IC Packaging


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This document provides an overview of IC packaging techniques

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IC Packaging

  1. 1. IC Packaging By, SANTOSH NIMBAL
  2. 2. Contents● Objective● Package Overview● Through-Hole package● Surface mount package● Chip-Scale Package (CSP) ○ Wire Bonded BGA ○ FC-BGA● Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package (WL-CSP)● Advantages of WL-CSP IC
  3. 3. Objective● To discuss and understand the various packaging technologies. ○ WCSP package ○ PBGA package etc● Learn advantages and disadvantages of different packaging types. IC
  4. 4. Package Overview● Development of IC package is a Dynamic technology.● From mobile telecommunication and satellite broadcasting to aerospace and automotive applications each imposes its own demands on electronic package.● To meet such diverse range of requirements, IC package range encompasses over 30 different types.● An overview of this range is shown in fig. 1 IC
  5. 5. Package OverviewFig. 1 :Packageclassification IC PACKAGING IC
  6. 6. Through-Hole mount Package Fig. 2 :Through-Hole Packages IC
  7. 7. Through-Hole mount Package● Refers to the mounting scheme that involves the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes (PTH - Plated Through-Hole) drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side.● Provides strong mechanical bonds when compared to surface-mount techniques, the additional drilling required makes the boards more expensive to produce.● These techniques are now usually reserved for bulkier components such as electrolytic capacitors, that require the additional mounting strength. IC
  8. 8. Surface mount Package IC PACKAGINGFig. 3 :Surface Mount Packages IC
  9. 9. Surface mount Package● In SMT the components are mounted directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards.● It has largely replaced the through-hole technology.● SMT component is usually smaller than its through-hole counterpart because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all. It may have short pins or leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls (BGAs).● Advantages● Smaller components.● Fewer holes need to be drilled through abrasive boards. IC
  10. 10. Surface mount Package● Components can be placed on both sides of the circuit board.● Lower resistance and inductance at the connection......● Disadvantages● The manufacturing processes for SMT are much more sophisticated than through-hole boards.● SMDs cant be used directly with breadboards.● SMDs solder connections may be damaged by potting compounds going through thermal cycling.● And so on.... IC
  11. 11. Chip-Scale Package (CSP)● CSP is a type of integrated circuit chip carrier.● Definition, is a single-die, direct surface mountable package with an area of no more than 1.2 X the original die area..● Definition likewise doesnt define how a chip scale package is to be constructed, so any package that meets the surface mountability and dimensional requirements of the definition is a CSP, regardless of structure. For this reason, CSPs come in many forms - flip-chip, wire- bonded, ball grid array, leaded, etc. IC
  12. 12. Wire-Bonded BGA● BGA is an acronym for Ball Grid array, as the name suggests its array of balls aligned to grids.● Bond pads from top level layout padring are stitched to external pad frame with Gold Bond Wires.● Further these pins are connected to balls through conductor traces on interpose substrate. Fig. 4 :Wire bond BGA Package (cross section) IC PACKAGING IC
  13. 13. Wire-Bonded BGAFig. 5 :Wire bond BGA Package IC
  14. 14. Flip Chip - BGA● In Flip Chip BGA the chip/die is flipped, bond pads in padring layout are connected to external ball grid array via conductor traces on layered substrate.● During packaging solder bumps are formed on bondpads which align and make contact with conductor traces when flipped.● Flip-chip packaging techniques connect die bond pads to a package substrate without using wirebonds. The bumped die is placed on the package substrate where the bumps connect to the package pins/balls. IC
  15. 15. Flip Chip - BGA Fig. 7 :Flip chip BGA construction and Substrate cross section Fig. 8 :In this gold stud bump, the gold ball has been pressed flat on the bond pad, with the wire stub protruding from the top of the bump. IC
  16. 16. Flip Chip - BGA● Advantages● Lower inductance power planes support high frequency designs● Supports higher pin counts than wirebond packages● Improved current distribution providing more ability to minimize IR drops (power is distributed through top metal layer metal bumps) IC
  17. 17. Flip Chip - BGAFig. 9 :Difference between Wire Bond CSP and FC IC
  18. 18. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package (WL-CSP) ● In this type of technology packaging is done at the Wafer level, and then dicing is performed . Fig. 10 :Comparison between Conventional CSP and WLCSP IC
  19. 19. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package ● WLP allows direct connection, without wires, to a printed circuit board by inverting the die and connecting by solder balls. ● WLP chips are manufactured by building up the package interconnect structure directly on the silicon circuit substrate. ● A dielectric repassivation polymer film is applied over the active wafer surface. This film provides both mechanical stress relief for the ball attachment, and electrical isolation on the die surface. ● Here CSP can be expanded as Chip-SIZE Package. IC
  20. 20. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package Fig. 11 :WLP layers IC
  21. 21. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package ● Wafer level package is different from FC, as FC requires the presence of Interposer substrate . Interposer Substrate FC-BGA WLCSP Fig. 12 :Comparison between WLCSP and FC IC
  22. 22. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package Evolution of Silicon Wafer in size Fig. 13 :Evolution of Silicon wafer in size IC
  23. 23. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package ● Advantages of WLP ● WLP are a small package size, a minimized IC to PCB inductance and shortened manufacture cycle time. ● Lighter weight and thinner package profile due to elimination of lead frame and molding compound. ● No under-fill required. Economical. ● Draw backs : Very high I/O IC’s would require very small solder balls on a very tight pitch. Requires very high density PCB to interconnect-expensive. ● All the IC’s (good and bad) are packaged at the wafer level IC
  24. 24. Wafer Level Chip-Scale Package Thank You IC
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