• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
P Ositioning

P Ositioning



relating marketing

relating marketing



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



0 Embeds 0

No embeds


Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

P Ositioning P Ositioning Presentation Transcript

  • POSITIONING The art of reaching consumers’ mind, remaining there successfully!
    • Brand Name
      • Any word, “device” (design, sound, shape,
      • or color), or combination of these
      • used to identify an offering
      • and set it apart from competing offerings.
    • Brand Equity
      • The added value a brand name bestows on a
      • product or service beyond the functional
      • benefits provided.
  • Positioning
    • The art of firmly fixing the brand in the minds of the consumers using a relevant benefit as the binder
    • What comes to mind when you say “ATM”?
      • Automated Teller Machine
    • What does “ATM” mean to the customer
      • “Any Time Money”
    • Thus the product is ATM and
    • “ Any Time Money” is its positioning!
  • Positioning Offerings Positioning Strategies
    • By attribute or benefit
    • By price and quality
    • By use or application
    • By user
    • By product or service class
    • Against competition
  • Positioning Offerings
    • What position do we want to own?
    • What competitors must be outperformed if we are to establish the position?
    • Do we have the marketing resources to occupy and hold the position?
    Making the Positioning Strategy Decision
  • Positioning Task
    • Three stages
      • identifying a set of possible competitive advantages upon which to build a position
      • choosing the right competitive advantages
      • selecting an overall positioning strategy.
    • Then, effective communication for delivery of the chosen position to the market
  • Choosing a Positioning strategy
    • For some firms, positioning strategy is easily found
      • firm well-known for quality in certain segments will go for this quality-position in new segments,
      • if enough buyers seeking quality.
    • Two or more firms may go after the same position in the same segment
      • Each will have to find other ways to differentiate itself from the other(s)
      • Each will have to create a unique bundle of benefits to a substantial group of buyers within the same segment
  • Our Motorcycle situations
    • First determine the specific place of the product in relation to a particular situation
      • Five situations
        • Youngster’s bike
        • Power rider’s bike
        • Royal bike
        • Family man’s bike
        • Woman’s bike
  • Differentiation variables
      • Product
        • features
        • performance
        • durability
        • reliability
        • repairability
        • style
        • design
  • Differentiation variables
      • Service
        • delivery
        • installation
        • customer support
  • Differentiation variables
      • Personnel
        • competence
        • courtesy
        • credibility
        • reliability
        • responsiveness
        • communication
  • How many differences to promote?
    • Single-benefit positioning is usually best
      • best quality
      • lowest price
      • best value
      • most reliable
    Helps to gain “positioning intensity”
  • Reaching consumer’s mind
    • People tend to remember # 1, because this is age of information overload!
    • Pick an attribute and tout yourself as number one on that attribute
    • But, what if you are # 2 or # 3?
    • If you are not # 1
      • strengthen current position
      • grab an unoccupied position
      • deposition or reposition the competition
      • achieve the largest size within a segment
      • exclusive club strategy
  • Positioning errors
    • under positioning -
      • buyers don’t think anything special about the brand - crystal pepsi
    • over positioning -
      • exclusive image makes volumes suffer
    • confused positioning
      • too many claims and positioning changes
    • doubtful positioning
      • unbelievable positioning stance
  • Perceptual Mapping Exercise Opportunity? Chocolate Crunch Hershey’s w/ Almonds Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Nestlé Crunch KitKat
  • Positioning by attribute
      • Associate a product with an attribute, a product feature, or a customer feature
      • A new product can be positioned with respect to an attribute ignored by competitors
      • Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously
      • The price/quality attribute dimension is commonly used for positioning products as well as stores
  • Example of Positioning by Attributes Topol, Rembrandt Colgate, Crest Ultra Brite, McCleans Aim, Stripe Principal Brands  Stain prevention  Plaque prevention  Price  Decay prevention  Fresh breath  Whiteness of teeth  Color  Flavor Adults Family Teens, Young Adults Children Toothpaste Attributes Market Segments
  • Product Positioning
    • Positioning by use or application
      • Products can have multiple positioning strategies, although increasing the number involves difficulties and risks
    • Positioning by product user
    • Positioning by product class
    • Positioning by competitors
      • The major purpose is to convince consumers that a brand is better than the market leader on important attributes
  • Positioning maps
    • A visual depiction of consumers’ perceptions of competitive products, brands, or models
    • Constructed by surveying consumers about various product attributes and developing dimension and a graph indicating the relative position of competitors
    • Can give marketers a sense of how their brands are perceived by consumers relative to competitors and suggest positioning strategies
  • Positioning of Different Bar Soaps “ Product Space” Representing Consumers’ Perception for Different Brands of Bar Soap Nondeodorant Deodorant High moisturizing Low moisturizing 1 2 4 5 7 8 6 3
    • Zest
    • Lever 2000
    • Safeguard
    • Dial
    • Lifebuoy
    • Lava
    • Lux
    • Dove
    • Tone
  • Positioning with advertising requires setting "Perceptual Objectives" -20 Perceived Economy Si 10 0 20 -10 -20 -10 0 10 20 5 5 9 11 Perceived Performance
  • Positioning Maps
  • Repositioning
    • Old products
    • Emergence of new usage
    • New competitor
    • New regulations
    • New forms
    • New price structure
    • Line extension
    • Clashing product
    • Arrival of a new boss
  • Repositioning
    • Increasing relevance to the consumer - McDonald’s
    • Increasing occasions for use - Brush twice
    • Search for a viable position - Complan
    • Making the brand serious - Cadbury’s / Saffola
    • Falling sales - Ambassador / Red Label
    • Bring in new users - Red Eveready / J & J Baby Oil
    • Make the brand contemporary - Chyawanprash
    • Differentiate form other brands - Minto
    • Changed market conditions - Milkmaid
    • “Everything has been thought of before…, but the problem is to think of it again!”
      • Johann Von Goethe
        • German poet