Cognitive Constraints in Students’ Performance: Analysis and Tentative Solution Dr Sanjoy Sanyal Associate Professor Seych...
Problem <ul><li>Acceptance of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of further problem </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of ...
Identification and Assessment <ul><li>Information load </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive ...
Temporal considerations <ul><li>Theoretically 16 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Deduct ESExam and Prep weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Av...
Temporal considerations  <ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 hours on weekdays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 hours on...
Textual magnitude <ul><li>Anatomy  = 1155 pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less 10% = 1155 – 115 =   1040  pg </li></ul></ul><u...
Information load <ul><li>Anatomy : 1040/532 = 1.95 pg/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Histology : 366/532 = 0.69 pg/hr </li></ul><u...
Information load <ul><li>Physiology : 1.37 pages/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry : 1.35 pages/hour </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge 10 14  synapses Connectivity formula   n(n-1)/2 Skull cap...
Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge Logarithmic scale Information doubling every 33 years 1 s...
Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge No change in  Information doubling every 33 years over se...
500 years ago <ul><li>Architect </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomist </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer </li></u...
200 years ago <ul><li>Anatomist </li></ul><ul><li>Physician </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>Gynecologist </li>...
Depth vs. width trade-off IC IC IC IC IC IC IC IC “ We are learning more and more of less and less; One day we would know ...
Cognitive load <ul><li>Brachiocephalic </li></ul><ul><li>Phrenicopleural </li></ul><ul><li>Vasa brevia </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Cognitive load <ul><li>Gostak distims doshes </li></ul><ul><li>Boetimperoferous </li></ul><ul><li>Isenorinopiclles </li></...
Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
Memory Adapted from Dix & Finlay
Memory Adapted from Dix & Finlay
Learning Curve <ul><li>“ Practice makes perfect &quot;   </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Progress Functions  </li></ul><ul><li>Ap...
Learning curve Adapted from Wikipedia Exponential decay Plot shows decay for decay constants of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25.  ...
Learning styles <ul><li>Everybody has a Learning Style (Preference) </li></ul><ul><li>No single type is wrong/right; good/...
Learning styles and cognition Adapted from JISC, UK Adapted from Bendigo Senior Secondary College, Aus
Learning style models <ul><li>Felder-Soloman : AR-SI-VV-SG </li></ul><ul><li>Honey-Mumford : ARTP </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb :...
Learning style models <ul><li>Fleming : VARK-Multi </li></ul><ul><li>Bandler, Grinder  (NLP): VAK(Ad) </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
Brain paradigms <ul><li>Each style uses different parts of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Paul MacLean : Triune brain model </li>...
Brain paradigms <ul><li>Roger Sperry / Rose & Nicholl : Right-left brain model </li></ul>
Brain paradigms Ned Herrmann:  4 (whole)-brain model
Personality Types <ul><li>Isabel Briggs Meyers : MBTI </li></ul><ul><li>4 scales: EI-SN -TF-JP </li></ul><ul><li>2 4 =  16...
Personality Types <ul><li>David Keirsey : GARI Temperament sorter </li></ul>
Multiple Intelligence <ul><li>Howard Gardner  /  Gary Harms  Multiple (7 + 1) intelligence – related to Memletics learning...
Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Guilbert domains : </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li...
Tentative Solution <ul><li>Conduct survey </li></ul><ul><li>Identify:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence preference-based...
Tentative Solution  <ul><li>Once students know  what learning type they are, they can capitalize on their strengths and st...
Conclusion Adapted from Bendigo SS College, Australia 'Whole brain learning'
References <ul><li>Hanka R. Information overload and 'just-in-time' knowledge. University of Cambridge, 1997.  http://www....
References <ul><li>Dix A, Finlay J, Abowd GD, Beale R. Human-Computer Interaction (3rd edition, 2003)  http://www.hcibook....
References <ul><li>Exponential decay  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Information S...
References <ul><li>Learning Disabilities Resource Community:  http:// www.ldrc.ca/projects/miinventory/mitest.html   </li>...
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Cognitive Constraints In Students’ Performances

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Describes aspects of students' cognition, Learning styles and cognitive overload

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  • Cognitive Constraints In Students’ Performances

    1. 1. Cognitive Constraints in Students’ Performance: Analysis and Tentative Solution Dr Sanjoy Sanyal Associate Professor Seychelles 2006 Presented at a staff seminar in a medical college in Seychelles in 2006
    2. 2. Problem <ul><li>Acceptance of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of further problem </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Solution to problem </li></ul>
    3. 3. Identification and Assessment <ul><li>Information load </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Learning styles/preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Brain paradigms </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological personality types </li></ul>
    4. 4. Temporal considerations <ul><li>Theoretically 16 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Deduct ESExam and Prep weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Available 14 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Available 98 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 Saturdays & 14 Sundays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70 weekdays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deduct 1 weekday off each week </li></ul><ul><li>Available 56 weekdays </li></ul>
    5. 5. Temporal considerations <ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 hours on weekdays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 hours on Saturdays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 hours on Sundays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 h x 56 weekdays = 280 weekday-hrs </li></ul><ul><li>8 h x 14 Saturdays = 112 Saturday-hrs </li></ul><ul><li>10 h x 14 Sundays = 140 Sunday-hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 532 hours </li></ul>
    6. 6. Textual magnitude <ul><li>Anatomy = 1155 pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less 10% = 1155 – 115 = 1040 pg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Histology = 407 pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less 10% = 407 – 41 = 366 pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embryology = 348 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less 10% = 348 – 35 = 313 pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology = 922 pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less 10% = 922 – 92 = 830 pages </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Information load <ul><li>Anatomy : 1040/532 = 1.95 pg/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Histology : 366/532 = 0.69 pg/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology : 313/532 = 0.59 pg/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Med Term : 830/532 = 1.56 pg/hr </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL ~ 5 pages / hour </li></ul>
    8. 8. Information load <ul><li>Physiology : 1.37 pages/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry : 1.35 pages/hour </li></ul><ul><li>Neurosciences : 0.87 page/hour </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL ~ 4 pages / hour </li></ul>
    9. 9. Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge 10 14 synapses Connectivity formula n(n-1)/2 Skull capacity = 400 cc to 1400 cc over 5 mill years But no change over several thousand years Doubling x 3 mill yrs Doubling x 1.5 mill yrs 10 11 neurons 5 x 10 21 synapses
    10. 10. Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge Logarithmic scale Information doubling every 33 years 1 st century 2 0 ->2 1 -> 2 2 -> 2 3 2 nd century -> 2 4 -> 2 5 -> 2 6
    11. 11. Information overload From Rudolph Hanka, University of Cambridge No change in Information doubling every 33 years over several 1000 years
    12. 12. 500 years ago <ul><li>Architect </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomist </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Inventor </li></ul><ul><li>Geometer </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Musician </li></ul><ul><li>Painter </li></ul>Leonardo da Vinci
    13. 13. 200 years ago <ul><li>Anatomist </li></ul><ul><li>Physician </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeon </li></ul><ul><li>Gynecologist </li></ul><ul><li>Obstetrician </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatrician </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedician </li></ul>Andreas Vesalius
    14. 14. Depth vs. width trade-off IC IC IC IC IC IC IC IC “ We are learning more and more of less and less; One day we would know everything about nothing” Leo Ves Now
    15. 15. Cognitive load <ul><li>Brachiocephalic </li></ul><ul><li>Phrenicopleural </li></ul><ul><li>Vasa brevia </li></ul><ul><li>Musculophrenic </li></ul><ul><li>Internal jugular </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral funiculus </li></ul><ul><li>Spinothalamic </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneocerebellar </li></ul><ul><li>Tractus solitarius </li></ul><ul><li>Funiculus gracilis </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cognitive load <ul><li>Gostak distims doshes </li></ul><ul><li>Boetimperoferous </li></ul><ul><li>Isenorinopiclles </li></ul><ul><li>Halptemiloginous </li></ul><ul><li>Czashmigedonix </li></ul><ul><li>Etrigenxous </li></ul><ul><li>Acondolytic effect </li></ul><ul><li>Fekritionoxes </li></ul><ul><li>Donglistonix </li></ul><ul><li>Grodoscinamity </li></ul>
    17. 17. Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
    18. 18. Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
    19. 19. Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
    20. 20. Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
    21. 21. Cognitive load Adapted from Odell, King’s College, London
    22. 22. Memory Adapted from Dix & Finlay
    23. 23. Memory Adapted from Dix & Finlay
    24. 24. Learning Curve <ul><li>“ Practice makes perfect &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Progress Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Applied to all types of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort decreases by constant % each time output quantity is doubled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More times a task is performed, less time is required on each subsequent iteration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steep learning curve = something gets easier quickly </li></ul>
    25. 25. Learning curve Adapted from Wikipedia Exponential decay Plot shows decay for decay constants of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25. Large decay constants make the quantity vanish almost immediately; smaller decay constants lead to almost-imperceptible decrease. Rate of decrease of ‘time taken’ or ‘effort required’ with each iteration
    26. 26. Learning styles <ul><li>Everybody has a Learning Style (Preference) </li></ul><ul><li>No single type is wrong/right; good/bad </li></ul><ul><li>Related to cognitive and mental abilities </li></ul><ul><li>71 models of learning styles </li></ul>
    27. 27. Learning styles and cognition Adapted from JISC, UK Adapted from Bendigo Senior Secondary College, Aus
    28. 28. Learning style models <ul><li>Felder-Soloman : AR-SI-VV-SG </li></ul><ul><li>Honey-Mumford : ARTP </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb : ADAC / DW-TF /CE-RO-AC-AE </li></ul>
    29. 29. Learning style models <ul><li>Fleming : VARK-Multi </li></ul><ul><li>Bandler, Grinder (NLP): VAK(Ad) </li></ul><ul><li>Martinez (LO): TPCR </li></ul><ul><li>Memletics : VAK-VLSS </li></ul>Adapted from Memletics
    30. 30. Brain paradigms <ul><li>Each style uses different parts of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Paul MacLean : Triune brain model </li></ul>
    31. 31. Brain paradigms <ul><li>Roger Sperry / Rose & Nicholl : Right-left brain model </li></ul>
    32. 32. Brain paradigms Ned Herrmann: 4 (whole)-brain model
    33. 33. Personality Types <ul><li>Isabel Briggs Meyers : MBTI </li></ul><ul><li>4 scales: EI-SN -TF-JP </li></ul><ul><li>2 4 = 16 types </li></ul>Guardian Artisan Rationalist Idealist
    34. 34. Personality Types <ul><li>David Keirsey : GARI Temperament sorter </li></ul>
    35. 35. Multiple Intelligence <ul><li>Howard Gardner / Gary Harms Multiple (7 + 1) intelligence – related to Memletics learning styles (VAK-VLSS + Naturalistic) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Guilbert domains : </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s taxonomy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul>Framework for determining learning outcomes Attitude Skills Knowledge Affective Psychomotor Cognitive
    37. 37. Tentative Solution <ul><li>Conduct survey </li></ul><ul><li>Identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence preference-based LS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality-based LS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant t hinking pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress level </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Tentative Solution <ul><li>Once students know what learning type they are, they can capitalize on their strengths and strengthen their weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Once we know what type they are, we can plan the foundation for appropriately-oriented course delivery </li></ul>
    39. 39. Conclusion Adapted from Bendigo SS College, Australia 'Whole brain learning'
    40. 40. References <ul><li>Hanka R. Information overload and 'just-in-time' knowledge. University of Cambridge, 1997. http://www.medinfo.cam.ac.uk/miu/papers/hanka/mic97/just_in_time.html </li></ul><ul><li>Odell E. Assessment by e-Learning http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c4/49/01/assessment%20e-learning%20Odell.ppt </li></ul>
    41. 41. References <ul><li>Dix A, Finlay J, Abowd GD, Beale R. Human-Computer Interaction (3rd edition, 2003) http://www.hcibook.com/e3/ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Curve Calculator. http://www1.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/learn.html </li></ul><ul><li>Experience curve effects http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_curve </li></ul>
    42. 42. References <ul><li>Exponential decay http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_decay </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Information Systems Committee. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Stage%202%20Learning%20Styles%20(Version%201).pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Bendigo Senior Secondary College. http://www.bssc.edu.au/public/learning_teaching/pd/toc/files/hbdt.ppt </li></ul>
    43. 43. References <ul><li>Learning Disabilities Resource Community: http:// www.ldrc.ca/projects/miinventory/mitest.html </li></ul><ul><li>O'Connor T. Indiana State University. 1997 February 21. Using Learning Styles to Adapt Technology for Higher Education http:// web.indstate.edu/ctl/styles/learning.html </li></ul>
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