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India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
India US Nuclear deal
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India US Nuclear deal


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  • 1. Global Implications of the U.S.-India Nuclear Deal Sheryll Poe U.S.-Global Trade Politics October 30, 2008
  • 2. Two Democracies: U.S. and India
    • In July 2005, President Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh issued a joint statement announcing their intent to negotiate a civil nuclear pact
    Photo credit: White House
  • 3. The history of India’s nuclear program
    • 1950: The United States helped India develop nuclear energy under the Atoms for Peace Program
    • 1968: India refused to sign the NPT, claiming it was biased. (only 3 countries in the world never signed NPT -- India, Pakistan, and Israel. North Korea signed but withdrew later)
    • 1974: India tested its first nuclear bomb made with materials from the Canadian reactor in Tarapur, which supposed to be used only for civilian purpose
  • 4. What are the terms of the deal?
    • India agrees to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities and place its civil facilities under IAEA safeguards
    • The use of technology is only for civilian purpose -- to create energy. India cannot use the technology for military purpose
    • India commits to strengthening the security of its nuclear arsenals.
    • The companies from U.S and NSG countries will be allowed to build nuclear reactors in India and provide nuclear fuel for its civilian energy program
  • 5. What kind of technology would India receive in return?
    • India would be eligible to buy nuclear technology from NSG countries including the USA.
    • Nuclear reactors and fuel for making power for energy hungry India
    • India will become the only country that gets nuclear technology without signing the NPT
  • 6. Who hated it in India and why?
    • The national Communist Party
    • The Right wing Bharatiya Janata Party, the country's principal opposition party
    • A principal Left wing party
    Photo credit: Gurinder Osan, AP
  • 7. What were the objections in the U.S. and NSG?
    • Some American law makers
    • Some countries in NSG – Austria, New Zealand, Ireland and China
    • The main objection is proliferation – India refuses to sign on to NPT
    • “ It is outrageous that such a critical vote, one that will forever change the global nonproliferation regime, was taken without the benefit of full Congressional review and oversight, as required by the law. This is a terrible bill that threatens the future of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime.” – Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) before the House approval on September 27, 2008.
    Photo credit: Boston Herald
  • 8. So why do it?
    • A share of India's plans to spend $150 billion in the next decade for nuclear power plants
    • A counterweight to China
    • A strategic partnership in a dangerous part of the world
    • Partner in the war against terrorism
    • In recognition of India’s good record on proliferation
    • “ This agreement sends a signal to the world: Nations that follow the path of democracy and responsible behavior will find a friend in the United States of America.” – President Bush at the October 8, 2008 signing of the U.S.-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act
    Photo credit: White House
  • 9. Where the candidates stand
    • “ I voted for the U.S.-India nuclear agreement because India is a strong democracy and a natural strategic partner for the U.S. in the 21st century.” – Barrack Obama to Reuters, July 11, 2008
    • “ India has been a responsible democracy and this agreement allows it to become further integrated into the global effort to control proliferation of dangerous technologies.” – John McCain campaign statement, October 2, 2008
    Photo credit: candidate sites
  • 10. Outstanding Issues
    • Nuclear rivalries – with Pakistan, China, Iran
    • Other NSG countries – France, Russia -- will sell to India and shut out the U.S.
    • Undermines the NPT and shows the rules can be bent for sales to other non-signatories
    • New Delhi has not ratified an international nuclear accident liability convention known as the CSC.
  • 11. What can the U.S. do?
    • Work with other NSG members on becoming joint suppliers – France, Russia, even China
    • Work with the UN to keep an eye on Pakistan, Iran
    • Create a new NPT treaty that more accurately reflects the realities of today
    • Provide technical assistance to help India become a good nuclear partner
    • Create a nuclear FTA with other countries
    • Create a US watchdog group involving agencies, Congress and non-proliferation experts
  • 12. Final Thought
    • “ What message does that send to others who want to join the nuclear club?”
    • -- Sen. Byron Dorgan, D-N.D.
  • 13. Sources
    • Adams, Jonathan. “International community split over U.S.-India nuclear deal.” The Christian Science Monitor . August 21, 2008.
    • Bajoria, Jayshree; Pan, Esther. “The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal.” The Washington Post . September 4, 2008.
    • Denyer, Simon. “Factbox: U.S.-India Nuclear Deal Business Potential.” Reuters. October 2, 2008.
    • “ India Civil Nuclear Cooperation: Responding to Critics.” The White House Office of the Press Secretary. March 2006.
    • Kronstadt, K. Alan. “India U.S. Relations.” Congressional Research Service. Updated August 12, 2008.
    • Kushner, Adam B. “How India’s New Nuke Deal Might Set Off an Arms Race.” Newsweek . October 20, 2008.
    • “ More Than Just the 123 Agreement: The Future of U.S.-Indo Relations.” Congressional hearing of the House Foreign Relations Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia. June 25, 2008.
    • Page, Jeremy. “India parliament launches nuclear debate in vote that could break Government.” The India Times. July 22, 2008.
    • Perkovich, George. “Faulty Promises: The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal.” Policy Outlook, No. 21. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. September 2005.
    • Tomero, Leonor. “Why the U.S. India Nuclear Deal is a Bad Deal.” Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. August 2008.
    • “ US business hails $150 bn'opportunity' in N-deal.” The Economic Times . October 2, 2008.