea or subject matter occurs at the beginning of lintel Italian sonnetand its called the Volta or turn.The turn is an essential element of the sonnet from its at the Volta that the second idea isintroduced e.g Wordsworth Sonnet.The Spenserian sonnet, invented by Edmund Spenser as an out growth of the stanzapattern he used in it faerie queen (ababb cbcc) has the pattern.Ababb cbccd cdee * it consists of 3 quatrains (4 - line groups) * the first 12 lines from a single unit with a separated final couplet * the three quatrains then develop three distinct but closely related idea. With a differentidea core commentary       In the coupletThe actual turn occurs where the rhyme pattern changes with the coupletSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 5. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearSonnet liv.    14 lines AB        Quatrain (1)ABBC       Quatrain (2)BCDE        Quatrain (3)DEF     Couplet~> change idea when the couplet Volta or turn when coupletFSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 6. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearB: Odes Odes are large poems which are serious in nature. John Keatss "Ode on a Grecian Urn"and "Ode to A Nightingale" are probably the most famous examples of this type of poems. C: Lyric PoetryLyric poetry consists of poem, such as a sonnet are an ode. That expresses the thought andthe feeling of the poet. The lyrics poet addresses the reader directly, portraring his or her own feeling, state ofmind, or perception. Ex, 12 Dying by Emily Dickinson. D: Narrative PoetryIs founded in different types of poetry such as Ballads and Epics. All of these Ex. Aredifferent kinds of narrative poems some of which are the length of a book such as the Iliadand Paradise last. E: refrain poetry The word "refrain" derives the old French word refrained meaning to repeat refrain poetryterms is a phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated throughout a poem. Usually aftereach stanza. Ex, The Mermaid. F: Ballad poemsAre poems that tell a story similar to folktale or legend and often has a repeated refrain.Ex, The Mermaid. G: free verse is form of poetry that refrains from mater patterns, rhyme, or any othermusical pattern.H: blank verse is a poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Ex. Iambic (U/) 5 pentameter "number of fee" : shall I compare thee to a summers day? STANZA in poetry, a unit with a large poem. Types of stanza: 2 couple, 3 triple, 4 quatrain, 6 sestet, 8 octave.William Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in blank verse.  Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 7. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Musical Devices- 5th & 6th Weeks)1. Alliteration is a repetition of the some or similar sounds at the beginning of words. Ex.Acquainted with the Night by Robert Frost. 2. Assonance is the repetition of vowels sounds "mad as a hater" Assonance doesnt occur simply by having the same vowels spelling .e.g lost, most.3. Consonance is the repetition of final consonant sounds as in first, last. Odds, end.4. Rhyme is the repetition of the accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds, as inold, cold. Make, wake. Feign, rain.A end rhyme, comes at the end of lines.B internal rhyme, places at least one of the rhymed words within the lines, as in: dividing,gliding, sliding.C masculine rhyme, one syllable (support + retort) D feminine, two syllable (turtle + fertile) 5. Onomatopoeia is the formation or use words which imitate sounds, like whispering,clang, popcorn. The turn is generally expanded to refer to any word whose sound is suggestive of itsmeaning.6. Rhythm, is a musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressedsyllables. "heartbeat" 7. Rhyme Scheme, is a regular pattern of rhyme on that is consistent throughout theextent. (write a letter next to each sound).8. Meter, in poetry meter is recurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in lines ofset length. Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 8. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First YearThere are 5 types of feet:Example. Elizabeth browning sonnet 43  Iamb (iampic) unstressed+stressed 2 syllables Trochee (trochaic) stressed+unstressed 2 syllables  Spodee (spodaic) stressed+stressed 2 syllables  Anapest (anapestic) unstressed+unstressed+stressed 3 syllables  Dactly (dactlyic) stressed+unstressed+unstressed 3 syllables The types of  meter and the line length: Monometer 1 Foot  Dimeter 2 Feet Trimeter 3 Feet Tetrameter 4 Feet Pentameter 5 Feet Hexameter 6 Feet Heptameter 7 Feet Octameter 8 FeetSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 9. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Sensuous Imagery- 8th Week)An image is language that addresses the senses (sensuous imagery) Types:1. Visual, represent a sight2. Auditory, represent a sound 3. Olfactory, represent smell4. Gustatory, represent taste5. Tactile, represent touch6. Organic, internal sensation such as hunger, thirst, fatigue or nausea7. Kinesthetic, represent a movement or tension in the muscles or jointsOther Poetic terms:Tone, it is the poets attitude toward the reader, places and event in the specific work.The tone could be (serious or ironic), (sad or happy), (private or public), (angry oraffectionate).What are run-out lines?And end-stopped lines?Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 10. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Figurative Language- 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th weeks)• Denotation and Connotation• Simile• Metaphor• Personification• Apostrophe• Metonymy• Symbol• Allegory• Paradox• Overstatement• Understatement• IronySarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 11. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year (Paradox)Paradox, is a statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatibleelements, but closer inspection may be true.Example, the pen is mightier than the sword.Example, if you wish to preserve your secret, wrap it up in frankness.Example, knives can harm you, heaven forbid Axes may disarm you, kid.Gaillotinens are painful but.Theres nothing like a paper cut!Oxymoron, condensed form of paradox in which two contradictory words are usedtogether.Example, (sweet sorrow), (silence scream), (sad joy).Irony, is a technique that reveals a disagreement between what appears to be and what isactually true.1. Verbal irony, is saying something different from what is meant.2. Situational irony, is when a situation occurs which is quit the revers of what one mighthave expected. Allegory or parable,* a poem is the form of a narrative or story that has a second meaning beneath of surfaceone.* characters may be given names such as Hope, Pride, Youth, and Charity; they have few, ifany personal qualities beyond their abstract meanings.Example, Edgar Allan Poe, The Haunted Palace.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 12. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(LONDON, 1802)1.Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour:2.England hath need of thee: she is a fen3.Of stagnant waters: altar, sword, and pen,4.Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower, William Wordsworth Born | 7 April 17705.Have forfeited their ancient English dower Died | 23 April 1850 England6.Of inward happiness. We are selfish men; Literary movement | Romanticism7.Oh! raise us up, return to us again;8.And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power. sonnet/ 149.Thy soul was like a star, and dwelt apart: iambic pentameter rhyme10.Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea: a-b-b-a, a-b-b-a, c-d-d-e, c-e11.Pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free, meter 1-8 octave - ABBAABBA12.So didst thou travel on lifes common way, 9-14 sestet - CDDECE13.In cheerful godliness; and yet thy heart * In the poem, William Wordsworth castigates the14.The lowliest duties on herself did lay. English people as stagnant and selfish, and eulogizes seventeenth-century poet John Milton. * The underlined lines are images. * When a word written in this color that mean it’s Apostrophe; because he’s talking to (absent, dead) person which is Milton. * This color means PersonificationSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 13. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Sonnet LIV “54”)1.Of this worlds theatre in which we stay,2.My love like the spectator idly sits3.Beholding me that all the pageants play,4.Disguising diversely my troubled wits.5.Sometimes I joy when glad occasion fits,6.And mask in mirth like to a comedy: Edmund Spenser7.Soon after when my joy to sorrow flits, Born | c. 1552 Died | 13 January 15598.I wail and make my woes a tragedy. England9.Yet she, beholding me with constant eye, Literary Movement | Renaissance10.Delights not in my mirth nor rues my smart:11.But when I laugh she mocks, and when I cry12.She laughs and hardens evermore her heart. * Line 1. the word (theatre) is13.What then can move her? if nor mirth nor moan, symbol of life where people act.14.She is no woman, but a senseless stone. * From line 12. (hardens), and from line 14. (stone) they are Tactile images.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 14. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Sonnet XXIX)1.When in disgrace with Fortune and mens eyes,2.I all alone beweep my outcast state,3.And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,4.And look upon myself and curse my fate, William Shakespeare Born | 26 April 15645.Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Died | 23 April 1616 England6.Featured like him, like him with friends possessd, Literary Movement | Renaissance7.Desiring this mans art, and that mans scope,8.With what I most enjoy contented least. * ABAB CDCD EFEF GG * line 12. why is he singing? he’s9.Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, singing because he’s asking God10.Haply I think on thee, and then my state, for help. * Line 12. (heaven’s gate) is a11.Like to the lark at break of day arising symbol of God. * The writer was complaining till12.From sullen earth, sings hymns at heavens gate; last 2 lines (irony- situational).13.For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings14.That then I scorn to change my state with kings.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 15. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Dying)1. I heard a fly buzz when I died;2. The stillness round my form3. Was like the stillness in the air4. Between the heaves of storm. Emily Dickinson Born | 10 December 1830 Died | 15 May 18865. The eyes beside had wrung them dry, America Literary Movement | Realism and6. And breaths were gathering sure Modernism7. For that last onset, when the king * 4 Stanza * Lyric poetry8. Be witnessed in his power. * ABCB * The author expresses her feeling, emotion, indeed. * line 1. Paradox; maybe she was9. I willed my keepsakes, signed away sleeping she want to make us think of her experience after death.10. What portion of me I * Line 5. People around her crying. * The underlined lines have11. Could make assignable,-and then religious meaning. * Lines 9, 10, and 11 are explaining12. There interposed a fly, sadness. * Line 12. (interposed) means something came between things;13. With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz, line 14. * Line 15. eyes closing, Line 16. is the prove.14. Between the light and me;15. And then the windows failed, and then16. I could not see to see.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 16. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(How Di I Love Thee? “Sonnet43”)1-How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.2-I love thee to the depth and breadth and height3- My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight4- For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.5-  I love thee to the level of everydays Elizabeth Barrett Browning Born | 6 March 1806 Died | 29 June 18616-  Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight. England Literary Movement | Victorian era7-  I love thee freely, as men might strive for Right;8- I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise. * Sonnet/ 149- I love thee with the passion put to use * iambic pentameter * ABBA ABBA CDC DCD * the author wrote this poem to her10-  In my old griefs, and with my childhoods faith. husband11-   I love thee with a love I seemed to lose12-  With my lost saints,–I love thee with the breath,13- Smiles, tears, of all my life!–and, if God choose,14- I shall but love thee better after death.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 17. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Excerpt from Macbeth)1.Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,2. Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,3. To the last syllable of recorded time; William Shakespeare4. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools Born | 26 April 1564 Died | 23 April 16165. The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! England Literary Movement | Renaissance6. Lifes but a walking shadow, a poor player7. That struts and frets his hour upon the stage * Unrhymed8. And then is heard no more: it is a tale * iambic pentameter, Black verse9. Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,10. Signifying nothing.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 18. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(The Mermaid)1. Twas Friday morn when we set sail,2. And we had not got far from land,3. When the Captain, he spied a lovely mermaid,4. With a comb and a glass in her hand.Chorus5. Oh the ocean waves may roll,6. And the stormy winds may blow,7. While we poor sailors go skipping aloft Author Unknown8. And the land lubbers lay down below, below, below9. And the land lubbers lay down below.10. Then up spoke the Captain of our gallant ship, * Ballad11. And a jolly old Captain was he; * Child ballad12. "I have a wife in Salem town, * They are in a ship.13. But tonight a widow she will be." * Line 8. (below, below, below) refrain. Line 14. and line 18. (gallant ship) refrain. Line 22.Chorus and line 23. (three times) refrain.14. Then up spoke the Cook of our gallant ship,15. And a greasy old Cook was he;16. "I care more for my kettles and my pots,17. Than I do for the roaring of the sea."Chorus18. Then up spoke the Cabin-boy of our gallant ship,19. And a dirty little brat was he;20. "I have friends in Boston town21. That dont care a ha penny for me."Chorus22. Then three times round went our gallant ship,23. And three times round went she,24. And the third time that she went round25. She sank to the bottom of the sea.ChorusSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 19. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Acquainted With The Night)1. I have been one acquainted with the night.2. I have walked out in rain -- and back in rain. A3. I have outwalked the furthest city light.4. I have looked down the saddest city lane. Robert Frost5. I have passed by the watchman on his beat B Born | 26 March 18746. And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain. Died | 29 January 1963 America7. I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet8. When far away an interrupted cry A * Example of alliteration9. Came over houses from another street, * ABAAB * line 1. the word acquainted10. But not to call me back or say good-bye; means familiar.11. And further still at an unearthly height, A * Line 1. and line 14. refrain.12. O luminary clock against the sky13. Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right.14. I have been one acquainted with the night. BSarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 20. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(The Road Not Taken)1. Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, choice A2. And sorry I could not travel both B3. And be one traveler, long I stood A4. And looked down one as far as I could A5. To where it bent in the undergrowth; future B Robert Frost Born | 26 March 18746. Then took the other, as just as fair, sudden decision Died | 29 January 19637. And having perhaps the better claim, America8. Because it was grassy and wanted wear;9. Though as for that the passing there10. Had worn them really about the same, * iambic11. And both that morning equally lay autumn imagery12. In leaves no step had trodden black.13. Oh, I kept the first for another day! decision changeseverythin14. Yet knowing how way leads on to way,15. I doubted if I should ever come back.16. I shall be telling this with a sigh17. Somewhere ages and ages hence:18. Two roads diverged in a wood, and I--19. I took the one less traveled by,20. And that has made all the difference.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 21. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Traveling Through The Dark)1. Traveling through the dark I found a deer2. dead on the edge of the Wilson River road.3. It is usually best to roll them into the canyon:4. that road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead.5. By glow of the tail-light I stumbled back of the car6. and stood by the heap, a doe, a recent killing;7. she had stiffened already, almost cold.8. I dragged her off; she was large in the belly. William Stafford Born | 17 January 1914 Died | 28 August 19939. My fingers touching her side brought me the reason— American10. her side was warm; her fawn lay there waiting,11. alive, still, never to be born.12. Beside that mountain road I hesitated.13. The car aimed ahead its lowered parking lights;14. under the hood purred the steady engine.15. I stood in the glare of the warm exhaust turning red;16. around our group I could hear the wilderness listen.17. I thought hard for us all—my only swerving—,18. then pushed her over the edge into the river.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 22. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(Dreams)1. Hold fast to dreams2. For if dreams die3. Life is a broken-winged bird4. That cannot fly. Langston Hughes Born | 1 February 1902 Died | 22 May 1967 American5. Hold fast to dreams6. For when dreams go7. Life is a barren field8. Frozen with snow.Sarabdulaziz © 2011
  • 23. PNU | College of Art | Department of English Language and Literature | Poetry | First Year(The Negro Speaks of Rivers)1. Ive known rivers:2. Ive known rivers ancient as the world and older than the 3. flow of human blood in human veins.4. My soul has grown deep like the rivers.5. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. Langston Hughes6. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. Born | 1 February 1902 Died | 22 May 19677. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. American8. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln 9. went down to New Orleans, and Ive seen its muddy 10. bosom turn all golden in the sunset.11. Ive known rivers:12. Ancient, dusky rivers.13. My soul has grown deep like the rivers.Sarabdulaziz © 2011