The french revolution
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The french revolution






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The french revolution The french revolution Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution
    • UmairMaqboool Ch.
    • SaqibSaeed
    • Hassan Tariq
  • Introduction
  • Definition
    Revolution – Struggle put up to change the way of being ruled
    In France, from 1789 to 1799
    Feudal, religious and aristocratic privileges vanished
    ‘Enlightment’ principles of citizenship and inalienable rights introduced
  • Causes
    Rising debt
    Failure of reforms
  • Estates-General (1789)
    Due to conflict between Second and Third Estates
    Convened on 5 May 1789
    Great misjudgment by the king in deciding core issues
  • National Assembly (1789)
    10 June 1789 - Third Estate declared itself to be independent body
    Louis ordered closure of Salle des États to prevent meeting
    Meeting held in Royal Tennis Court (Tennis Court Oath)
    Clergy and nobility joined them later
  • National constituent assembly (1789 – 1791)
  • Storming of Bastille
    Louis XVI dismissed Necker on the suggestion of his privy council
    Parisians assumed arrival of foreign troops under French service as sign of trouble
    French Guard joined the rebels
    Mob attacked Bastille Fort, to capture the weapons cache
  • Storming of Bastille (contd.)
    Rebels captured the fort and killed the Governor, despite ceasefire
    Louis XVI visited Paris on 17th July, and people cheered for him
    Necker was reinstated
    Nobles were not satisfied by apparent reconciliation; began to flee France
  • The Great Fear
    Spirit of insurrection spread throughout France
    Mobs burned châteaux
    Killed the feudal lords and their families
    Rumors of royal plotting going on at Versailles, and of widespread unemployment in Paris contributed to the unrest
  • Working towards a Constitution
    4 Aug 1789 – Feudalism abolished, seigneurial rights of First and Second Estates swept away
    26 Aug 1789 – Declaration of Man and of The Citizen published
    Unicameral Assembly established
    King only retained ‘Suspension Veto’ power
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    a bill of rights modeled on English and American examples, which guaranteed that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights." It also guaranteed that "property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one may be deprived of it except for an obvious requirement of public necessity, certified by law . . . ."
  • Women’s March on Versailles
    1 Oct 1789 – Rumors of King’s bodyguards trampling upon national cockade
    5 Oct 1789 – Women complained to Parisian authorities of the hardships
    Receiving no response, 7000 women marched to Versailles, bringing cannons and arms
    Finally, King agreed to move back to Paris
  • Revolution and the Church
    Power weakened in Estates-General meeting
    12 July 1970 – Civil Constitution of the clergy
    Turned clergy into state servants
    Clergy required to take oath of loyalty to Civil Constitution
    De- Christianization efforts during Reign of Terror
  • The National Assembly became a house divided. They began to form alliances based on class and belief. The lower classes felt left out…again.
    wanted the king completely out of the picture
    in favor of retaining the constitutional monarchy
  • Royal flight to Varennes
    General Bouillé assured Louis XVI of his support at his camp
    20 June 1791 – Royal family fled under the guise of servants
    Were caught the next day at Varennes
    The Assembly provisionally suspended the king
  • Completing the Constitution
    Majority of the Assembly still favored constitutional monarchy
    Still, attempts to instigate people against the King
    Rest of Europe afraid of the revolutionary spirit
    Declaration of Pillnitz passed
    Assembly gathered all the laws passed, and formulated the constitution
    The King endorsed it
  • French neighbors feared that revolution would spread to their countries.
    Neighboring countries requested the return of Louis XVI.
    Girondins took offense and declared war on Austria and Prussia.
  • Legislative assembly
  • Failure of the Constitutional Monarchy
    Under the Constitution, the King had to share power with the elected Assembly
    Though he still retained veto power
    1 Oct 1971 – Assembly met for the 1st time
    Degenerated into chaos within a year
    Comprised of representatives from different groups
    The King used to veto legislations against clergymen
  • Constitutional Crisis
    10 Aug 1792 – Insurgents assailed the Tuileries Palace
    The royal family ended up prisoners
    Rump session of the Assembly suspended the monarchy
    Insurgents executed 1400 prisoners without trial
    21 Sep 1972 – Monarchy abolished and country declared to be a republic
  • War and counter- revolution
  • Almost everyone supported the war with Austria
    Initially, Austria and Prussia had success
    However, monarchy had become a thing of past
    France soon took over Austrian Netherlands
    The King executed in Jan 1793
    Britain and Spain joined the war against France
    French forces faced defeats on all fronts
    Rebellion broke up in western and southern France
    Fall 1793 – Rebellions crushed, and Allied advance halted
  • Summer 1794 – stalemate broken
    Conquered Austrian Netherlands again
    Swept Allies to the right bank of Rhine
    1795 – Holland conquered
    House of Orange expelled
    Alliance against France collapsed
    Only Britain and Austria at war now
  • National convention (1792 – 1795)
  • Execution of Louis XVI
    Brunswick Manifesto made Louis appear a traitor
    17 Jan 1973 – Louis XVI condemned to death
    21 Jan 1973 – executed by guillotine
    Royalty across Europe horrified
    Many neutral nations joined war against France
  • Side note
    Jack and Jill went up the hill
    to fetch a pail of waterJack fell down and broke his crownAnd Jill came tumbling after.Up got Jack, and home did trot As fast as he could caperHe went to bed and bound his headWith vinegar and brown paper.
    Jack and Jill Rhyme
    Killing device used extensively during, and after Reign of Terror.
  • Side note
    Mary Mary quite contrary,How does your garden grow?With silver bells and cockle shellsAnd pretty maids all in a row.
    Mary Mary Quite Contrary Rhyme
  • Economy
    All funding spent on war
    Max. possible prices set on food items
    Widespread shortage and famine
    crowd jeered when Robespierre was sent to guillotine
    Dragoons sent to seize crops
    Solved problem for Paris; worsened it for rest of the country
  • Reign of Terror
    Rule of Jacobins
    At least 16,594 people executed without satisfactory trial
    Historians declare the figure to be close to 40,000
    The Convention adopted ‘Constitution of the Year I’
  • Peasant Revolt
    Old supporters of Catholic Church and Monarchy
    Revolt and suppression claimed at least 1,17,000 lives
    Many historians claim it to be ‘genocide’
    All peasantry armed in response to local and foreign threats
  • Time period when Robespierre was so afraid of opposition that he executed people that mightbe a threat.
  • De- Christianization
    Atheist movement started
    10 Nov 1793- Flame of Reason burned at Notre Dame Cathedral
    Army officers were promoted considering their patriotism
    Revolts and foreign attacks easily repelled
  • Thermidorian Reaction
    Robespierre and other prominent Jacobins arrested and executed
    New govt. comprised of surviving Girondins
    Took revenge on Jacobins
    Period known as ‘white terror’
    22 Aug 1795 – ‘Constitution of the Year III’ approved
    A public plebiscite also supported it
  • Directory (1795 – 1799)
  • After the reign of terror the French were fearful of a too powerful government . The Directory was formed to oversee the balance of responsibilities and appointments.
    Increased corruption was the result.
  • First bicameral legislature
    Distrusted by the citizens
    Used war for prolonging their rule
    The army, under General Napoleon, suppressed all uprisings with ease
    9 Nov 1799- Napoleon staged Coup of 18 Brumaire
    1804- Proclaimed himself Emperor
  • Napoleon took over and France became a dictatorship for the next 15 years.
  • “Take time to deliberate, but when the time for action has arrived, stop thinking and go in.”
    A revolution can be neither made nor stopped. The only thing that can be done is for one of several of its children to give it a direction by dint of victories.
    A picture is worth a thousand words.
    A true man hates no one.
    A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.
  • Role of women
  • Background
    Had no political rights before revolution
    Were not even considered citizens
    The Encyclopédie contained very humiliating definitions
  • Feminist Agitation
    The March to Versailles
    6 Mar 1792 – Pauline Léon presented a petition
    Was immediately rejected
    20 June 1792 – March of armed women
    Rampage of 20 May 1793
    Punished harshly
    Flogged, arrested, executed and exiled
  • Women Writers
    Olympe de Gouges – wrote plays and short stories
    Tried to warn the people of the extremism of the Revolution
    She also defended the king, and so, was executed
    Madame Roland – wrote letters to Revolution leaders and hosted gatherings
    Said: “O liberty! What crimes are committed in thy name!”, while being led to scaffold
  • legacy
  • Different Opinions
    Middle Class becoming conscious of its social importance
    Product of a few thinkers brainwashing the whole population
    Marxists title it as a gigantic class struggle, with peasants realizing their importance
    Angle of study has shifted from political ideas to social history
  • Impact on World
    Seen as dawn of modern era
    In France – crippled aristocracy and drained Church’s wealth
    Had profound effect on Russian Revolution
    Mao Zedong used the ideas in his efforts to make China, a communist state
  • Thank You