Principles of Virtual Reality in Surgical Training and Practice Dr Sanjoy Sanyal  MBBS, MS (Surgery), ADPHA, ADHRD Present...
Contents <ul><li>Definition and classification </li></ul><ul><li>Technical aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Angled laparoscope si...
Definition <ul><li>VR  1 st  coined by Jaron Lanier, head of VPL Research Inc. California </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd  of 3 typ...
Classification
Augmented reality systems
Technical aspects of VR <ul><li>VR surrounds human body with artificial sensorium of sight, sound and touch. </li></ul><ul...
NASA astronaut training in simulated (VR) environment
Technical aspects of VR in medicine <ul><li>3-D computer graphics : Texture mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction devices ...
 
 
 
Angled laparoscope training simulator Spatial reasoning   is required to focus  objective lens in line with narrow cavity.
Angled laparoscope training simulator Virtual environment through a Virtual Laparoscopic Interface: All 4 corners of 6 tar...
Angled laparoscope training simulator After viewing all 4 corners of 1 st  target, hit a button: Next object comes into view
Angled laparoscope training simulator Go through the whole sequence for all targets.
Angled laparoscope training simulator
Angled laparoscope training simulator
Angled laparoscope training simulator Automatic timer records the time taken
Virtual cholecystectomy Occluding tissue is dissected
Virtual cholecystectomy Lateral traction is placed on gallbladder and cystic duct is clipped
Virtual cholecystectomy
Virtual cholecystectomy Cystic duct is successfully cut
Simulated gynecological surgery Endoscopic Surgery Simulation : Perform surgical tasks on elasto-dynamic objects in virtua...
Simulated gynecological surgery Actively Deforming Objects  (ADO) concept introduced for modeling organ motility
Simulated gynecological surgery ©   Dr. H. Cakmak, Institut für Angewandte Informatik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe   Simul...
Virtual endoscopy
Virtual bronchoscopy
Virtual colonoscopy
Virtual arthroscopy
Virtual angiography
Augmented reality imaging
Augmented reality imaging
Augmented reality imaging
Augmented reality imaging
Visible Human Project – NLM Visible Human Male Database   Visible Human Female Database
Visible Human Project – NLM
Visible Human Project – NLM
Virtual scalpel incision Double click on icon to view video of virtual scalpel incision on a simulated knee model
Summary <ul><li>VR is an  immersive  and  interactive  simulation of an environment </li></ul><ul><li>VR applications are ...
Summary <ul><li>Computer assisted  pre-operative planning  and  outcome prediction  are on the horizon </li></ul><ul><li>I...
References and URLs <ul><li>Edelman V. Touch goes high-tech.   http://cms.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-19960101-000031...
References and URLs <ul><li>The Visible Human Project, NLM, NIH:  http:// www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.h...
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Principles of Virtual Reality In Surgical Training - Review by Sanjoy Sanyal

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This PPT was presented in 10th National Medical Dental Conference in Seychelles in February 2007. It has been reproduced on 'as is' basis. It was also presented in faculty and students's symposium in a medical school in Seychelles. Presenter is Dr Sanjoy Sanyal, (then) Associate Professor and Masters candidate in Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh / University of Bath

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Principles of Virtual Reality In Surgical Training - Review by Sanjoy Sanyal

  1. 1. Principles of Virtual Reality in Surgical Training and Practice Dr Sanjoy Sanyal MBBS, MS (Surgery), ADPHA, ADHRD Presented at 10 th National Medical Dental Conference in Seychelles, February 2007
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Definition and classification </li></ul><ul><li>Technical aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Angled laparoscope simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated cholecystectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Simulated gynecological surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual endoscopy / angiography </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented reality imaging – Neurosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Human Project – NLM </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>References and URLs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>VR 1 st coined by Jaron Lanier, head of VPL Research Inc. California </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd of 3 types of Cyberspace </li></ul><ul><li>System that provides realistic sense of being immersed in an environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-generated visual , auditory and tactile multimedia experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Teledildonics : Virtual sex (or e-sex !!??) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classification
  5. 5. Augmented reality systems
  6. 6. Technical aspects of VR <ul><li>VR surrounds human body with artificial sensorium of sight, sound and touch. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereo headphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Eyephones ’: Head mounted stereo TV goggles – able to simulate 3-D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Datagloves ’: Wired gauntlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Datasuits ’: Computerized clothing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. NASA astronaut training in simulated (VR) environment
  8. 8. Technical aspects of VR in medicine <ul><li>3-D computer graphics : Texture mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction devices and trackers </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Force (haptic) feedback : Reverse robotic units </li></ul><ul><li>Other sensory feedback : Auditory, olfactory etc </li></ul>
  9. 12. Angled laparoscope training simulator Spatial reasoning is required to focus objective lens in line with narrow cavity.
  10. 13. Angled laparoscope training simulator Virtual environment through a Virtual Laparoscopic Interface: All 4 corners of 6 targets have to be viewed in sequence.
  11. 14. Angled laparoscope training simulator After viewing all 4 corners of 1 st target, hit a button: Next object comes into view
  12. 15. Angled laparoscope training simulator Go through the whole sequence for all targets.
  13. 16. Angled laparoscope training simulator
  14. 17. Angled laparoscope training simulator
  15. 18. Angled laparoscope training simulator Automatic timer records the time taken
  16. 19. Virtual cholecystectomy Occluding tissue is dissected
  17. 20. Virtual cholecystectomy Lateral traction is placed on gallbladder and cystic duct is clipped
  18. 21. Virtual cholecystectomy
  19. 22. Virtual cholecystectomy Cystic duct is successfully cut
  20. 23. Simulated gynecological surgery Endoscopic Surgery Simulation : Perform surgical tasks on elasto-dynamic objects in virtual surgery scene in real time; grasping , cutting and setting of clips
  21. 24. Simulated gynecological surgery Actively Deforming Objects (ADO) concept introduced for modeling organ motility
  22. 25. Simulated gynecological surgery © Dr. H. Cakmak, Institut für Angewandte Informatik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Simulation of pulsatile bleeding, irrigation, suction, animation of coagulation smoke, causing steaming of endoscope lens…
  23. 26. Virtual endoscopy
  24. 27. Virtual bronchoscopy
  25. 28. Virtual colonoscopy
  26. 29. Virtual arthroscopy
  27. 30. Virtual angiography
  28. 31. Augmented reality imaging
  29. 32. Augmented reality imaging
  30. 33. Augmented reality imaging
  31. 34. Augmented reality imaging
  32. 35. Visible Human Project – NLM Visible Human Male Database Visible Human Female Database
  33. 36. Visible Human Project – NLM
  34. 37. Visible Human Project – NLM
  35. 38. Virtual scalpel incision Double click on icon to view video of virtual scalpel incision on a simulated knee model
  36. 39. Summary <ul><li>VR is an immersive and interactive simulation of an environment </li></ul><ul><li>VR applications are playing a great role in teaching , training and testing of medical students and graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Computer simulated 3-D reconstruction of radiological c-sections are important diagnostic tools </li></ul>
  37. 40. Summary <ul><li>Computer assisted pre-operative planning and outcome prediction are on the horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of hybrid (real and imaginary) systems in augmented reality play a role in image-guided surgery </li></ul><ul><li>VR also plays a role in telemedine and telesurgery </li></ul>
  38. 41. References and URLs <ul><li>Edelman V. Touch goes high-tech. http://cms.psychologytoday.com/articles/pto-19960101-000031.html </li></ul><ul><li>Boulos MNK. University of Plymouth. Virtual reality in medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Tendick F. University of California San Francisco. http://itsa.ucsf.edu/~frankt/vesta.html </li></ul><ul><li>Cakmak HK. Institut für Angewandte Informatik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. http://www-kismet.iai.fzk.de/VRTRAIN/phD_main.html </li></ul>
  39. 42. References and URLs <ul><li>The Visible Human Project, NLM, NIH: http:// www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html </li></ul><ul><li>University of Colorado, Center of Human Simulation: http:// www.uchsc.edu/sm/chs/browse/browse_m.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uchsc.edu/sm/chs/browse/browse_f.html </li></ul><ul><li>NHSIA. Virtual Reality System Predicts Surgical Outcomes. http://www.informatics.nhs.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id =1206   Feb-2005 </li></ul>
  40. 43. Tailpiece
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