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  1. 1. First Lecture: IntroductionThe Communicative Cycle Perception Production TransmissionLinguistics:The scientific study of languages; i.e. the inquiry of the systems and patterns ofphonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics inherent in a human language. Linguistics competence (abstract - knowledge)Language: Linguistic performance (clear - production)Linguistic competence:• Producing and interpreting an unlimited number of utterances• Recognizing unacceptable utterancesi.e. there is a mental system (grammar) that allows speakers to form and interpretutterances.Components of grammar: Phonological system the rules that govern the use of sounds of a language. Morphological system the rules used to construct words from their component parts. Syntactical system the rules used to form and interpret units of a language larger than words.Linguistics performance:The application of linguistic competence to actually producing an utterance.Phonetics and Phonology:Phonetics is the study of speech sounds: their physical properties, the way they areproduced, and the way they are received and decoded by the brain. It aims to provide aset of features to describe and distinguish all the sounds of the human language.Phonology is the study of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language(i.e. it is concerned with the study of how languages structure sounds to convey linguisticinformation.)Phonology is, then, a branch of linguistics which has very close links with phonetics. Competence vs. Performance Phonology has 2 sidesPhonological competence: Phonological performance:our knowledge of the phonological the actual production of sounds andsystem of our language. sound sequences. Example: 1- Bill is an English teacher. 2- tlirhs bhigl Dogkh. The first sentence could be interpreted because it matches your phonological knowledge. In contrast, when you produce the second sentence, you could not interpret it because it does not match your phonological knowledge. So, the speech production can be meaningful if it matches the phonological knowledge; it can be meaningless if it does not.
  2. 2. Why do we need to study phonetics and phonology?- The process of communication is, in part, dependent on the nature of the sound.- Non-native speakers of a given language can understand the features of the sounds ofthat language; hence produce them correctly.- Linguists may study the phonology of a given languages to communicate with itspeople.- It helps in describing the languages changes and the variation in dialects.- It helps to understand the processes involved in the phonological acquisition bychildren.- Understanding the physics of speech sounds enables to create synthetic speech (e.g.computers).Second Lecture: Phonology:• The description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a particular language.• It is based on the theory of what every speaker unconsciously knows about the sound patterns of that language.• Therefore, it is concerned with the abstract(mental) aspect of the sounds in language rather than the actual physical articulation of speech sounds.Example;• /t/ sound in tar, star, writer, and eighth seems to be the same, but actually in phonologythe [t] in each word is actually one variation of the original /t/ which is called phoneme.Those different realizations of the phoneme are called ‘phones’•The phoneme is the meaning-distinguishing unit in a language such as [t], [k], and [b] intar, car, and bar.• The phoneme is the abstract unit(in the mind). The phones are the many different versions of that sound regularly produced in actual speech (in the mouth) which are together known as allophones. For example, the phoneme /t/ has the following allophones:• [t] in tar is normally produced with stronger puff of air than present in the [t] sound of the word star. So, the aspiration is represented as [t ]. That is one phone.2. The [t] sound between vowels as in writer is a ‘flap’ which is represented as [D]. That isanother phone.3. The [t] in eighth is influenced by the dental [T] sound and that causes a dentalarticulation of the /t/ sound represented as [tÏ].•The [t ], [D] , and [tÏ] are different realizations of the phoneme /t/.Notice that we use slashes ‘//’ when we refer to phonemes. However, we use squarebrackets’[]’ to indicate allophones.Minimal pairs and sets:We use the minimal pairs test in order to test the phonemic contrasts in a language. When two words such as pat and bat are identical in form except for one phoneme occurring in the same position, the two words are described as a minimal pair. More accurately, they would be classified as a minimal pair the phonology of English.- Examples of the minimal pairs of English:- fan_van- bet_bat- site_sideThe meaning changes in these pairs due to the contrast between f-v, e-a, and t-d, an evidence that a phoneme is a meaning-distinguishing unit.
  3. 3. • So, we differentiate a group of words by changing a phoneme (always in the same position), then we have a minimal set. Thus, a minimal set based on the vowel phonemes of English would include feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot transcribed as [fi:t], [fIt],[f{t], [fet] and [fot].• Third Lecture, Part 1: Phonology •Suprasegmental phonology • the syllableSyllable:! a unit of pronunciation typically larger than a single sound and smaller than a word.! Consider, for instance, the following words: " “sad” /sQd/ includes one syllable composed of a vowel /Q/ and preceding and following consonants /s, d/. " “time” /taIm/ includes one syllable composed of a vowel /aI/ and preceding and following consonants /t, m/. " “car” /kA/ includes one syllable composed of a vowel /A/ and a preceding consonant /k/. " “am” /Qm/ includes one syllable composed of a vowel /Q/ and a following consonant /m/. " “I” /aI/ includes one syllable (a minimum syllable) composed of the vowel /aI/. sad /sQd/ CVC ! Thus, every syllable must include a vowel, may have consonants time /taIm/ CVC preceding and following that vowel. car /kA/ CV The different possibilities of the structure of a syllable can be am /Qm/ VC represented as follows: (C) V (C) I /aI/ VAccording to this representation (C) V (C), the syllable" must have a centre (called peak or nucleus) which is a vowel" could have an onset (which is the initial part of the syllable) that consists of either oneor more consonants." could have a coda (which is the final part of the syllable) that consists of either one ormore consonants."the nucleus and the coda form the rhyme.The word “mad”: /mQd/ → m Q d onset centre codaExamples:onset + peak > “key” /kiù/, “car” /kA/, “who” /huù/, “blue” /bluù/peak + coda > “am” /Qm/, “ease” /iùz/, “ask” /Qsk/onsets + peak + codas >”sat” /sQt/, “fill” /fIl/, “floods” /flÃds/peak (minimum syllable) > “are” /A/, “I” /aI/•Phonetically > a syllable consists of a centre which has little or no obstruction of airflowand which sounds loud. Before and after this centre there might be greater obstruction ofair flow and/or less loud sound.• Phonologically > a syllable is a unit that involves possible combinations of Englishphonemes.
  4. 4. Syllabification:- A word consisting of one syllable (like tip) is referred to as a monosyllable.- A word consisting of two syllables (like monkey) is called a disyllable.- A word consisting of three syllables (such as interpret) is called a trisyllable.- A word consisting of more than three syllables (such as intelligence) is called a polysyllable.- The term ‘polysyllable’ is often used to describe words of two syllables or more. So, the words, “monkey, interpret, intelligence” can be called polysyllabic.- Sometimes syllables are marked off from each other by a period [.].Examples:/tIp//mÃn.kiù//In.ter.prIt/- Sometimes the symbols C and V (standing for Consonant and Vowel, respectively) are used to show syllabic structure. For example, the syllabic structure of "interpret " /In.ter.prIt/ is VC.CVC.CCVC.Phonotactics:The study of possible phoneme combinations of a language is called phonotactics. Examples of phonotactics: In a syllable-initial position: - it is allowed to begin with a vowel, or with one, two or three consonants. - no syllable begins with more than three consonants. • In a syllable-final position: - a syllable can end with a vowel, or with one, two, three or four consonants. - no syllable ends with more than four consonants.The syllable onset: # If the syllable begins with a vowel, it has a zero onset as in ‘am’ /Qm/; ‘ease’ / iùz/. # If a syllable begins with one consonant, the initial consonant can be any consonant phoneme except /N/. Examples: ‘key’ /kiù/; ‘kick’ /kIk/. # If a syllable begins with two or three consonants, such a sequence of consonants is called a consonant cluster. Examples: ‘play, stay, street, split, etc’.
  5. 5. The syllable coda: # If the syllable ends with a vowel, it has a zero coda as in ‘car’ /kA/; ‘see’ /siù/. # If a syllable ends with one consonant, the final consonant can be any consonant phoneme except /h, r, w, j/. Examples: ‘at’ /Qt/; ‘kick’ /kIk/, ‘catch’ / kQtS/, ‘seen’ /siùn/. # If a syllable ends with two, three or four consonants, such a sequence of consonants is called a consonant cluster. There is a possibility of up to four consonants at the end of the word. Examples: ‘books, six, bank, banks, prompts, etc’.Consonant clusters in the coda: # Final two-consonant clusters: Examples: ‘help, bank, edge, belt, blind, books, six etc’. # Final three-consonant clusters: (see p.73) Examples: ‘helped, seconds, fifths, etc’. # Final four-consonant clusters: Examples: ‘prompts, sixths, etc’.! Thus, the English syllable has the maximum phonological structure:C1 C2 C3 V C1 C2 C3 C4! onset peak! ! codaThird Lecture, Part 2: Co-articulation effects• Speech is not always careful. Our talk is mostly fast and spontaneous, and it requires our articulators to move from one sound to the next without stopping.• The process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next is called co- articulation.•• There are two well-known co-articulation effects called ‘assimilation’ and ‘elision’Assimilation:When two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of one phoneme is taken or‘copied’ by the other, the process is known as assimilation.Elision:The omission of a sound segment which would be present in the deliberate pronunciationof a word in isolation is technically described as elision.Fourth Lecture, Part 1: LinkingIn our hypothetical “mechanical speech” all words would be separate units placed next toeach other in sequence. In real connected speech, however, we sometimes link wordstogether in special ways.The most familiar case is the use of the linking r; the phoneme r does not occur insyllable-final position in the BBC accent, but when a words spelling suggests a final r, anda word begging with a vowel follows, the usual pronunciation is to pronounce with r.‘Here’ hı« ‘here are’ hı«r«‘four’ f : ‘ four eggs’ f :r egz
  6. 6. Intrusive r BBC speakers often use r in a similar way to link words ending with a vowel, even when there is no justification from the spelling as in :‘Formula A’ f :mj«l«r eı‘Australia all out’ ɒstreıli«r :l aut‘media event’ mi:di«r ıvent !Linking and intrusive r are special cases of juncture, this name refers to the relationship between one sound and the sounds that immediately precede and follow it. !Many ingenious minimal pairs have been invented to show the significance of !juncture, a few of which are given in p. 145 in “English Phonetics and Phonology’Fourth Lecture, Part 2:"British (RP/BBC) vs. American (GA) Consonants and Vowels"English vs. Arabic Consonants and Vowels(RP/BBC) vs. (GA)Consonants and VowelsThere are clear distinctions in how Americans and Britons use their language.Broadly, Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the British Englishwhich has long been perceived as uniquely prestigious amongst British accents. It is astandard form of British pronunciation accepted as reference in England and Wales.General American (GA) is a form of pronunciation of the American English. It is thestandard pronunciation in the USA and is sometimes promoted as preferable to otherregional accents.These two main accents (RP & GA) are used as reference accents for the teaching ofEnglish pronunciation.There are many differences between GA and RP in stress and intonation patterns butthey are not as notable as those in the pronunciation of certain phonemes. Hence, we willfocus on the distinctions in the phonemes pronunciation.Main differences between GA and RP can be shown in four ways.(a) Systemic differences (differences in the number (presence/absence) ofspecific sounds). !GA has /æ/ in words like "bath, dance", while RP has /ɑː/. Thus, you can notice:dance /dæns/ vs. /dɑːns/last /læst/ vs. /lɑːst/bath /bæθ/ vs. /bɑːθ/, etc.(Note that both accents have /ɑː/ in words like palm‘). !In RP, /t/ may be fully replaced by a glottal stop///. Thus, you can notice:button /bÃtn/ vs. /bÃ/n/(b) Distributional differences (which sounds are used in which words) !RP is non-rhotic while GA is rhotic. In other words, in RP /r/ is only allowed before a vowel. Thus, you can notice:In RP, red /red/ and pride /praɪd/ but start /stɑːt/, car /kɑː/, near /nɪə/, beard /bɪəd/, square /skweə/, nurse /nɜːs/.In GA, /r/ is pronounced wherever it is spelled.
  7. 7. (c) Lexical differences (some words have different pronunciations (but notin a systematic way; rather it is a random way) GA RP process /prAùses/ /pr«Uses/ clerk /klÎrk/ /klA:k/ z /ziù/ /zed/(d) Phonetic differences (the same phoneme has different realizations) !/Q/ is higher in GA while in RP it is close to the cardinal vowel /a/. !Vowels are nasalized in GA if they are followed by a nasal consonant whilethey are not in RP. Compare:Can’t! /kQnt/ vs. /kQânt/ !The tapping of /t/ (pronouncing /t/ in certain positions as a flap /}/) is more widespread in GA. Compare:City /sɪ}i/ vs. /sɪti/ Fifth Lecture: The Stress:"Phonology • Suprasegmental phonology • the stress $ nature of stress $ levels of stress $ placement of stress within the wordThe Nature of Stress:•How to mark a stressed syllable- placing the mark [È] before the stressed syllable. Examples: - The first syllable in ‘father’ is marked high up with [È] because it isstressed /ÈfAD«/.- The middle syllable in ‘apartment’ is marked high up with [È] because it isstressed /«ÈpAtm«nt/.- The final syllable in ‘receive’ is marked high up with [È] because it is stressed /rIÈsiùv/• How to identify a stressed syllable- Production: using more muscular energy than is used for unstressed syllables.- Perception: perceiving stressed syllables as more prominent than unstressed ones.(more prominent = louder, longer, has a higher pitch, and has a vowel of a certainquality.)Prominence is produced by four main factors:Loudness: stressed syllables are louder than unstressed ones.Length: stressed syllables are longer.Pitch which is related to the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds. Stressed syllableshave a higher pitch, while unstressed syllables have a lower one.
  8. 8. Quality: stressed syllables contain a vowel different in quality from vowels in unstressedsyllables. (weak syllables include /«/ with or without a coda, /i/ and /u/ with no coda, orsyllabic consonants).See p. 94Levels of Stress:Two-level analysis: stressed andunstressed syllables.E.g. The second syllable in‘around’ has a higher pitch (hence,stressed) /«ÈraUnd/Three-level analysis: primary [È], secondary [Ç], and unstressed syllables.E.g. in the word ‘photographic’ the most stressed syllable is the third one; so it has aprimary stress [È]. The second and last syllables are unstressed. There is a type of stressweaker than the primary stress and stronger than the unstressed syllables; this syllablehas a secondary stress [Ç]. /Çf«U.t«.ÈgrQ.fIk/Placement of stress within the word:• How can we select the correct syllable to stress in an English word?There is a set of rules governing the placement of stress in nouns, verbs, and adjectiveseven though there are some exceptions.• When placing stress, it is necessary to consider the following:1. morphologically simple or complex wordSimple words may include one syllable (like ‘cat’) or more than one syllable (like ‘father’) . Single-syllable words are pronounced with primary stress. If the word is a simple one with more than one syllable or a complex one, placing stress is governed by certain rules (which will be discussed later).2. the grammatical category of the word (will be discussed in the coming slides).• how many syllables in the word (will be discussed in the coming slides).• strong or weak syllableWeak syllables are always unstressed; strong syllables can be stressed or unstressed. Compare: the first and second syllables in ‘potato’ /p«.ÈteI.t«U/; ‘open’ /È«U.p«n/.Two-syllable wordIn two-syllable words, one syllable is stressed and the other is unstressed.How to place the stress in a two-syllable word?If the word is a verb, noun or an adjective, the stressed syllable is the strong one. Othertwo-syllable words like adverbs and prepositions behave like verbs and adjectives.Examples:‘apply’ /«.ÈplaI/ ‘alive’ /«.ÈlaIv/ ‘money’ /ÈmÃ.ni/‘assist’ /«.ÈsIst/ ‘divine’ /dI.ÈvaIn/ ‘estate’ /I.ÈsteIt/‘open’ /È«U.p«n/ ‘design’ /dI.ÈzaIn/ ‘lovely’ /ÈlÃ‘envy’ /È ‘even’ /Èiù.vnÁ/
  9. 9. Three-syllable wordIn three-syllable words, stress placement is more complicated.How to place the stress in a three-syllable word?• In verbsIf the final syllable is strong, then it’s stressed. If the final syllable is weak, the stress willbe placed on the pre-final syllable if it’s strong. If both final and pre-final syllables areweak, the first syllable will be stressed. Examples: ‘entertain’ /en.t«.ÈteIn/ ‘encounter’ / In.ÈkaUn.t«/ ‘parody’ /ÈpQ.r«.di/ In nouns: a different rule is applied." If the final syllable is strong, stress will be placed on the 1st syllable. Examples: ‘intellect’ /ÈIn.t«.lekt/ ‘marigold’ /ÈmQ.rI.g«Uld/""If the final syllable is weak or ends with /«U/, then it is unstressed. If the syllablepreceding this final syllable is strong, then that middle (pre-final) syllable is stressed.Examples: ‘potato’ /p«.ÈteI.t«U/ ‘disaster’ /dI.È«/"" If the 2nd and 3rd syllables are both weak, then the 1st syllable is stressed. Examples: cinema’ /ÈsI.n«.m«/Ώ Practice:Mark the stress on the following words and justify your choice.Verbs Nounsattract /«.ÈtrQkt/ honey /ÈhÃ.ni/clamber /ÈklQm.b«/ paper /ÈpeI.p«/detest /dI.Ètest/ captain /ÈkQp.tIn/ refrain /rI.ÈfreIn/bellow /bI.Èl«U/custody / ÈkÃ.st«.di/ disconnect /dIs.k«.Ènekt/connection / ÈkÃ.st«.di/ encounter / In.ÈkaUn.t«/•Ώ Practice:• How to identify a stressed syllable?• What makes a syllable prominent?• What is the peak of a weak syllable?• How can you mark a stressed syllable?• How can you mark primary and secondary syllables?• What is the relation between the concepts of stressed/unstressed and strong/weak?• How can you place the stress in a two-syllable word?• How can you place the stress in a three-syllable word?
  10. 10. Sixth Lecture: The Intonation"Phonology • Suprasegmental phonology • Intonation $ Definition $ Types $ FunctionsLet’s consider the following example first:Question: What is the difference in the way the following two sentences sound?A. He is going tomorrow.B. He is going tomorrow?Answer: The ‘melodies’ of the two sentences are different:The melody of sentence A drops at the end, making it a statement. The melody of sentence B risesat the end, making it a question.In languages like English, we call these sentence melodies intonations. An intonation is a melodythat belongs to an entire utterance. All spoken languages have intonations.What is intonation?Intonation is the system of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences withinspeech.Therefore, intonation is a term used to refer to the distinctive use of different patterns of pitchthat carry meaningful information.Pitch is the rate of vibration of the vocal folds. When we speak, normally the pitch of our voice isconstantly changing. We describe pitch in terms of high and low.Let’s consider the intonation of one-syllable utterances:Two examples of one-syllable utterances are ‘yes’ and ‘no’. We have a number of choices forsaying these words using different pitch patterns.The two words can be said with the pitch remaining at a constant level (level intonation), or withthe pitch changing from one level to another (moving intonation).Saying an utterance with a constant level of pitch is not common.Saying an utterance with a changing level of pitch is more natural.Moving Intonation:Rising intonation means the pitch of the voice increases over time;falling intonation means that the pitch decreases with time.According to this representation, ‘no’ is pronounced with a ….
  11. 11. If the same utterance is produced with different intonation, the meaning conveyed will bedifferent. This difference is signaled by intonation patterns. In English, such different intonationpatterns has a syntactic function. One sentence can be a question, a declarative statement, anexpression of surprise, or an expression of doubt. Compare:‘right?’ with a rising toneand‘right.’ with a falling toneAnother e.g.In English, the utterance ‘It is a cat’ will be regarded as a statement when there is a fall in pitch,and the same utterance will be regarded as a question if the pitch rises.In the International Phonetic Alphabet, rising and falling intonation are marked with a diagonalarrow rising left-to-right [↗] and falling left-to-right [↘], respectively.He found it on the street?[ hiː ˈfaʊnd ɪt | ɒn ð ↗ˈstɹiːt | ]In the previous example, the rising symbol is placed between the transcriptions for the words "the"and "street".Yes, he found it on the street.[↘ˈjɛs * hi ˈfaʊnd ɪt | ɒn ð ↘ˈstɹiːt | ]In that example, the symbol for a fall was placed before the transcription for the word "yes," aswell as between the transcriptions for the words "the" and "street".
  12. 12. Seventh Lecture: Intonation 2There are many languages in which the tone can determine the meaning of a word, andchanging from one tone to another can completely change the meaning.* Examples, In Kono, a language of west Africa, we find the following:¯ buu (horn)_buu (to be cross)*In Mandarin Chinese¯ ma (‘mother’)ˏ ma (‘hemp’)ˎma (‘scold’)Languages such as the above are called tone languages. English, however, is not atone language, and the function of tone in languages like English is syntactic more thanmeaningful. Such languages are called intonation languages.Examples of some functions of English tones:Falling ˎyes ˎnoThis tone about which least needs to be said, and which is usually regarded as more orless “natural”. If someone is asked a question and replies ˎ yes or ˎ no, it will beunderstood that the question is now answered and that there is nothing to be said. Thefall could be said to give an expression of “finality”Rising ˏyes ˏnoIn a variety of ways, this tone conveys an impression that something more is to follow; atypical occurrence in a dialogue between two speakers whom we shall call A and B mightbe the following:A (wishing to attract B’s attention): Excuse me.B: ˏyes(B’s replay is, perhaps, equivalent to what do you want?)Another occurrence would beA: Do you know Norah?B: ˏyesFall-rise ˬyes ˬnoThe fall-rise is used a lot in English and has some rather special functions. In the presentcontext we will only consider one fairly simple which could perhaps be described as‘limited agreement’ or ‘response with reservation. For example,A: I’ve heard that it is a good school.B: ˬyesRise-fall ̭yes ̭noThis is used to convay rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise. It is notconsidered to be an important tone for foreign learners to acquire, although it is stilluseful to practice to learn to distinguish it from other tones. Here is an example.A: You would not do an awful thing like that, would you?B: ̭noLevel ˍyes ˍ no
  13. 13. This tone is certainly used in English, but in a rather restricted context; it almost alwaysconvays a feeling of saying something routine, uninteresting or boring. Example,A teacher calling the names of pupils.A speech in which every syllable is said on the same level pitch, with no pauses and nochanges in speed or loudness is refered to as ‘mechanical speech’. * Functions of Intonations *1. Attitudinal function.Intonation enables us to express emotions and attitudes as we speak, and this adds aspecial kind of meaning to spoken language. this is often called the attitudinal function ofintonation.2. Accentual function.Intonation helps to produce the effect of prominence on syllables that need to beperceived as stressed, and in particular the placing of tonic stress on a particular syllablemarks out the word to which it belongs as the most important in the tone-unit.3. Grammatical function.The listener is better able to recognize the grammar and syntactic structure of what isbeing said by using information contained in the intonation;for example, the placement ofboundaries between phrases, clauses or sentences, and the difference betweenquestions and statements.4. Discourse function.Looking at the act of speaking in a broader way, we can see that intonation can signal tothe listener what is to be taken as ‘new’ information and what is already ‘given’. Intonationcan convey to the listener what kind of response is expected.
  14. 14. Lecture 8: Branches of LinguisticsThere are two main branches: Theoretical linguistics and applied linguisticsTheoretical linguistics :PhoneticsThe study of the physical properties of speech (or signed) production andperception.PhonologyThe study of sounds (or signs) as discrete, abstract elements in the speakersmind that distinguish meaning.Morphologythe study of internal structures of words and how they can be modifiedSyntaxthe study of how words combine to form grammatical sentencesSemanticsThe study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed wordcombinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings ofsentencesPragmaticsThe study of how utterances are used in communicative acts, and the role playedby context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning.Discourse analysisThe analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed).Applied linguistics:The study of language-related issues applied in everyday life.Clinical linguistics, The application of linguistic theory to the field of Speech-Language Pathology.Developmental linguistics, The study of the development of linguistic ability inindividuals, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.Historical linguistics or diachronic linguistics,The study of language change over time.Neurolinguistics,The study of the structures in the human brain that underlie grammar andcommunication.Psycholinguistics,The study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying languageuse.Sociolinguistics,The study of variation in language and its relationship with social factors.