NUCLEAR
CHEMISTRY
“A DRIVING ENERGY SOURCE“
NUCLEAR?
Even though the diameter
of the nucleus is in the
range
of 1.75 fm (1.75×10−15 m)
for hydrogen to
about 15 fm for...
NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE
The chemistry associated with any part of the nuclear fuel cycle including nuclear reprocessing.
The fu...
NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE
MINING

BACK END

‘IN PILE’
BEHAVIOUR

ORE
PROCESSING

FUEL
ENRICHMENT
MANAGEMENT
IN DRY
STORAGE

REPROCESSING
OF FISSION
PRODUCTS

BACK END
OF
NUCLEAR
FUEL CYCLE

DISPOSAL OF
WASTE INTO
UNDERG...
REPROCESSING OF FISSION
PRODUCTS
Reprocessing is removal of fissionable materials from products obtained from fission reac...
PUREX
“Plutonium URanium EXtraction”
PUREX is an acronym standing for Plutonium - URanium Extractionstandard aqueous nucle...
PUREX PROCESS
Dissolution in nitric acid
Addition of tributyl phosphate
 Treating with ferrous sulphamate
Dissolution in nitric acid
Addition of 7M nitric acid to irradiated fuel
Plutonium , Uranium and other soluble elements ...
Addition of tributyl phosphate
It is done to extract uranium and plutonium from rest of the mass.
An organic solvent com...
Structure of tributylphosphate
Treating with ferrous sulphamate
It is done to separate uranium and plutonium
Ferrous sulphamate in organic solvent, suc...
OTHER PROCESS
URanium EXtraction (UREX)
TRansUranium EXtraction (TRUEX)

DIAMide EXtraction (DIAMEX)
Selective ActiNid...
KEY POINTS
Liquid–liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a
method to separate compounds ...
Fusion
FUSION- „Small to Big‟
The process of combining two lighter nuclei into a stable heavier
nucleus with liberation of energy...
Fusion reactor
Fusion reactor is an arrangement where in fusion of nuclei takes place with the
release large amount of en...
ITER (International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor)
This is a major demonstration of
fusion’s potential which will so...
DEUTERIUM and TRITIUM: Main
Sources
Seeing the word deuterium ,everyone assumes it to be complicated
, but many don't kno...
Electrolysis of Deuterium Oxide
Electrode : Platinum
Electrolyte : D2O( Acidified heavy water)

Anodic reaction:

20 -2...
Electrolysis
Deuterium and tritium fuel cycle
(1)

2
1D

+ 3T
1

→ 4He
2

( 3.5 MeV

) + n0

( 14.1 MeV )

(2i)

2
1D

+ 2D
1

→ 3T
1

( 1.01 MeV

) + p+

( 3.02 MeV )
...
Different fuel cycles
D-D fuel cycle
Though more difficult to facilitate than the deuterium-tritium reaction, fusion can a...
3He
D-

fuel cycle

A second-generation approach to controlled fusion power involves
combining helium-3 (3He) and deuteriu...
11B
p-

fuel cycle

If aneutronic fusion is the goal, then the most promising candidate
may be the Hydrogen-1 (proton)/bor...
Will fusion energy be safe?
It is difficult to get the fusion reaction going in the first place that it
can be quickly st...
References
Girard, J.P., et al. 2007. ITER, safety and licensing. Fusion Engineering and Design 82(5-14): 506510. DOI: 10....
Thank You
Santosh M Naik 1RV12CV057 Roll no-21
Vinayaka B M 1RV12CV061 Roll no-24
F Section 2nd Sem
RVCE
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Nuclear chemistry

685 views
507 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
685
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nuclear chemistry

  1. 1. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY “A DRIVING ENERGY SOURCE“
  2. 2. NUCLEAR? Even though the diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.75 fm (1.75×10−15 m) for hydrogen to about 15 fm for the heaviest atoms, such as uranium, it has a complex chemistry behind it.
  3. 3. NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE The chemistry associated with any part of the nuclear fuel cycle including nuclear reprocessing. The fuel cycle includes: Mining Ore Processing Fuel Enrichment ‘In Pile’ Behavior(Use of fuel in reactor) Back End
  4. 4. NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE MINING BACK END ‘IN PILE’ BEHAVIOUR ORE PROCESSING FUEL ENRICHMENT
  5. 5. MANAGEMENT IN DRY STORAGE REPROCESSING OF FISSION PRODUCTS BACK END OF NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE DISPOSAL OF WASTE INTO UNDERGROUND
  6. 6. REPROCESSING OF FISSION PRODUCTS Reprocessing is removal of fissionable materials from products obtained from fission reactions. PUREX CHEMISTRY UREX CHEMISTRY TRUEX CHEMISTRY DIAMEX CHEMISTRY SANEX CHEMISTRY
  7. 7. PUREX “Plutonium URanium EXtraction” PUREX is an acronym standing for Plutonium - URanium Extractionstandard aqueous nuclear reprocessing method for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from used nuclear fuel. It is based on liquidliquid extraction ion-exchange. Invented by Herbert H. Anderson and Larned B. Asprey. Solvent Extraction Process for Plutonium and Uranium. Major reactant – TRIBUTYLPHOSPHATE
  8. 8. PUREX PROCESS Dissolution in nitric acid Addition of tributyl phosphate  Treating with ferrous sulphamate
  9. 9. Dissolution in nitric acid Addition of 7M nitric acid to irradiated fuel Plutonium , Uranium and other soluble elements dissolve Insoluble mass is removed as it affects further reactions by making emulsion stable
  10. 10. Addition of tributyl phosphate It is done to extract uranium and plutonium from rest of the mass. An organic solvent composed of 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon solvent, such as kerosene, is added . It extracts Uranium as UO2((NO3)2·2TBP complexes, and plutonium as similar complexes, from other fission products, which remain in the aqueous phase .  The transuranium elements americium and curium also remain in the aqueous phase.
  11. 11. Structure of tributylphosphate
  12. 12. Treating with ferrous sulphamate It is done to separate uranium and plutonium Ferrous sulphamate in organic solvent, such as kerosene, is added Plutonium reduces from +4 to +3 oxidation state and it passes into aqueous phase Uranium is separated through back extraction Ferrous sulfamate Fe(NH2SO3)2
  13. 13. OTHER PROCESS URanium EXtraction (UREX) TRansUranium EXtraction (TRUEX) DIAMide EXtraction (DIAMEX) Selective ActiNide EXtraction (SANEX)
  14. 14. KEY POINTS Liquid–liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. It is an extraction of a substance from one liquid phase into another liquid phase Back Extraction is a process where in equilibrium of the reaction is made to shift backward by decreasing the concentration of reactants.
  15. 15. Fusion
  16. 16. FUSION- „Small to Big‟ The process of combining two lighter nuclei into a stable heavier nucleus with liberation of energy “Producing power from fusion here on Earth is much more challenging than in the sun.”
  17. 17. Fusion reactor Fusion reactor is an arrangement where in fusion of nuclei takes place with the release large amount of energy . “Earthbound reactors cannot achieve the high pressures of the sun’s interior”, but this fact may be proved wrong after 10 years. Many experiments have been executed , but none were fruitful.
  18. 18. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) This is a major demonstration of fusion’s potential which will soon be built in southern France. Designed to reach a power level of 500 megawatts, ITER will be the first fusion experiment to produce long pulse of energy release on a significant scale. Fuels used : Deuterium, Tritium Equipment used : Magnetic confinement method in a device known as a Tokamak.
  19. 19. DEUTERIUM and TRITIUM: Main Sources Seeing the word deuterium ,everyone assumes it to be complicated , but many don't know that it is even present in water( in small quantity). Duetrium can be obtained through water electrolysis. Heavy water = Deuterium oxide D2O=2H2O Tritium, on the other hand, is radioactive and is extremely scarce in nature. That’s where lithium comes in. Simple nuclear reactions can convert lithium into the tritium
  20. 20. Electrolysis of Deuterium Oxide Electrode : Platinum Electrolyte : D2O( Acidified heavy water) Anodic reaction: 20 -2 Cathodic reaction: 4D+ + 4eNet reaction: 4D++ O22- O 2+4e2D2 D2+ O2
  21. 21. Electrolysis
  22. 22. Deuterium and tritium fuel cycle
  23. 23. (1) 2 1D + 3T 1 → 4He 2 ( 3.5 MeV ) + n0 ( 14.1 MeV ) (2i) 2 1D + 2D 1 → 3T 1 ( 1.01 MeV ) + p+ ( 3.02 MeV ) ( 0.82 MeV ) + n0 ( 2.45 MeV ) ( 3.6 MeV ) + p+ ( 14.7 MeV ) + 2 n0 + 2 p+ (2ii) (3) (4) (5) (6i) 2 1D 3 1T 3 2He 3 2He + + + + → 3He 2 3 → 4He 2He 2 3 → 4He 1T 2 3 4 2He → 2He 3 → 4He 1T 2 (6ii) (7i) (7ii) (7iii) (7iv) (8) (9) (10) 2 1D p+ + 6Li 3 + 3 2He + p+ + 6 3Li 6 3Li 11 5B → 4He 2 4 → 2He 2 → 3He 2 → 7Li 3 → 7Be 4 → 4He 2 4 → 2He 2 4 → 3He 2 + p+ ( 4.8 MeV + + + + ( + + n0 ) + 2D ( 9.5 MeV 1 + 11.3 MeV + 12.9 MeV + 12.1 MeV ) 22.4 MeV 4 2He p+ n0 1.7 MeV p+ + n0 ) + 3He ( 2.3 MeV 2 + 2.56 MeV + 5.0 MeV + 3.4 MeV ) + 16.9 MeV + 8.7 MeV
  24. 24. Different fuel cycles D-D fuel cycle Though more difficult to facilitate than the deuterium-tritium reaction, fusion can also be achieved through the reaction of deuterium with itself. This reaction has two branches that occur with nearly equal probability: D+D →T D+D → 3He + 1H +n
  25. 25. 3He D- fuel cycle A second-generation approach to controlled fusion power involves combining helium-3 (3He) and deuterium (2H). This reaction produces a helium-4 nucleus (4He) and a high-energy proton 3He +2H 4He
  26. 26. 11B p- fuel cycle If aneutronic fusion is the goal, then the most promising candidate may be the Hydrogen-1 (proton)/boron reaction: Proton fuses with boron-11 ,to produces helium-4 1H + 11B → 3 4He
  27. 27. Will fusion energy be safe? It is difficult to get the fusion reaction going in the first place that it can be quickly stopped by eliminating the injection of fuel , but engineers know how to control the first generation of fusion plasmas. Waste produced from this process is less radioactive and less harmful
  28. 28. References Girard, J.P., et al. 2007. ITER, safety and licensing. Fusion Engineering and Design 82(5-14): 506510. DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2007.03.017. Holtkamp, N. 2007. An overview of the ITER project. Fusion Engineering and Design 82(5-14): 427-434. DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2007.03.029. Magaud, P., G. Marbach, and I. Cook. 2004. Nuclear Fusion Reactors. Pp. 365-381 in Encyclopedia of Energy, Volume 4, ed. C.J. Cleveland. Elsevier Science: Oxford, U.K. DOI: 10.1016/B0-12-176480-X/00305-3. Wikipedia: Link-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PUREX
  29. 29. Thank You Santosh M Naik 1RV12CV057 Roll no-21 Vinayaka B M 1RV12CV061 Roll no-24 F Section 2nd Sem RVCE

×