2. Dengue Fever
What is it?
Mode of transmission
Symptoms and treatment
3. What is Dengue Fever?
• Dengue fever, also know as
breakbone fever, is an acute
communicable disease caused by
• Infectious agent: Dengue viruses
(categorize into types 1,2,3,4)
5. The Situation Worldwide
• About 50 million cases annually
• Incidence of dengue fever highest in
tropical and subtropical regions
• Recent increase in disease activity
Regions with dengue fever
7. Alarming 80% rise in dengue cases this year
Times of India
Published on 21 Aug 2013
Durgesh Nandan Jha, TNN | Aug 21, 2013, 07.51 AM IST
NEW DELHI: Dengue cases have risen alarmingly across the country this
year, with data showing an 80% rise in the disease till July 31 as compared
to the same period last year.
India has recorded 15,983 dengue cases so far in 2013 as compared to
8,899 cases in the corresponding months last year, latest health ministry
data shows. But the good news is, while the cases have risen sharply,
fatalities have actually declined - 56 as compared to 76 last year.
Kerala reported most dengue cases at 5,801, followed by Karnataka (3,775),
Tamil Nadu (3079) and Maharashtra (961) till end-July. Delhi witnessed a
sharp rise in cases over the last few weeks, with the total this year touching
54. No one has died due to dengue in the capital so far.
8. DENGUE CASES - INDIA
The life cycle of a vector mosquito is divided
into the 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult
11. Habitual Behaviour of
Aedes Albopictus (1)
• Usually breed in stagnant water
• Usually active in dark or shaded
places outdoors, but indoor activity is
12. Habitual Behaviour of
Aedes Albopictus (2)
• Female mosquitoes feed on human blood.
• They are most active 2 hours before sunset
(around 5pm to 6pm) and at around 8am to
• Where do they sting?
Outdoors and indoors.
13. Mode of Transmission
• A healthy person gets the disease when he is
bitten by an infected mosquito. The virus enters
his blood from the mosquito’s saliva.
• An infected person could transmit the virus to
mosquitoes if he is bitten by a mosquito
anytime from the onset to the subsidence of the
fever (a period of about 6 to 7 days). The
disease is then spread by mosquitoes.
• Dengue fever is not spread by contact
with infected persons.
Incubation Period: 3 to 14 days
Most commonly 4 to 7 days
17. Symptoms of
Classical Dengue (1)
• Fever: continuous for 3 to 5 days
• Severe headache
• Painful limbs, joint pain, muscle
pain, back pain, pain behind
18. Symptoms of
Classical Dengue (2)
•Rash appears on the 3rd to 4th day after onset.
•Slight gum bleeding and nasal bleeding.
•Extreme fatigue and depression may follow
• In very rare cases, the condition may worsen
into dengue haemorrhagic fever, leading to
haemorrhage, shock or even death.
19. Treatment (1)
• At present, there is no drug that
can treat dengue fever
effectively. Patients infected with
classical dengue usually
recovers in 1 to 2 weeks.
• For serious cases, supportive
treatments are provided by
• If you suspect that you have
dengue fever, you should seek
medical treatment promptly.
20. Treatment (2)
• Wiping the body with warm
water and proper use of
anti-fever drugs like Crocin
that can relieve the fever.
• Don’t take aspirincontaining drugs because
they worsen the
21. Platelets are required in Dengue
22. Blood Transfusion
23. Protect Yourself against
As yet, there is no effective vaccine against
dengue fever. Therefore, the best prevention is
to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by paying
attention to the following:
•Avoid staying in dark, outdoor places such as
brushwood, pavilions or the shade of a tree
during the hours when Aedes albopictus is
24. Control the Spread of
Prevent the patient from being
bitten by mosquitoes.
25. Prevention of
Avoid going out in the hours
when Aedes albopictus feed
or wear light-coloured,
long-sleeved clothing and
26. Prevention of
Your place of
have air-conditioners or
mosquito nets. Otherwise,
hang mosquito screens
around your bed, use
insecticides or coil
incenses to repel
27. Prevention of
Install mosquito nets
to doors and windows
so that mosquitoes
can’t get in.
28. Elimination of Mosquitoes
The most effective way
mosquitoes is to
keep the environment
clean and to remove
stagnant water so that
29. Possible Breeding Grounds of
Aedes Albopictus (1)
Vases, saucers underneath flower
pots, trays underneath airconditioners, buckets, jars and jugs of
earthenware, cement troughs, dumped
tyres and solid wastes such as cans,
disposable cups and bowls, and plastic
30. Possible Breeding Grounds of
Aedes Albopictus (2)
The hollow space inside a bamboo,
hollows of a tree and the rachis of a
31. Elimination of Mosquitoes
Cover water containers
tightly so that
mosquitoes can’t get in
to lay eggs.
32. Elimination of Mosquitoes
• Dispose of domestic
wastes properly to
• Dispose of empty bottles,
cans and lunchboxes
properly, such as into a
33. Elimination of Mosquitoes
•Change water for vases
and aquatic plants at
least once a week,
leaving no water under
the pots or in the
•Scrub the container
surfaces thoroughly to
34. Elimination of Mosquitoes
Remove or puncture any
dumped tyres to prevent
the accumulation of
35. Elimination of Mosquitoes
Ditches should be free from blockage.
36. Elimination of Mosquitoes
Fill up uneven ground surfaces to prevent the
accumulation of stagnant water.
37. Elimination of Mosquitoes
water immediately if
mosquitoes are found
to be breeding. Use
such as lavicidal oil if
38. Elimination of Mosquitoes
In cultivation ponds,
water tanks or large
controls such as
keeping fishes to eat
would be a good
40. Mosquito Elimination
• Are containers and other items where
water could accumulate disposed of
(For example, throwing empty cans,
foam rubber boxes, cups and bottles
into a covered bin.)
• Are water containers covered properly?
41. Mosquito Elimination
• Are ditches free from blockage?
• Are containers with stagnant water
(For example, vases, saucers underneath
flower pots, water storage device of an airconditioner, water tanks and pools.)
• Are uneven ground surfaces filled to
prevent the accumulation of stagnant
42. See Doctor Immediately
•Having been bitten by
a mosquito and
of dengue fever
43. If you suspect that you have
dengue fever, the most
important thing to do is to
see a doctor.
44. Let’s remove stagnant water
and eliminate mosquitoes