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    Prepared by:
    SitiHajarbt Ibrahim 0725600
    NurulFarhanabtMohdSalim 0729742
    FatinHananibt Mat Radzi 0724040
    Concordancer is a basic tool for corpus linguist.
    Turns the electronic texts into databases which can be searched.
    Offers the possibility of searching for word combinations within a specified range of words and looking up parts of words (substrings, in particular affixes, for example).
    A more sophisticated program might also provide its users with lists of collocates or frequency lists.
    Corpora that can be searched are text files, websites, emails, etc (anything that can be converted into electronic texts).
    Examples of concordance program:
  • 4. Its use in the field of Corpus Linguistics / teaching and learning
    • Students can use a concordancer to find out how to use a word or phrase
    • 5. To find out which other words belong with a word they want to use.
    • 6. Example:
    In academic writing, a paper can describe, claim, or show, though it doesn't believe or want (*this paper wants to prove that ...).
  • 7. Language teachers:
    can use the concordancer to find similar patterns so as to help their students.
    can also use it to help produce vocabulary exercises.
    can use a concordancer, for example when searching through a database of hospital accident records, to see whether fracture is associated with fall, grease, ladder.
  • 8. Article 1 : A concordance-based study of metaphoric expressions used by general practitioners and patients in consultation
    Purpose: To study metaphoric expressions used by doctors and patients in general practice.
    Design of study: Concordance-based language analysis of spoken data.
    Method: 373 consultations with 40 doctors in a UK general practice setting were transcribed and scrutinised for metaphoric expressions, using ‘concordancing’ software. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in analysis.
  • 9. results
    Doctors use mechanical metaphors to explain disease and speak of themselves as ‘problem-solvers’ and ‘controllers of disease’.
    Patients employ a range of vivid metaphors, but fewer metaphors of machines and problem/solution. They use metaphors to describe symptoms and are more likely to use metaphoric language at the interface of physical and psychological symptoms (eg. ‘tension’, ‘stress’).
  • 10. Article 2: Corpus Concordancingin Teaching Academic Discourse Writing to Medical Students
    • Purpose: To teach the skills necessary to describe a research.
    • 11. Design of study: Concordancing-related corpus analysis and non-concordancing related corpus analysis.
    • 12. Method: 15 research articles from prestigious scientific journals in the field of medicine were analysed by Group A (students doing analysis using concordancer) and Group B (doing analysis through “traditional way”).
    • 13. Genre analysis: lexico-grammatical items, including interpersonal metadiscourse devices, and rhetorical features of the text.
  • results
    • Both types of text analysis enabled the students to make the following generalisations:
    1. First person pronouns are used when the writers describe their own procedural choices in their research.
    2. The preferable tense for outlining the objectives of a study is the past tense.
    3. The most frequent verbs introducing the purpose of the study are “identify”, investigate” and “determine”.
    • The group of students which used corpus concordancing software arrived at these generalisations far more quickly than those students who performed corpus analysis in a traditional, “manual” way.