POETRY1. Early sixteenth century poetry: the Tudor Sarah Abdussalam
I. MAJOR FEATURES‣ The Tudors ruled England from 1485 to 1603.‣ Henry VII, was the ﬁrst Tudor monarch. Seven years after he became a king, Columbusdiscovered America, and a few years later Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing aroundthe Cape of Good Hope.‣ In the 16th century, the English became great colonizers and merchant adventurers.‣ England, which has always been a sheep-raising country, was by now manufacturing andexporting signiﬁcant amounts of cloths.‣ People were driven off the lands to the cities.‣ About a decade before Henry VII won his throne, the art of printing from movable type, aGerman invention, was introduced into England by William Caxton (1422-1419), whichincreased literacy and made books cheaper and more plentiful.II. POETIC FORMS‣ Translating Petrarch works, Italian poet, introduced the sonnet 1 into England. With Petrarchthe sonnet had 14 lines and was divided into 2 parts: octave sestet ‣ the octave containing 8 lines ‣ the sestet, containing 6 lines ‣ expressed the ﬁrst half of an idea ‣ expressed the second half ‣ posed the question ‣ gave the answer ‣ expressed a theme ‣ contradicted it ‣ the rhyme scheme was strict: abba abba ‣ cde cde or cdc dcd or any other similar combination of two or three rhymes.‣ English poets found it hard to stick to the Petrarchan form, and so invented rhymecombination of their own.‣ Blank verse, ten syllables to a line, ﬁve stresses, no rhyme.III.MAJOR THEMES AND TECHNIQUES‣ Satire, a work of literature that mocks social conventions, another work of art, or anythingits author thinks ridiculous.‣ Writers start inforce their feelings in their writings‣ The ability of an individual to think on their own, to stir away from the common norm ofsociety; which was to believe in what the church said.1 From the Italian sonetto, which means "a little sound or song,"
IV.OUTSTANDING WRITERS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION Thomas Wyatt (1503 - 1542) ‣ He was born in Kent, England. ‣ His mother was Anne Skinner and his father, Henry Wyatt, had been one of Henry VIIs Privy Councillors, and remained a trusted adviser when Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509. ‣ Thomas Wyatt followed his father to court after his education at St John’s College, Cambridge. ‣ He married Elizabeth Brooke (1503-1550), in 1522, she gave a birth to a son, Thomas Wyatt, the younger. A few years later he was separated from his wife on the grounds of adultery. ‣ It’s believed that the young, unhappily married Wyatt fell in love with the young Anne Boleyn in the early-to-mid 1520s. In his poetry, Thomas calls his mistress Anna, and often embeds pieces of information that correspond with her life into his poetry. In May 1536 he was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with her. He was released from the Tower later that year, thanks to his friendship or his fathers friendship with Thomas Cromwell, and he returned to his duties. But she was executed. ‣ None of Wyatts poems were published during his lifetime—the ﬁrst book to feature his verse was printed a full ﬁfteen years after his death. ‣ Introduced the Petrarchan sonnet to England in the early sixteenth century. So, he’s called “the father of English poetry.” ‣ The Petrarchan, or Italian, is the ﬁrst and most common sonnet. ‣ Named after one of its greatest practitioners, the Italian poet Petrarch. ‣ The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two stanzas, the octave (the ﬁrst eight lines) followed by the answering sestet (the ﬁnal six lines). The tightly woven rhyme scheme, abba, abba, cdecde or cdcdcd, is suited for the rhyme-rich Italian language, though there are many ﬁne examples in English. Since the Petrarchan presents an argument, observation, question, or some other answerable charge in the octave, a turn, or volta, occurs between the eighth and ninth lines. This turn marks a shift in the direction of the foregoing argument or narrative, turning the sestet into the vehicle for the counterargument, clariﬁcation, or whatever answer the octave demands. ‣ His famed translations of Petrarch’s sonnets, as well as his own sonnets, drew fast attention to the form. ‣ He was strict to the original form. ‣ Examples of his work: Farewell Love, Whoso List to Hunt.
FAREWELL LOVE2 FORM Rhyme scheme:1. Farewell love3 and all thy laws4 forever; abbaabbacddcee2. Thy baited hooks5 shall tangle me no more. Sonnet: Italian, octave + sestet3. Senec and Plato 6 call me from thy lore Meter: iambic pentameter4. To perfect wealth, my wit for to endeavour. Scan:5. In blind error when I did persever, farewell/, love, and/ all thy/ laws for/ ever.6. Thy sharp repulse, that pricketh aye so sore, Structure:7. Hath taught me to set in triﬂes 7 no store he uses the octave, turn, and then sestet. The ﬁrst eight lines of the sonnet are8. And scape forth, since liberty is lever. about how his love has left him, but he doesnt seem too upset because he9. Therefore farewell; go trouble younger hearts believes it is for the best and that he can now improve himself. He speaks as10. And in me claim no more authority. though he is already smarter for knowing that it is okay, and claims that, "Thy baited11. With idle youth go use thy property hooks shall tangle me no more." (Ln. 2). Then, the turn occurs in line 9 that brings12. And thereon spend thy many brittle darts, the sonnet to a new position: He speaks as though he feels that he is now past13. For hitherto though I have lost all my time, love or too old or even wise to fall for its crafty tricks again; he feels deceived and spent.14. Me lusteth no lenger rotten boughs to clime Theme: trial of romantic love Title: He’s departing his love and this give as pessimistic atmosphere.CONTENT2 The aim: the poet’s message may intentionally be being conveyed to others at court, pointing out that thevarious relationships and complications within the social environment of the court often distracted ofﬁcialsfrom their true courtly duties.3 Apostrophe, he’s addressing love.4In renouncing the ‘laws’ of love, the poet is rejecting the rules of court and society as well as the emotionaleffects of intense relationships.5 The metaphor of ‘baited hooks’ works as an allegory for ﬁshing, but also presents as an oxymoron in the‘bait’ being the pleasure and the ‘hook’ being the painful consequence of the former.6 Senec and Plato are Greek philosopher, and they calling him away from love to the real riches of wit andintellect. Because they believed that one must choose either having wealth of mind or wealth heart.7triﬂe in Old English means a false tale that told just to fool someone. So, here is a metaphor of lovecomparing it to a triﬂe that deceive someone while he’s thinking it’s good but it turns him to be fool.
Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517 - 1547) ‣ He was born in Hunsdon, England ‣ the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, and his second wife, the former Lady Elizabeth Stafford. ‣ In 1532 Surrey married Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the Earl of Oxford; the couple had a son, Thomas, in 1536. ‣ He was an English arisocrat and one of the founders of English Renaissance. ‣ He wrote the ﬁrst blank verse in his translation of the second and fourth books of Virgils Aeneid. ‣ After Wyatt introduced the sonnet into English poetry in the ﬁrst quarter of the sixteenth century, the Earl of Surrey improved on it in the secont quarter of the sixteenth century. ‣ He gave the sonnet the rhyming meter and the division into quatrians that now characterizes the sonnets variously named English, Elizabethan or Shakespearean sonnets. ‣ The Italian sonnet presented a b a b, he changed it to a b b a. ‣ Also, instead of using octave and sestet, he used 3 quatrians and a couplet. ‣ He was the ﬁrst to emphasis his own feelings. ‣ The majority of Surreys work was not published during his lifetime, but circulated in manuscript. ‣ Examples of his works: He authored numerous poems, sonnets, and elegies, the most famous of which, “Wyatt Resteth Here,” memorializes his friend, with whose name and critical reputation he has been inextricably linked. And “The Soote Season.” ‣ Henry VIII, consumed by paranoia and increasingly ill, became convinced that Surrey had planned to usurp the crown from his son Edward. The King had Surrey imprisoned - with his father - sentenced to death on 13 January 1547, and beheaded for treason on 19 January 1547 (his father survived impending execution only by it being set for the day after the king happened to die, though he remained imprisoned).
THE SOOTE SEASON 8 FORM Rhyme scheme:1.The soote season, that bud and bloom forth brings, ababababababaa syllabic monotony results because there are only two rhymes, a and b.2. With green hath clad the hill and eke the vale; Sonnet:3. The nightingale with feathers new she sings9, English sonnet, 3 quatrians + couplet4. The turtle to her make hath told her tale. Meter: iambic pentameter5. Summer is come, for every spray now springs, Scan:6. The hart hath hung his old head on the pale, the soote /season/ that bud /and bloom/ forth brings7. The buck in brake his winter coat he ﬂings,8. The ﬁshes ﬂoat with new repaired scale, Structure: each line symbolize the change from old9. The adder all her slough away she slings, generation to a new one. There’s a volta in the 5th line and the 12th line. the couplet has a very declare sense of10. The swift swallow pursueth the ﬂyës smale, sorrow and paradox presented by the speaker. Everything in Nature has11. The busy bee her honey now she mings-- changed for the better but the poets personal "sorrow" remains the same.12. Winter is worn that was the ﬂowers bale. He’s lamenting the death of his beloved.13. And thus I see, among these pleasant things Theme: fertility vs. Sterility14. Each care decays, and yet my sorrow springs. lamenting of his beloved Title: soote means sweet or nice. Another title for this poem is “Spring Lament” Tone: sad, the sadness of the couplet overcome the whole poem.CONTENT8 The aim: the poem is a picturesque description of the English countryside just when winter is over andspring has begun. Each item symbolises the shedding of the old and the regeneration of the new: the greenvegetation of the hills and the vales, the new feathers on the nightingale, the turtle dove making love to itsmate, the hart has a new pair of antlers and the buck a new coat, the ﬁshes new scales and the snake anew skin, and the bee is busy collecting honey from the newly blossomed ﬂowers. All these symbols are insharp contrast to the sorrow of the poet who has not been able to win the love and affection of his lover.9 in this line he changes the word order into (S+O+V) to make the sonnet more musical this technique iscalled hyperbaton or anastrophe.