Definition Revolution – Struggle put up to change the way of being ruled In France, from 1789 to 1799 Feudal, religious and aristocratic privileges vanished ‘Enlightment’ principles of citizenship and inalienable rights introduced
Causes Famine Rising debt Taxation Failure of reforms
Estates-General (1789) Due to conflict between Second and Third Estates Convened on 5 May 1789 Great misjudgment by the king in deciding core issues
National Assembly (1789) 10 June 1789 - Third Estate declared itself to be independent body Louis ordered closure of Salle des États to prevent meeting Meeting held in Royal Tennis Court (Tennis Court Oath) Clergy and nobility joined them later
National constituent assembly (1789 – 1791)
Storming of Bastille Louis XVI dismissed Necker on the suggestion of his privy council Parisians assumed arrival of foreign troops under French service as sign of trouble French Guard joined the rebels Mob attacked Bastille Fort, to capture the weapons cache
Storming of Bastille (contd.) Rebels captured the fort and killed the Governor, despite ceasefire Louis XVI visited Paris on 17th July, and people cheered for him Necker was reinstated Nobles were not satisfied by apparent reconciliation; began to flee France
The Great Fear Spirit of insurrection spread throughout France Mobs burned châteaux Killed the feudal lords and their families Rumors of royal plotting going on at Versailles, and of widespread unemployment in Paris contributed to the unrest
Working towards a Constitution 4 Aug 1789 – Feudalism abolished, seigneurial rights of First and Second Estates swept away 26 Aug 1789 – Declaration of Man and of The Citizen published Unicameral Assembly established King only retained ‘Suspension Veto’ power
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen a bill of rights modeled on English and American examples, which guaranteed that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights." It also guaranteed that "property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one may be deprived of it except for an obvious requirement of public necessity, certified by law . . . ."
Women’s March on Versailles 1 Oct 1789 – Rumors of King’s bodyguards trampling upon national cockade 5 Oct 1789 – Women complained to Parisian authorities of the hardships Receiving no response, 7000 women marched to Versailles, bringing cannons and arms Finally, King agreed to move back to Paris
Revolution and the Church Power weakened in Estates-General meeting 12 July 1970 – Civil Constitution of the clergy Turned clergy into state servants Clergy required to take oath of loyalty to Civil Constitution De- Christianization efforts during Reign of Terror
The National Assembly became a house divided. They began to form alliances based on class and belief. The lower classes felt left out…again. Radicalism Girondins Jacobins Radicals wanted the king completely out of the picture Moderates in favor of retaining the constitutional monarchy
Royal flight to Varennes General Bouillé assured Louis XVI of his support at his camp 20 June 1791 – Royal family fled under the guise of servants Were caught the next day at Varennes The Assembly provisionally suspended the king
Completing the Constitution Majority of the Assembly still favored constitutional monarchy Still, attempts to instigate people against the King Rest of Europe afraid of the revolutionary spirit Declaration of Pillnitz passed Assembly gathered all the laws passed, and formulated the constitution The King endorsed it
French neighbors feared that revolution would spread to their countries. Neighboring countries requested the return of Louis XVI. Girondins took offense and declared war on Austria and Prussia.
Failure of the Constitutional Monarchy Under the Constitution, the King had to share power with the elected Assembly Though he still retained veto power 1 Oct 1971 – Assembly met for the 1st time Degenerated into chaos within a year Comprised of representatives from different groups The King used to veto legislations against clergymen
Constitutional Crisis 10 Aug 1792 – Insurgents assailed the Tuileries Palace The royal family ended up prisoners Rump session of the Assembly suspended the monarchy Insurgents executed 1400 prisoners without trial 21 Sep 1972 – Monarchy abolished and country declared to be a republic
War and counter- revolution
Almost everyone supported the war with Austria Initially, Austria and Prussia had success However, monarchy had become a thing of past France soon took over Austrian Netherlands The King executed in Jan 1793 Britain and Spain joined the war against France French forces faced defeats on all fronts Rebellion broke up in western and southern France Fall 1793 – Rebellions crushed, and Allied advance halted
Summer 1794 – stalemate broken Conquered Austrian Netherlands again Swept Allies to the right bank of Rhine 1795 – Holland conquered House of Orange expelled Alliance against France collapsed Only Britain and Austria at war now
National convention (1792 – 1795)
Execution of Louis XVI Brunswick Manifesto made Louis appear a traitor 17 Jan 1973 – Louis XVI condemned to death 21 Jan 1973 – executed by guillotine Royalty across Europe horrified Many neutral nations joined war against France
Side note Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of waterJack fell down and broke his crownAnd Jill came tumbling after.Up got Jack, and home did trot As fast as he could caperHe went to bed and bound his headWith vinegar and brown paper. Jack and Jill Rhyme
GUILLOTINE Killing device used extensively during, and after Reign of Terror.
Side note Mary Mary quite contrary,How does your garden grow?With silver bells and cockle shellsAnd pretty maids all in a row. Mary Mary Quite Contrary Rhyme
Economy All funding spent on war Max. possible prices set on food items Widespread shortage and famine crowd jeered when Robespierre was sent to guillotine Dragoons sent to seize crops Solved problem for Paris; worsened it for rest of the country
Reign of Terror Rule of Jacobins At least 16,594 people executed without satisfactory trial Historians declare the figure to be close to 40,000 The Convention adopted ‘Constitution of the Year I’
Peasant Revolt Old supporters of Catholic Church and Monarchy Revolt and suppression claimed at least 1,17,000 lives Many historians claim it to be ‘genocide’ All peasantry armed in response to local and foreign threats
Time period when Robespierre was so afraid of opposition that he executed people that mightbe a threat.
De- Christianization Atheist movement started 10 Nov 1793- Flame of Reason burned at Notre Dame Cathedral Army officers were promoted considering their patriotism Revolts and foreign attacks easily repelled
Thermidorian Reaction Robespierre and other prominent Jacobins arrested and executed New govt. comprised of surviving Girondins Took revenge on Jacobins Period known as ‘white terror’ 22 Aug 1795 – ‘Constitution of the Year III’ approved A public plebiscite also supported it
Directory (1795 – 1799)
After the reign of terror the French were fearful of a too powerful government . The Directory was formed to oversee the balance of responsibilities and appointments. Increased corruption was the result.
First bicameral legislature Distrusted by the citizens Used war for prolonging their rule The army, under General Napoleon, suppressed all uprisings with ease 9 Nov 1799- Napoleon staged Coup of 18 Brumaire 1804- Proclaimed himself Emperor
Napoleon took over and France became a dictatorship for the next 15 years.
“Take time to deliberate, but when the time for action has arrived, stop thinking and go in.” A revolution can be neither made nor stopped. The only thing that can be done is for one of several of its children to give it a direction by dint of victories. A picture is worth a thousand words. A true man hates no one. ? A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.
Role of women
Background Had no political rights before revolution Were not even considered citizens The Encyclopédie contained very humiliating definitions
Feminist Agitation The March to Versailles 6 Mar 1792 – Pauline Léon presented a petition Was immediately rejected 20 June 1792 – March of armed women Rampage of 20 May 1793 Punished harshly Flogged, arrested, executed and exiled
Women Writers Olympe de Gouges – wrote plays and short stories Tried to warn the people of the extremism of the Revolution She also defended the king, and so, was executed Madame Roland – wrote letters to Revolution leaders and hosted gatherings Said: “O liberty! What crimes are committed in thy name!”, while being led to scaffold
Different Opinions Middle Class becoming conscious of its social importance Product of a few thinkers brainwashing the whole population Marxists title it as a gigantic class struggle, with peasants realizing their importance Angle of study has shifted from political ideas to social history
Impact on World Seen as dawn of modern era In France – crippled aristocracy and drained Church’s wealth Had profound effect on Russian Revolution Mao Zedong used the ideas in his efforts to make China, a communist state