Affective computing by Sandeep Jadhav


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Affective computing by Sandeep Jadhav

  1. 1. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati. AFFECTIVE COMPUTING 1. INTRODUCTIONAffective computing gets its name from the field of Psychology, inwhich "affect" is, basically, a synonym for "emotion." Affective computing is human computer interaction inwhich a device has the ability to detect and appropriately respond toits users emotions and other stimuli. This type of computing devicecould gather clues from user emotion from a variety of sources.Facial expressions, posture, gestures, speech, the force or rhythm ofkey strokes and the temperature changes of the hand on a mouse canall signify changes in the users emotional state, and these can all bedetected and interpreted by a computer .The Affective Computingaims to bridge the gap between human emotions and computationaltechnology. This type of computing could offer benefits in an almostlimitless range of applications. The machine should interpret theemotional state of humans and adapt its behavior to them, giving anappropriate response for those emotions. Affective Computingresearch combines engineering and computer science withpsychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, sociology, education,psychophysiology, value-centered design, ethics, and more. We bringAffective Computing 1
  2. 2. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati.together individuals with a diversity of technical, artistic, and humanabilities in a collaborative spirit to push the boundaries of what canbe achieved to improve human affective experience with technology 2.NEEDS OF AFFECTIVE COMPUTING(1) Designing new ways for people to communicate affective-cognitive states, especially through creation of novel wearablesensors and new machine learning algorithms that jointly analyzemultimodal channels of information.(2) Creating new techniques to assess frustration, stress, and moodindirectly, through natural interaction and conversation.(3) Showing how computers can be more emotionally intelligent,especially responding to a persons frustration in a way that reducesnegative feelings.(4) Inventing personal technologies for improving self-awareness ofaffective state and its selective communication to others.(5) Increasing understanding of how affect influences personalhealth. and(6) Pioneering studies examining ethical issues in affectivecomputing.Affective Computing 2
  3. 3. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati. 3. APPLICATION OF AFFECTIVE COMPUTING3.1 Human-Computer interactionHuman–computer Interaction (HCI) involves the study, planning,and design of the interaction between people and computers. It isoften regarded as the intersection of computer science, behavioralscience, design and several other fields of study. Interaction betweenusers and computers occurs at the user interface or simply interface,which includes both software and hardware; for example, charactersor objects displayed by software on a personal computers monitor,input received from users via hardware peripheral s such as keywordsand mouse, and other user interactions with large-scale computerizedsystems Attention to human-machine interaction is important, becausepoorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to manyunexpected problems. One important HCI factor is that differentusers form different conceptions or mental models about theirinteractions and have different ways of learning and keepingknowledge and skillsAffective Computing 3
  4. 4. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati.3.2Detecting and recognizing emotional informationDetecting emotional information begins with passive sensor whichcapture data about the users physical state or behavior withoutinterpreting the input. The data gathered is analogous to the cueshumans use to perceive emotions in others. For example, a videocamera might capture facial expressions, body posture and gestures,while a microphone might capture speech. Other sensors detectemotional cues by directly measuring physiological data, such as skintemperature and galvanic resistance.3.3Emotion in machinesAnother area within affective computing is the design ofcomputational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotionalcapabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions.A more practical approach, based on current technologicalcapabilities, is the simulation of emotions in conversational agents inorder to enrich and facilitate interactivity between human andmachine. While human emotions are often associated with surges inhormones and other neuropeptides, emotions in machines might beassociated with abstract states associated with progress (or lack ofprogress) in autonomous learning systems .In this view, affectiveAffective Computing 2
  5. 5. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati.emotional states correspond to time-derivatives (perturbations) in thelearning curve of an arbitrary learning system.3.4Physiological monitoringThis could be used to detect a user’s emotional state by monitoringand analysing their physiological signs. These signs range from theirpulse and heart rate, to the minute contractions of the facial muscles.This area of research is still in relative infancy as there seems to bemore of a drive towards affect recognition through facial inputs.Nevertheless, this area is gaining momentum and we are now seeingreal products which implement the techniques. The three mainphysiological signs that can be analysed are: bood volumepulse,galvanic skin Responcse, facial Electromyography.Affective Computing 3
  6. 6. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati.3.5Wearable computerWearable computers are miniature electronic devices that are wornby the bearer under, with or on top of clothing. This class ofwearable technology has been developed for general or specialpurpose information technologies and media development. Wearablecomputers are especially useful for applications that require morecomplex computational support than just hardware coded logics.One of the main features of a wearable computer is consistency.There is a constant interaction between the computer and user, i.e.there is no need to turn the device on or off. Another feature is theability to multi-task. It is not necessary to stop what you are doing touse the device; it is augmented into all other actions. It can thereforebe an extension of the user’s mind and/or body.The developments of wearable computing now encompassesRehabilitation Engineering, Ambulatory intervention treatment, lifeAffective Computing 2
  7. 7. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati.guard systems, Defense wearable systems, and Event basedwearable3.6 Educational technologyEducation technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitatinglearning and improving performance by creating, using andmanaging appropriate technological processes and resources.Technology of education is most simply and comfortably defined asan array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing studentlearning and may be measured in how and why individuals behave.Educational technology is intended to improve education over what itwould be without technology. Some of the claimed benefits are listedbelow: Easy-to-access course materials. Instructors can post the course material or important information on a course website,Affective Computing 3
  8. 8. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati. which means students can study at a time and location they prefer and can obtain the study material very quickly.] Student motivation. Computer-based instruction can give instant feedback to students and explain correct answers. Moreover, a computer is patient and non-judgmental, which can give the student motivation to continue learning. Wide participation. Learning material can be used for long distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience Improved student writing. It is convenient for students to edit their written work on word processors, which can, in turn, improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know Subjects made easier to learn. Many different types of educational software are designed and developed to help children or teenagers to learn specific subjects. Examples include pre-school software, computer simulators, and graphics software Differentiated Instruction. Educational technology provides the means to focus on active student participation and to present differentiated questioning strategies. It broadens individualized instruction and promotes the development ofAffective Computing 2
  9. 9. P. R. Patil college of Management, Amravati. personalized learning plans. Students are encouraged to use multimedia components and to incorporate the knowledge they gained in creative ways.3.7 Potential applicationsIN e-learning applications, affective computing can be used to adjustthe presentation style of a computerized tutor when a learner isbored, interested, frustrated, or pleased. Psychological healthservices, benefit from affective computing applications whendetermining a clients emotional state . Affective computing sends amessage via color or sound to express an emotional state to others.Robotic system capable of processing affective information exhibithigher flexibility while one works in uncertain or complexenvironments..Affective computing is also being applied to thedevelopment of communicative technologies for use by people withautism.Affective Computing 3