A PRESENTATION
ON

COLLECTION OF PRIMARY
AND SECONDARY DATA
By: Harikesh Maurya
Department of Pharmacy
K.U. Nainital (UK)
INTRODUCTION
Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative
values of a variable (e.g. numbers, images, words,
fig...
NEED OF DATA COLLECTION
To get information for analysis
To get idea about real time situation

For comparison between two ...
SOURCES OF DATA

Internal
Sources

External
Sources

Primary Data

Secondary Data
PRIMARY DATA
Data

that

has

been

collected

from

first-hand-

experience is known as primary data. It has more

reliab...
METHODS FOR COLLECTION OF
PRIMARY DATA
A. Observation Method
B. Indirect Oral Interviews
C. Questionnaire Method
D. Survey...
A.DIRECT PERSONAL OBSERVATION

STRUCTURED
Observation

UNSTRUCTURED
PARTICIPATIVE

NON-PARTICIPATIVE
B.INDIRECT ORAL INTERVIEW
Standardized interviews
a. Structured
b. Unstructured
Non-standardized interviews
a. One to one
...
C.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD
Questionnaire:

A

questionnaire

is

a

research

instrument consisting of a series of question fo...
D.SURVEY METHOD
SURVEY: A detailed study of geographical area to gather

data opinions, satisfaction level etc., by pollin...
EXPERIMENTATION & CASE STUDY
Experimentation:
Examination of medicine
on rodents give accurate
and preside primary data
Ca...
MERIT & DEMERIT OF PRIMARY DATA
MERITS: The advantages of primary data are;
 Targeted Issues are addressed
 Data interpr...
SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data are those that have already been
exists and formerly collected by some persons,
organizatio...
SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA
• Published printed source
 Books
 Journals/periodicals
 Magazines/Newspapers
• Published Ele...
SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA
• Government Records
 Census Data/population statistics
 Health records

 Educational institu...
MERIT & DEMERIT OF SECONDARY DATA
 MERITS:
Quick and cheap source of data
Wider geographical area

Longer orientation ...
Mission of Pharmaceutical Companies
To improve the quality of life for patients around the

world, through the manufacturi...
RECOMMENDATION & CONCLUSION
I will recommend that Pharma company should prefer

to use data which is accurate, high quali...
REFRENCES
 Kothari CR, “Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques
”, New Age Publication
 Bryman, A. and E. Bell: 200...
Harikesh maurya
Harikesh maurya
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M.Pharm (Pharmacology), Persuing PhD in Kumaun University Nainital (UK), Have 3 year experience in the field of Clinical Research and 4 year experience in the field of academic research and lecturer.

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Harikesh maurya

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON COLLECTION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA By: Harikesh Maurya Department of Pharmacy K.U. Nainital (UK)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative values of a variable (e.g. numbers, images, words, figures, facts or ideas.). It is the lowest unit of information from which other measurements and analysis can be done. Data is one of the most important and vital aspect of any research study.
  3. 3. NEED OF DATA COLLECTION To get information for analysis To get idea about real time situation For comparison between two situations
  4. 4. SOURCES OF DATA Internal Sources External Sources Primary Data Secondary Data
  5. 5. PRIMARY DATA Data that has been collected from first-hand- experience is known as primary data. It has more reliable, authentic & not been published any where. Primary data has not been changed or altered by human beings, therefore its validity is greater than secondary data.
  6. 6. METHODS FOR COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA A. Observation Method B. Indirect Oral Interviews C. Questionnaire Method D. Survey Method E. Experimentation F. Case Study
  7. 7. A.DIRECT PERSONAL OBSERVATION STRUCTURED Observation UNSTRUCTURED PARTICIPATIVE NON-PARTICIPATIVE
  8. 8. B.INDIRECT ORAL INTERVIEW Standardized interviews a. Structured b. Unstructured Non-standardized interviews a. One to one  Face to face  Telephonic  Internet b. One to many (focus group)
  9. 9. C.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of question for the purpose of gathering information from respondent. Self administered Interviewer-administered Telephone Computer Assisted Postal or mail
  10. 10. D.SURVEY METHOD SURVEY: A detailed study of geographical area to gather data opinions, satisfaction level etc., by polling a section of the population. TYPES OF SURVEY  CENSUS SURVEY  REGULAR SURVEY  AD-HOC SURVEY
  11. 11. EXPERIMENTATION & CASE STUDY Experimentation: Examination of medicine on rodents give accurate and preside primary data Case study: The best example of collecting primary data through case study is… Pharmacovigilance
  12. 12. MERIT & DEMERIT OF PRIMARY DATA MERITS: The advantages of primary data are;  Targeted Issues are addressed  Data interpretation is better  High accuracy of Data  Addresses Specific Research Issues  Greater Control DEMERITS: Elevated cost, Time consuming, More number of resources is required, Inaccurate feed-backs and Requires a lot of skill with labour.
  13. 13. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data are those that have already been exists and formerly collected by some persons, organizations, institution etc. It is usually refined of the raw materials which passed through statistical process, may be available in published form. Any research starts with review of secondary data.
  14. 14. SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA • Published printed source  Books  Journals/periodicals  Magazines/Newspapers • Published Electronic Sources  e-journals  General websites  Weblogs • Unpublished Personal Records  Diaries  Letters Cont….
  15. 15. SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA • Government Records  Census Data/population statistics  Health records  Educational institutes records • Public Sector Records  NGO's survey data  Other private companies records
  16. 16. MERIT & DEMERIT OF SECONDARY DATA  MERITS: Quick and cheap source of data Wider geographical area Longer orientation period Leading to find primary data  DEMERITS: Not fulfill our specific research need Poor accuracy Data are not up-to-date Poor accessibility in some cases
  17. 17. Mission of Pharmaceutical Companies To improve the quality of life for patients around the world, through the manufacturing and distribution of trusted and branded pharmaceuticals in all the therapeutic segments. By developing high-quality of Pharmaceuticals specially designed for the ailing community in the countries considerably affordable price. at an
  18. 18. RECOMMENDATION & CONCLUSION I will recommend that Pharma company should prefer to use data which is accurate, high quality, current and advanced. Search for secondary data should be as such which reduce need of primary research. It is important for the Pharma company to identify, reduce and manage the disadvantages that are accompanied by use of secondary data.
  19. 19. REFRENCES  Kothari CR, “Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques ”, New Age Publication  Bryman, A. and E. Bell: 2003, Business Research Methods (Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York).  Dillman, Don A. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1978.  Galpin, T. The Use of Mail Questionnaires as a Method of Data Collection. (Sept, 1987)

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