http://eglobiotraining.com/• Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later purchased in 2005,[Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License. This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Androids primary app store, was 25 billion.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• These factors have allowed Android to become the worlds most widely used smart phone platform and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch. As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Androids open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Android had a worldwide smart phone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012,with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.
http://eglobiotraining.com/Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co- founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubins words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owners location and preferences". Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move. At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signalled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Speculation about Googles intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006.Reports from the BBC and the Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google- branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007,InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.• On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.[The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.[• Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest release is 4.2 Jelly Bean. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices—a line of smart phones and tablets running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus smart phone, the Nexus One. The series has since been updated with newer devices, such as the Nexus 4 phone and Nexus 10 tablet, made by LG and Samsung, respectively. Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices, demonstrating Androids latest software and hardware features.
http://eglobiotraining.com/ This is a list of features inthe Android operating system:
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Media supportAndroid supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM, H.263, H.264, AAC, HE- AAC (in 3GP or MP4 container), MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB (in 3GP container), MP3, MIDI,Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, WebP.• Streaming media support RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS, ISMA), HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by the Flash plugin. Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Android, and by the operating system in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).[• Additional hardware supportAndroid can use video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, dedicated gaming controls, proximity and pressure sensors,thermometers, accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation, scaling, pixel format conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics.• Multi-touch Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoid infringing Apples patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Google has since released n update for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.• BluetoothSupports A2DP, AVRCP, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Video callingAndroid does not support native video calling, but some handsets have a customized version of the operating system that supports it, either via the UMTS network (like the Samsung Galaxy S) or over IP. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2.3.4 and later. Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. This allows for enhanced VoIP dialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers. Skype 2.1 offers video calling in Android 2.3, including front camera support. Users with the Google+ android app can video chat with other google+ users through hangouts.• MultitaskingMultitasking of applications, with unique handling of memory allocation, is available.• AccessibilityBuilt in text to speech is provided by Talk back for people with low or no vision. Enhancements for people with hearing disabilities is available as is other aids.• Voice based featuresGoogle search through voice has been available since initial release. Voice actions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards.• TetheringAndroid supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fi hotspot.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• Screen captureAndroid supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and volume-down buttons at the same time. Prior to Android 4.0, the only methods of capturing a screenshot were through manufacturer and third-party customizations or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMS developers tool). These alternative methods are still available with the latest Android.• External storageMost Android devices include micro SD slot and can read micro SD cards formatted with FAT32, Ext3 or Ext4 file system. To allow use of high-capacity storage media such as USB flash drives and USB HDDs, many Android tablets also include USB A receptacle.
http://eglobiotraining.com/Usage share of Android versionsUsage share of the different versions as of February 5, 2013. Most Android devices to date still run the older OS version 2.3 Gingerbread that was released on December 6, 2010, due to most lower-end devices still being released with it.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• DevelopmentAndroid is developed in private by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available publicly. This source code will only run without modification on select devices, usually the Nexus series of devices. With many devices, there are proprietary components which have to be provided by the manufacturer, in order for Android to work.
http://eglobiotraining.com/• ApplicationsAndroid has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the applications APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Googles compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the users device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the users monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.
http://eglobiotraining.com/ Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plug in. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks. In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the Peoples Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.
http://eglobiotraining.com/Respecfully submitted to:Prof. Erwin M. Globio, MSIT
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