Bio-medical waste, generated from a number of healthcare units, is
imparted necessary treatment to reduce adverse effects that this waste
Installation of individual treatment facilities by small healthcare units
requires comparatively high capital investment. In addition, it requires
separate manpower and infrastructure development for proper
operation and maintenance of treatment systems.
A Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility (CBWTF) is used
for treatment and disposal of BMW.
The concept of CBWTF not only addresses costs related problem but
also prevents proliferation of treatment equipment in a city.
By running the treatment equipment at CBWTF to its full capacity, the
cost of treatment of per kilogram gets significantly reduced.
Due to increase the population the amount of biomedical waste
generation also increased it requires attention .
Within the domain of municipal solid waste, biomedical waste
acquires a special dimension, since it is infectious and
It is capable of spreading disease or be harmful to individuals.
The amount of infectious waste is around 25% and non-
infectious wastes constitutes nearly 75%. In the absence of
proper segregation, the non-infectious waste becomes infectious
and poses environmental threat to the society.
An inappropriate treatment and disposal can spread infectious
diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis, enteric fever, HIV infection,
or even AIDS.
Color coding Types of
Yellow Plastic bag Human
Color coding Types of
Waste category Treatment option
Waste Sharps, Solid
waving / Chemical
Black Plastic bag Discarded medicines
and cytotoxic drugs,
Treatment and disposal of the biomedical waste shall be done
by the following methods
85% to 90% of the total BMW is treated by Incineration.
Incineration systems uses high temperature combustion under
controlled conditions to convert wastes containing infectious
and pathological material to inert mineral residues and gases.
Incineration is a process where the combustible waste is
reduced to exhaust gaseous products and the incombustible
waste is reduced to ash
The key parameter in an incinerator are
Temperature should be 900-1000*C .
The waste be exposed for at least two seconds
Incinerator should have the air pollution control
BRAND TYPE &MODEL Make controlled air Oil Fired Incinerator,
TYPE OF WASTE Bio-medical Waste
BURNING CAPACITY 100 kg/hr
Cyclone separator, Droplet Separator .
MODE OF WASTE
MODE OF ASH
DOORS 1 waste charging door in primary chamber
1 ash removal door in primary chamber
1 ash removal door in cyclone separator
OPERATING HOURS (Total Quantity) ÷ (Capacity/hr)+1-1 ½ hrs for
preheat & cooling of furnace
TYPE OF FUEL DIESEL
Approx.7 kW (AC3 phase, 400/440V, 50
8000C ± 500C
10500C ± 500C
The autoclave process is technology for the treatment of
microbiology laboratory waste, human blood any body fluid
waste, waste sharps and anatomical waste.
Autoclaving is a time-tested process of sterilization of medical
waste using high temperature and high pressure steam.
Typical operating conditions for an autoclave are a
temperature of at least 1210C at a pressure of 105 kPa for a
period of atleast 1hour.
Effective sterilization results in the destruction of bacteria,
virus, spores, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms.
Shredders are used to destroy plastic and paper waste to
prevent their reuse.
After autoclaving the plastic waste is sent to the shredder.
The shredded waste is sold out to authorized plastic molding
Only waste that is disinfected should be used in a shredder.
This reduces the bulk of waste making transportation easy.
Shredder have a set of revolving blades/shafts, which cut the
waste into small pieces.
Maintainance costs is high.
Incineration ash - Secured landfill.
Treated solid waste - Municipal landfill
Sharps, after disinfection ( if encapsulated ) - Municipal
Treated wastewater - Sewer/drain or recycling)
Oil & grease - incineration
Reduction in public health hazard.
Decrease in pollution emissions.
Lower collection, treatment, and overall healthcare
The Bio-Medical Waste generated from the hospitals and all
other source will be treated without polluting the environment.
In warangal 90% BMW is treated by The incineration process.
All the above treatment and disposal process is done within the
norms of CPCB & guidelines.
The remaining material after incineration is safely disposed
according to the CPCB guidelines.
Incineration of Bio-Medical Waste is one of the techno-
economical viable scheme, which have many advantages such as
significant volume reduction, weight reduction & also ability to
manage most types of wastes with little processing before
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