SLA (Stereo Lithography Apparatus) prototyping
parts are usually used to check appearance and
fine particular, but fragile performance is
weakness of SLA prototyping.
Apparatus/Stereolithography) was developed
by Chuck W. Hull in 1986. SLA is an additive
manufacturing technology for producing
models, prototypes, patterns, and in some
cases, production parts.
Stereolithography is an additive manufacturing process
using a vat of liquid UV-curable photopolymer "resin"
and a UV laser to build parts a layer at a time. On each
layer, the laser beam traces a part cross-section pattern
on the surface of the liquid resin. Exposure to the UV
laser light cures, or, solidifies the pattern traced on the
resin and adheres it to the layer below.
After a pattern has been traced, the SLA's elevator
platform descends by a single layer thickness, typically
0.05 mm to 0.15 mm. Then, a resin-filled blade sweeps
across the part cross section, re-coating it with fresh
material. On this new liquid surface, the subsequent
layer pattern is traced, adhering to the previous layer. A
complete 3-D part is formed by this process. After
building, parts are cleaned of excess resin by immersion
in a chemical bath and then cured in a UV oven.
SLA requires the use of support structures to attach the
part to the elevator platform and to prevent certain
geometry from not only deflecting due to gravity, but to
also accurately hold the 2D cross sections in place such that
they resist lateral pressure from the re-coater
blade.Supports are generated automatically during the
preparation of 3D CAD models for use on the SlA machine,
although they may be manipulated manually. Supports
must be removed from the finished product manually; this
is not true for all rapid prototyping technologies.
* The first Rapid Prototyping technique and still the most widely used.
* Inexpensive compared to other techniques.
* Uses a light-sensitive liquid polymer.
* Requires post-curing since laser is not of high enough power to completely cure.
* Long-term curing can lead to warping.
* Parts are quite brittle and have a tacky surface.
* No milling step so accuracy in z can suffer.
* Support structures are typically required.
* Process is simple: There are no milling or masking steps required.
* Uncured material can be toxic. Ventilation is a must..
Stereo Lithography Apparatus (SLA), the first
Rapid Prototyping process, was developed by
3D Systems of Valencia, California, USA,
founded in 1986. A vat of photosensitive resin
contains a vertically-moving platform. The part
under construction is supported by the
platform that moves downward by a layer
thickness (typically about 0.1 mm / 0.004
inches) for each layer. A laser beam traces out
the shape of each layer and hardens the
The sequence of steps for
producing an Stereo Lithography
Apparatus (SLA) layer is shown in
the following figures