Caption: Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach emphasizes the interaction across different systems in which people operate.
Intruduction of Psychology
Psychology Simply psychology is a science dedicated to the study of behaviorand mental process. Psychology is defined with the main threeimportant terms:- Science, Behavior and Mental process. Behavior can directly observed but mental process refers to thethoughts, feelings and motives which are not directly (physically)observable so for these observation we need the psychology. Psychology is that science which uses systematic method (scientific tools and techniques) to observe, describe, predict andexplain behavior and mental process of person. or it uses scientificmethod (to collect and interpret its data).
Psychology emerged as a science in 19thcentury influence by the three fields of studyphilosophy, biology and physiology. As asocial worker or social case worker he/shemust remark these key to study of person (client ) Motive Behavior Belief Wish Dream
psychology as Science ofmind, behavior, consciousness, subconscious processes and motivation According to psychologist they definedpsychology as Science ofmind, behavior, consciousness, subconsciousprocesses and motivation because, It studiesabout the human behavior and mental processwhich effect the person’s life span.
Science of mind: psychology contains scientificknowledge about observation, eventsmeasurement and experiments ofpersons mind and behavior. Psychologyhas general principles and law topredict them as accurately as possible.So it is called science of mind.
BehaviorPsychology studies about the personsbehavior related with the moments ofbody that could seen or heard behaviordepends on feelings, attitude andmental process which is also evaluatewith the scientific method.
consciousness, subconsciousprocesses and consciousness:According to Sigmund Freud person havethree steps of mindUnconscious, preconscious and conscious.we can study this theory detail inPsychodynamic theory this theorydeveloped on the basis of intensive clinicalstudies of individual cases-- women withhysterical symptoms in 1956. (ID EGO AND SUPEREGO )
Unconsciousness: This stage is beyond our awareness.In this stage of mind person can’t showpositive reaction and can’t make quitright observation. For example if someone fill sad..in this situation he don’tknow why he feel sadness. Next Ex.Dreams
Consciousness: In this stage of mind personcan show immediate reaction.This is a awareness stage personcan react it may negative orpositive. Ex.
subconscious processes/Precociousness: This level of mind contains all thoseelements that are not conscious butcan became conscious with facingsome problems or difficulties.Ex. If people have some problem at first he don’t know howthis happened but after some hard effort he may know thecause of problem.
ConclusionWith the help of this theory socialworker can identify the person’spsychological stage according to thatperson’s level of mind. Which helps toproblem solving process for the socialcase worker. Thus this theory isimportant in social work pactice.
Concept of social psychology social psychology studies to understandsociety or psychology of societies people.How they response themselves and with the others. This psychology is defined with the concept ofGordon Allport this psychology study foranalysis of impact. Social psychology concernwith How ?, why ?, in which situation ?incident washappened and what’s the impact of that incident. For ex: Maoist started civil war by using Magar people because Magarsare very simple people and when they get angry they never look anyother things they only see their goal. in this situation socialpsychology’s conclusion may be the anger of Maggar cast people used inthat war. Some terms are used in social psychology are as
Terms are used in social psychologyGroup behavior (behave of that group)Social perception (social view of point )Leadership ( team building)Non verbal behavior (religious and socialvalues which change the behavior )Conformity (Conformation of religiousvalues)Aggression (violent behavior )
Person in environment systemIt means that how the person affected byhis environment and what will be the cause orresult. To study of these things wefollow the ecological theory. By the studies of this ecological theoryin psychology, The social worker candetermine the environmental effect inperson’s problematic behavior. Which isimportant role for the Social worker inhis professional social work.
Schools of Psychology:Structural, functional, behaviorist Structuralism : Only observe physically andinterprets how the physical appearance shows.This is limited concept. Functionalism : To survive in that situation orenvironment person change his function to be abetter in that social environment.( astittoko lagibikas ) Behaviorism: John B. (1873-1953) : Buildingblocks of behavior means person learn behaviorwhich is response of human activities. To knowbehaviorism of person psychologist studied theanimals behavior as a mean.
Relevance of psychology for socialworkers social work is professional activity ofhelping people by utilizingknowledge, skills and values where weuse professional relationship forunderstanding people by looking othersactivities to solve the problem.
To understand the person or to study about thepersons behavior social worker concern in thesethings. How people do How people think How people feelThese things are use to evaluate social worker also.To observe and evaluate these terms we have onlyone social science that is psychology . Psychologycan study individuals and understand thinkingpattern of individuals or people . Thus psychologyhas important role in the field of professionalsocial work by these reason we can say psychologyis relevance for social worker.