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Bluetooth
 

Bluetooth

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All about Bluetooth technology and its infrastructure.

All about Bluetooth technology and its infrastructure.
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  • First we move towards the introduction
  • RS232 data cables
  • FHSS Chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies. 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds Packet 1-5 time slots long FHSS is used to minimize the risk of such interference with systems operating on this Band such as microwave ovens, baby monitors and 802.11 wireless networks. GFSK When we jump from (1,-1 or -1,1), mod waveform changes rapidly, introducing large out of bound spectrum.(no overshoot to a step function input ) Uses Gaussian filter (uses G.Function) to limit its spectral width. GFSK = Baseband pulses(-1,1)  gaussian filter  FSK modulator FSK = Baseband pulses(-1,1)  FSK modulator 1Mb/s with overhead, this effectively becomes 721 kbps. SIG 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. First specification released in July 1999
  • Most powerful devices Infrared IrDA (WPAN) : synchronization, link between a phone and a laptop… – Less flexible than Bluetooth, need of a line of site – Comparable data rate Wi-Fi (WLAN) : Wireless LAN access – Far higher bandwidth and data rate than Bluetooth – Higher power consumption than Bluetooth – Requires infrastructure investment
  • The slaves in a piconet can only have links to the master. Slaves cannot directly transmit data to one another
  • Devices that participate in two or more piconets may act as gateways, forwarding traffic from one piconet to another Bluetooth units can only transmit and receive data in one piconet at a time. As devices in mulltiple piconets divide their time between the piconets, spending some time slots in one and some time slots in another on TDM basis. Devices give notification of inactivation to master that it will be inactive for a predetermined length of time. The device will then have to re-synchronize its clock with its other master. When a slave becomes inactive in a piconet, communications between masters and the other active slaves go on as normal. On the other hand, when a master becomes inactive in its piconet, the slaves will have to wait for it to be active again before communication can resume.
  • Protection can be provided by using large pass key which makes computation to find link key more difficult. Best way(100% secure) is to make transfers in an environment that is eavesdropper free Authentication Encryption FHSS
  • 1. SNARF ATTACK In Some Bluetooth devices , it is possible to connect to the device without making owner aware of the request and can be used in illegal mobile cloning. entire phonebook, calendar, realtime clock, business card, properties, change log are accessible but other services, such as modems or Internet, WAP and GPRS gateways may be accessed without the owner's knowledge or consent 2. BACKDOOR After creating a trusted relationship, the attacker removes his device name from paired devices register. If owner is monitoring exactly at the time connection is established, they're unable to notice anything unusual entire device can be "backed up" to an attacker's own system 3. BLUEJACKING Blue jacking supports transfer of anonymous messages in public places. Name field = 248 bits. The pairing protocol displays name of the requestor. This name can be used to convey a message to other mobiles. The problem lies in the fact that the protocol being abused is designed for information exchange. The ability to interface with other devices and exchange, update and synchronise data, is the raison d'e^tre of bluetooth. The bluejacking technique is using the first part of a process that allows that exchange to take place, and is therefore open to further abuse if the handshake completes and the "bluejacker" successfully pairs with the target device
  • The Bluetooth protocols contain the standard procedures for connections and data exchange between Bluetooth devices.
  • The radio layer describes the physical characteristics a Bluetooth device’s receiver-transmitter component must have. These include modulation characteristics, radio frequency tolerance, and sensitivity level.
  • See ACL links
  • See ACL links OBEX The Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) is a specification for object data exchange over infrared (IR) links. Examples for using OBEX include exchanging business cards and synchronizing calendar applications.
  • Following the profiles procedure supports compatibility Developers can be sure that the applications they create will work with any device that conforms to the Bluetooth specification Profiles are organized into a hierarchy of groups With each group depending upon the features provided by its predecessor.
  • GAP GAP defines a consistent means to establish a baseband link between Bluetooth devices. GAP additionally defines: Which features must be implemented in all Bluetooth devices Generic procedures for discovering and linking to devices Basic user-interface terminology Human Interface Device (HID) Profile Describes how to communicate with a HID class device using a Bluetooth link. Serial Port Profile Serial port profile D efines RS-232 serial-cable emulation for Bluetooth devices and uses RFCOMM protocol for that. Dial-up Networking Profile The dial-up networking (DUN) profile is built on the serial port profile and describes how a data-terminal device can use a gateway device(mobile phone/modem) to access a telephone-based network Headset Profile Describes how a Bluetooth-enabled headset should communicate with a computer or other Bluetooth device Hardcopy cable replacement profile The hardcopy cable replacement profile (HCRP)describes how to send rendered data over a Bluetooth link to a device, such as a printer. GOBEX Profile • The generic object exchange profile provides a generic blueprint for other profiles using the OBEX protocol and defines the client and server roles for devices. Object Push Profile • The object push profile defines the roles of push server and push client. These roles are analogous to and must interoperate with the server and client device roles the generic object exchange profile defines. The object push profile focuses on a narrow range of object formats for maximum interoperability. The most common of the acceptable formats is the vCard format. File Transfer Protocol It provides guidelines for applications that need to exchange objects such as files and folders, Synchronization Profile It describes how applications can perform data synchronization, such as between a personal data assistant (PDA) and a computer.
  • Infrared IrDA (WPAN) : synchronization, link between a phone and a laptop… – Less flexible than Bluetooth, need of a line of site – Comparable data rate Wi-Fi (WLAN) : Wireless LAN access – Far higher bandwidth and data rate than Bluetooth – Higher power consumption than Bluetooth – Requires infrastructure investment
  • Standardized protocol supports interoperability of devices of different types.
  • Interference with other devices that use the same frequency such as baby monitors, microwave over etc. FHSS is used to avoid it.
  • Many companies are designing and researching impressive bluetooth applications in demand so this shows it has a bright future and it would be difficult for other technology to overcome.
  • ACL links and SCO links Inquires who’s there Paging creates a link in piconet Expanding a piconet by excessive pages

Bluetooth Bluetooth Presentation Transcript

  • BLUETOOTH TECHOLOGY
  • Contents
    • Introduction
    • Background
    • Technology Review
    • Bluetooth vs Other Wireless Technologies
    • Pros n Cons
    • Future Of Bluetooth
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Introduction
  • Introduction
    • Definition
    • Bluetooth is a short-range and low power wireless technology originally developed for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs).
    • Short-range radio frequency technology that operates at 2.4 GHz on an unlicensed Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band.
    • Effective range of Bluetooth devices is 10 meters.
    • It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to data cables
  • Bluetooth Communication
  • History
    • The word "Bluetooth" is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth , he had been influential in uniting Scandinavian tribes into a single kingdom.
    • Bluetooth was named so because
    • 1) Bluetooth technology was developed in Scandinavia
    • 2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries such as the cell phone, computing, and automotive markets.
  • Bluetooth Devices
    • Digital cameras and camcorders
    • Printers
    • Scanners
    • Cell Phones
    • PDAs
    • Laptops
    • Keyboards and Mice
    • Headsets
    • In-car hands-free kits
    • Home appliances (microwaves, washers, driers, refrigerators)
  • Technology Review
  • Technology Review
    • Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum
    • Uses Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) modulation technique.
    • Supports data rate of 1 Mb/s (originally )
    • The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).
  • Classes Of Bluetooth
  • Piconets
    • Definition
    • “ Two or more Bluetooth units
    • sharing the same channel”
    • One device acts as a master and the devices connected
    • to it act as slaves.
    • Slaves can not directly send data to each other
    • In effect, the master acts as a switch for the piconet
    • and all traffic must pass through the master.
    • There can be up to 7 active slaves in a piconet but only
    • one master
  • Scatternets
    • DEFINITION
    • “ A set of two or more interconnected piconets form scatternets”
    • A Bluetooth unit can be a slave in two or more piconets, but it can be a master in only one.
    • Devices that participate in two or more piconets may act as “gateways”
    • Bluetooth units can only transmit and receive data in one piconet at a time.
    • Piconets may be identified by the master's identity and clock
    • Devices give notification of inactivation to master before becoming inactive in its piconet for a finite length of time.
  • Scatternets(contd)
  • Bluetooth Security
    • Authetication
    • Bluetooth authentication is normally done with PIN codes(16 characters) .
    • The described above procedure is called pairing
    • Encryption
    • After authentication, data is encrypted using (8-128) bit encryption key
    • Encryption key = link key + 128 bit random number + Master’sDevice address repeated twice
  • Bluetooth Attacks
    • SNARF ATTACK
    • Connect to the device without making owner aware of the request and can be used in illegal mobile cloning.
    • 2. BACKDOOR
    • After creating a trusted relationship, the attacker removes his device name from paired devices register. If owner is monitoring exactly at the time connection is established, they're unable to notice anything unusual
    • 3. BLUEJACKING
    • Blue jacking supports transfer of anonymous messages in public places using name field(248 bits) transferred as a business card.
    • Trojan Horse program (complete take over)
  • Bluetooth Protocols
    • Bluetooth protocol stack
    • Introduction
  • Bluetooth Protocols
    • Radio Protocol
      • Responsible for the modulation and demodulation of data into RF signals.
      • The radio layer describes the physical characteristics a Bluetooth device’s receiver-transmitter component must have.
    • BASEBAND PROTOCOL
    • Responsible for channel coding and decoding
    • Digitizes the signals received by the radio for passing up the stack
    • Formats the data it receives from the Link Controller (upper protocol) for transmission over the channel.
    • Link Controller
    • Responsible for establishing and maintaining the links between Bluetooth units.
  • Bluetooth Protocols
    • The Link Manager Protocol (LMP)
    • Handles link setup, authentication, link configuration and security procedures
    • Establishes all connections with the help of baseband protocol.
    • Host Controller Interface
    • The Host Controller Interface (HCI) defines uniform methods for accessing and controlling the lower layers of the protocol stack (baseband and the link manager)
    • Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)
    • Responsible for:
    • Establishing connections across existing ACL links or requesting an ACL link if one does not already exist
    • Allow many different applications to use a single ACL link through multiplexing
    • Repackaging the data packets it receives from the higher layers into the form expected by the lower layers
  • Bluetooth Protocols
    • Service Discovery Protocol
    • Defines procedures for
    • Discovering services of other devices
    • Determining the characteristics of those services.
    • Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) defines call
    • Control signaling for establishing speech and data calls between Bluetooth devices, providing them with telephony services.
    • Object Exchange Protocol
    • Is a specification for Object data exchange over IF(InfraRed links)
    • Examples for using OBEX include exchanging business cards and synchronizing calendar applications
  • Bluetooth Profiles
    • Bluetooth profiles describe many different types of tasks
    • Following the profiles procedure supports compatibility
    • Profiles are organized into a hierarchy of groups
  • Bluetooth Profiles(contd..)
  • Bluetooth Profiles(contd..)
    • Generic Access Profile (GAP)
    • Human Interface Device (HID) Profile
    • Serial port profile
    • Dial-up Networking Profile
    • Headset Profile
    • Hardcopy cable replacement profile
    • GOBEX Profile
    • Object Push Profile
    • File Transfer Profile
    • Synchronization Profile
    • Bluetooth vs Other Wireless Technologies
  • Bluetooth vs Other Wireless Technologies
  • Bluetooth Technology
    • Pros & Cons
  • Pros n Cons
    • Pros
    • Eliminates wires
    • Facilitates Data and Voice Communication
    • Offers formation of Adhoc networks
    • Standardized protocol
    • Free of charge
    • Easy to use
    • Low power consumes battery less
    • Stationary and mobile environments
  • Pros n Cons(contd..)
    • Cons
    • Relatively short range
    • Less secure
    • Interference with other devices
    • Mediocre Data rates
    • Bluetooth internet connection gets slow sometimes
  • Future Of Bluetooth
  • Future Of Bluetooth
    • Bluetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a basic need of connectivity
    • Currently a protocol is being researched that would support large adhoc networks
    • Latest version of Bluetooth are improving both its security and capabilities
    • Ultra wide band has been chosen by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group as the future of Bluetooth Technology.
    • New versions of Bluetooth technology will meet the high-speed and large range
    • Many companies are designing impressive bluetooth applications in demand
  • Conclusion
    • A new global standard for data and voice
    • Eliminates Cables
    • Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices
    • Bluetooth seems to have a bright future after reviewing its benefits and wide use
    • Further improvements are planned to be made in
      • Data Rates
      • Power Reduction
      • Range
  • References
    • [1] Future Of Bluetooth Technology
    • by Justin Blasdin, Kian Pokorny
    • [2] Security Comparison: BluetoothTM Communications vs. 802.11
    • Thomas G. Xydis Ph.D, Simon Blake-Wilson
    • [3] Bluetooth dot dot attacks
    • By John F.David, Michael Barclay
    • [4] Bluetooth : A Technology in Demand
    • By Aniston Roger, Siamonds Lee
    • [5] Bluetooth Era
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth
    • [6] Blue Tooth
    • http://www.wirelessdevnet.com/channels/bluetooth/features/bluetooth.html
    • [7] Introduction To Bluetooth
    • http://www.gsmfavorites.com/documents/bluetooth/introduction/
    • [8] Advantages Of Bluetooth
    • http://ezinearticles.com/?What-Are-The-Advantages-Of-Bluetooth-Technology?&id=562666
    • [9] Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi Technology
    • http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/webmaster/article.php/3331421
    • [10] Hack Device via Bluetooth without owner’s permission
    • http://www.wonderhowto.com/how-to/video/how-to-hack-a-cell-phone-to-make-free-phone-calls-218649/
    • Thank You !