COLLECTION OF PRIMARY
AND SECONDARY DATA
By: Harikesh Maurya
Department of Pharmacy
K.U. Nainital (UK)
Data can be defined as the quantitative or qualitative
values of a variable (e.g. numbers, images, words,
figures, facts or ideas.).
It is the lowest unit of information from which other
measurements and analysis can be done.
Data is one of the most important and vital aspect of
any research study.
NEED OF DATA COLLECTION
To get information for analysis
To get idea about real time situation
For comparison between two situations
SOURCES OF DATA
experience is known as primary data. It has more
reliable, authentic & not been published any where.
Primary data has not been changed or altered by
human beings, therefore its validity is greater than
METHODS FOR COLLECTION OF
A. Observation Method
B. Indirect Oral Interviews
C. Questionnaire Method
D. Survey Method
F. Case Study
A.DIRECT PERSONAL OBSERVATION
B.INDIRECT ORAL INTERVIEW
a. One to one
Face to face
b. One to many (focus group)
instrument consisting of a series of question for the
purpose of gathering information from respondent.
Postal or mail
SURVEY: A detailed study of geographical area to gather
data opinions, satisfaction level etc., by polling a section
of the population.
TYPES OF SURVEY
EXPERIMENTATION & CASE STUDY
Examination of medicine
on rodents give accurate
and preside primary data
Case study: The best example of collecting primary
data through case study is…
MERIT & DEMERIT OF PRIMARY DATA
MERITS: The advantages of primary data are;
Targeted Issues are addressed
Data interpretation is better
High accuracy of Data
Addresses Specific Research Issues
DEMERITS: Elevated cost, Time consuming, More number
of resources is required, Inaccurate feed-backs and
Requires a lot of skill with labour.
Secondary data are those that have already been
exists and formerly collected by some persons,
organizations, institution etc.
It is usually refined of the raw materials which passed
through statistical process, may be available in
Any research starts with review of secondary data.
SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA
• Published printed source
• Published Electronic Sources
• Unpublished Personal Records
SOURCE OF SECONDADRY DATA
• Government Records
Census Data/population statistics
Educational institutes records
• Public Sector Records
NGO's survey data
Other private companies records
MERIT & DEMERIT OF SECONDARY DATA
Quick and cheap source of data
Wider geographical area
Longer orientation period
Leading to find primary data
Not fulfill our specific research need
Data are not up-to-date
Poor accessibility in some cases
Mission of Pharmaceutical Companies
To improve the quality of life for patients around the
world, through the manufacturing and distribution of
trusted and branded pharmaceuticals in all the
therapeutic segments. By developing high-quality of
Pharmaceuticals specially designed for the ailing
community in the countries considerably
RECOMMENDATION & CONCLUSION
I will recommend that Pharma company should prefer
to use data which is accurate, high quality, current
and advanced. Search for secondary data should be
as such which reduce need of primary research.
It is important for the Pharma company to identify,
reduce and manage the disadvantages that are
accompanied by use of secondary data.
Kothari CR, “Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques
”, New Age Publication
Bryman, A. and E. Bell: 2003, Business Research Methods
(Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York).
Dillman, Don A. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total
Design Method. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
Galpin, T. The Use of Mail Questionnaires as a Method of Data
Collection. (Sept, 1987)