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Dengue eng

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A brief introduction to what Dengue is and how to prevent it.

A brief introduction to what Dengue is and how to prevent it.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

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  • 傳播途徑:登革熱病毒只能存在於人、猴及病媒蚊體內。
    「登革熱」主要經由帶病毒蚊子(花腳蚊),在叮咬人時,將病毒傳染給人。如果病者在剛發燒前至退燒期內(大約六至七日)被蚊叮,病毒也會傳給花腳蚊,成為帶病毒蚊子。毒蚊的傳染力可維持至其死為止,甚至經受感染的卵而傳給下一代(香港傳染病醫學會,1999)。不過與患者接觸是不會被傳染的。
  • 給予支緩性治療,登革熱患者要多休息、補充水份及按醫囑服藥,大約一個星期後就能逐漸康復,不會有後遺症;嚴重者或有出血傾向時則需要輸血或使用皮質類固醇。
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1
    • 2. Dengue Fever What is it? Mode of transmission Symptoms and treatment Prevention 2
    • 3. What is Dengue Fever? • Dengue fever, also know as breakbone fever, is an acute communicable disease caused by virus. • Infectious agent: Dengue viruses (categorize into types 1,2,3,4) 3
    • 4. 4
    • 5. The Situation Worldwide • About 50 million cases annually worldwide • Incidence of dengue fever highest in tropical and subtropical regions • Recent increase in disease activity worldwide 5
    • 6. 6 Regions with dengue fever
    • 7. Alarming 80% rise in dengue cases this year Times of India Published on 21 Aug 2013 Durgesh Nandan Jha, TNN | Aug 21, 2013, 07.51 AM IST NEW DELHI: Dengue cases have risen alarmingly across the country this year, with data showing an 80% rise in the disease till July 31 as compared to the same period last year. India has recorded 15,983 dengue cases so far in 2013 as compared to 8,899 cases in the corresponding months last year, latest health ministry data shows. But the good news is, while the cases have risen sharply, fatalities have actually declined - 56 as compared to 76 last year. Kerala reported most dengue cases at 5,801, followed by Karnataka (3,775), Tamil Nadu (3079) and Maharashtra (961) till end-July. Delhi witnessed a sharp rise in cases over the last few weeks, with the total this year touching 54. No one has died due to dengue in the capital so far. 7
    • 8. DENGUE CASES - INDIA 8
    • 9. Vector Aedes albopictus The life cycle of a vector mosquito is divided into the 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult 9
    • 10. 10
    • 11. Habitual Behaviour of Aedes Albopictus (1) • Usually breed in stagnant water • Usually active in dark or shaded places outdoors, but indoor activity is also possible 11
    • 12. Habitual Behaviour of Aedes Albopictus (2) • Female mosquitoes feed on human blood. • They are most active 2 hours before sunset (around 5pm to 6pm) and at around 8am to 9am. • Where do they sting? Outdoors and indoors. 12
    • 13. Mode of Transmission • A healthy person gets the disease when he is bitten by an infected mosquito. The virus enters his blood from the mosquito’s saliva. • An infected person could transmit the virus to mosquitoes if he is bitten by a mosquito anytime from the onset to the subsidence of the fever (a period of about 6 to 7 days). The disease is then spread by mosquitoes. • Dengue fever is not spread by contact with infected persons. 13
    • 14. Transmission Infected mosquito Healthy person Incubation Period: 3 to 14 days Most commonly 4 to 7 days Infected person 14
    • 15. Types Classical dengue Dengue haemorrhagic fever 15
    • 16. 16
    • 17. Symptoms of Classical Dengue (1) • Fever: continuous for 3 to 5 days • Severe headache • Painful limbs, joint pain, muscle pain, back pain, pain behind eyeballs 17
    • 18. Symptoms of Classical Dengue (2) •Rash appears on the 3rd to 4th day after onset. •Nausea, vomiting. •Slight gum bleeding and nasal bleeding. •Extreme fatigue and depression may follow recovery. • In very rare cases, the condition may worsen into dengue haemorrhagic fever, leading to haemorrhage, shock or even death. 18
    • 19. Treatment (1) • At present, there is no drug that can treat dengue fever effectively. Patients infected with classical dengue usually recovers in 1 to 2 weeks. • For serious cases, supportive treatments are provided by hospitals. • If you suspect that you have dengue fever, you should seek medical treatment promptly. 19
    • 20. Treatment (2) • Wiping the body with warm water and proper use of anti-fever drugs like Crocin that can relieve the fever. • Don’t take aspirincontaining drugs because they worsen the haemorrhage. 20
    • 21. Platelets are required in Dengue 21
    • 22. Blood Transfusion 22
    • 23. Protect Yourself against Dengue Fever As yet, there is no effective vaccine against dengue fever. Therefore, the best prevention is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by paying attention to the following: •Avoid staying in dark, outdoor places such as brushwood, pavilions or the shade of a tree during the hours when Aedes albopictus is active. 23
    • 24. Control the Spread of Dengue Fever Prevent the patient from being bitten by mosquitoes. 24
    • 25. Prevention of Mosquito Bites Avoid going out in the hours when Aedes albopictus feed or wear light-coloured, long-sleeved clothing and trousers. 25
    • 26. Prevention of Mosquito Bites Your place of accommodation should have air-conditioners or mosquito nets. Otherwise, hang mosquito screens around your bed, use insecticides or coil incenses to repel mosquitoes. 26
    • 27. Prevention of Mosquito Bites Install mosquito nets to doors and windows so that mosquitoes can’t get in. 27
    • 28. Elimination of Mosquitoes The most effective way to eliminate mosquitoes is to keep the environment clean and to remove stagnant water so that mosquitoes can’t breed. 28
    • 29. Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes Albopictus (1) Artificial containers: Vases, saucers underneath flower pots, trays underneath airconditioners, buckets, jars and jugs of earthenware, cement troughs, dumped tyres and solid wastes such as cans, disposable cups and bowls, and plastic bags. 29
    • 30. Possible Breeding Grounds of Aedes Albopictus (2) Natural containers: The hollow space inside a bamboo, hollows of a tree and the rachis of a leaf. 30
    • 31. Elimination of Mosquitoes Cover water containers tightly so that mosquitoes can’t get in to lay eggs. 31
    • 32. Elimination of Mosquitoes • Dispose of domestic wastes properly to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. • Dispose of empty bottles, cans and lunchboxes properly, such as into a covered bin. 32
    • 33. Elimination of Mosquitoes •Change water for vases and aquatic plants at least once a week, leaving no water under the pots or in the bottom saucers. •Scrub the container surfaces thoroughly to 33
    • 34. Elimination of Mosquitoes Remove or puncture any dumped tyres to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. 34
    • 35. Elimination of Mosquitoes Ditches should be free from blockage. 35
    • 36. Elimination of Mosquitoes Fill up uneven ground surfaces to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. 36
    • 37. Elimination of Mosquitoes Remove stagnant water immediately if mosquitoes are found to be breeding. Use environmentally friendly insecticides such as lavicidal oil if necessary. 37
    • 38. Elimination of Mosquitoes In cultivation ponds, water tanks or large containers, biological controls such as keeping fishes to eat mosquito larvae would be a good option. 38
    • 39. Black Spots of Mosquito Breeding • Garden / gardening corner / saucers underneath flower pots / aquatic plants • Truckshop • Rubbish collection stations / Scrapyard • Ditches • Toilets • Water tanks / pools 39
    • 40. Mosquito Elimination Checklist (1) • Are containers and other items where water could accumulate disposed of properly? (For example, throwing empty cans, foam rubber boxes, cups and bottles into a covered bin.) • Are water containers covered properly? 40
    • 41. Mosquito Elimination Checklist (2) • Are ditches free from blockage? • Are containers with stagnant water cleaned regularly? (For example, vases, saucers underneath flower pots, water storage device of an airconditioner, water tanks and pools.) • Are uneven ground surfaces filled to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water? 41
    • 42. See Doctor Immediately •Having been bitten by a mosquito and displaying symptoms of dengue fever afterwards 42
    • 43. If you suspect that you have dengue fever, the most important thing to do is to see a doctor. 43
    • 44. Let’s remove stagnant water and eliminate mosquitoes 44
    • 45. 45