Dicision making skills and problem solving


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  • Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Good problem solving skills seldom come naturally; they are consciously learnt and nurtured.
  • Dicision making skills and problem solving

    1. 1. DECISION MAKING SKILLS AND PROBLEM SOLVING <ul><li>PRESENTED BY : </li></ul><ul><li>PRAMOD 11 </li></ul><ul><li>CHETAN 24 </li></ul><ul><li>APURV 29 </li></ul><ul><li>VIABHAV 37 </li></ul><ul><li>FARID 41 </li></ul><ul><li>SANTOSH 51 </li></ul>
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>How to Make Good Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Building Decision Making Skills </li></ul>
    3. 3. ELEMENTS IN MANAGERIAL DECISIONS <ul><li>Decision : A conscious choice among alternative courses of action. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the 3 elements are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A conscious choice among alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A course of action </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. APPROACHES TO DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Rational (Logical Approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to decide (Indecisive Approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive Approach </li></ul>
    5. 5. THE LOGICAL APPROACH <ul><li>Define the problem ( conditions and limitations ) and the set of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the problem: fact finding </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative solutions: brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the best solution </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the decision into action </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is Problem? <ul><li>Problem is a chance for you to do your best. </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is the difference between the actual state and desired state. </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is an opportunity for improvement. </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is Problem solving? <ul><li>Problem solving is a tool, a skill and a process. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a tool because it can help you to solve an immediate problem or to achieve a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a skill because once you have learnt it you can use it repeatedly, like the ability to ride a bicycle, add numbers or speak a language. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also a process because it involves a number of steps. </li></ul>
    8. 8. PATTERN OF PROBLEM SOLVING <ul><li>Describe the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Search out the cause, get the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Define the real problem and set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on the best solution </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul>
    9. 9. BUILDING DECISION MAKING SKILLS <ul><li>Be sure of your authority for making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibility fully </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish what's important </li></ul><ul><li>Make the decision at the time it is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert to signs of problems needing solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an open mind </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Don’t solicit advise but do consult your supervisor when a problem is beyond your ability to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that you are not part of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from your mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your decisions when carried out </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>OFF THE WALL THINKING – It is a simple process for group problem solving. It encourages Janusian thinking-seeing both sides of an idea. Its process : </li></ul><ul><li>…… Selecting a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>…… knowing the rules for the game </li></ul><ul><li>…… independent thinking – no talking </li></ul><ul><li>… ..group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>… ..group priority </li></ul>TECHNIQUES IN PROBLEM SOLVING
    12. 12. <ul><li>( 2) BRAINSTORMING – A formal session is held with a group of 5-7 people to generate many ideas.It is divergent thinking strategy </li></ul><ul><li>(3) SYNETICS – Greek word meaning “the fitting together of seemingly diverse elements”.it is based on premise that success in problem solving is increased by using non rational thought to lead to rational solutions. Three types of analogies are used – fantasy, direct analogy, personal analogy </li></ul><ul><li>(4) DIALECTIC APPROACH – under this approach propositions and counter propositions explicit or solution of a problem by taking for and against stands. </li></ul>.
    13. 13. Cont… <ul><li>(5) THINKING HATS METHODS – hat in this context means a particular state of mind. Wearing a hat means the thinker should focus on given problem exclusively in terms of atate of mind denoted by hat concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>White – hard facts, figures, and information </li></ul><ul><li>Red – Hunches, feelings and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Black – Negative logical faults,errors,inadequacies or risks </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow – positive values and benefits, hopes,dreams,wishes </li></ul><ul><li>Green – new ideas and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Blue – Synthesis, summaries, overviews and conclusions </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>… .select leader, group and place </li></ul><ul><li>… .state problem </li></ul><ul><li>… .individual thought </li></ul><ul><li>… .collect responses </li></ul><ul><li>… .examine ideas </li></ul><ul><li>… .suggest ways to reach conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>… .vote </li></ul><ul><li>… .report </li></ul>( 6) NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE – A structured group approach to develop ideas. Widely used in problem identification and prioritizing methods. Works best in small groups 8-12. it is similar to brainstorming ,except the fact that it is based on understanding that certain group goals can be best achieved by writing rather than by discussion.
    15. 15. (7) Delphi method – It is a survey of experts. …… a panel is constituted … ..given a short written explanation of problem … ..opinions collected and compared … ..Summary of results distributed … ..Step 2 repeated two or three times until final summary is prepared
    16. 16. CONCLUSION <ul><li>“ Most people spend more time and energy going around problems than in trying to solve them.” </li></ul>