Introduction to routers
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Introduction to routers

on

  • 1,472 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,472
Views on SlideShare
1,472
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
56
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Introduction to routers Introduction to routers Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Routers Chapter 2
  • Introduction to Routers
    • Objectives:
      • Describe the purpose of the IOS
      • Describe the basic operation of the IOS
      • Identify Features of IOS
      • Identify Methods of Establishing the CLI session with the router
      • Move between the user command executive (EXEC) and Privileged EXEC modes
      • Establish a HyperTerminal Session
      • Log into the Router
      • Use the Help feature in the CLI
      • Troubleshoot Command Errors
  • Operating Cisco IOS Software
    • A router or switch can not function without an operating system.
    • Cisco nternetwork Operating System ( IOS) is the software that controls the Routing and Switching Functions of internetworking devices.
    • It is installed in all Cisco routers and Catalyst switches.
  • The Purpose of the IOS
    • Basic Routing and Switching Functions
    • Reliable and Secure access to Networks Resources.
    • Network Scalability
  • Cisco IOS software features
    • Cisco IOS devices have three operating environments:
      • ROM Monitor
        • To recover from system failures and recover a lost password
      • Boot ROM
        • To modify the Cisco IOS image in Flash
      • Cisco IOS
        • Normal startup
  • Router User Interface
    • Cisco IOS software uses a Command Line Interface (CLI)
    • The CLI environment is accessible
      • Through a console session (No network configuration is required)
      • Dial-up connection
      • Telnet connection as a virtual terminal.
  • Starting a Router
    • Initial startup of Cisco Routers
      • POST
      • Bootstrap is loaded from ROM
      • IOS is loaded from flash, TFTP, RMON
      • Config is loaded from NVRAM or TFTP into setup mode
  • Establish a Console Session
    • To establish a Hyper Terminal Session
      • Connect the terminal with an RJ-45-to-RJ45 Rollover cable or
      • RJ45-to-DB-9 or
      • RJ45-to-DB-25 Adapter
  • Router User Interface
    • The Cisco CLI uses a hierarchical structure.
    • Cisco IOS Software provides a command interpreter service known as EXEC
    • EXEC Access Levels:
      • User EXEC Mode
      • Privileged EXEC mode
  • Router Login
    • User EXEC mode
    • Privileged EXEC mode
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • History Size
    • To change the number of command lines the system records during a terminal session, use the terminal history size or the history size command.
      • The maximum number of commands is 256.
  • Router Interfaces
    • LAN Interfaces – Ethernet, FastEhternet, Token- Ring
    • Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
    • Router(config)#interface fa 0/0
    • Router(config)#interface to 0
    • Router(config-if)#
    • Wide-area Interfaces - Serial, AUX, ISDN BRI
    • Router(config)#interface serial 0
    • Router(config-if)#
    • Logical Interfaces
    • Router(config)#interface serial 0.1
    • Router(config-if)#
  • LAN Interfaces
    • Ethernet
      • Many routers – 15-pin AUI Ethernet interfaces – require an external transceiver
      • The AUI interface is a standard for Cisco 2500 series routers. Some of them have both types – AUI and 10BaseT Ethernet
    • Fast-Ethernet
      • Common interfaces on Cisco routers are RJ45 and the 40-pin DB-40 Media-Independent Interface (MII)
      • 100 Mbps speed, half- and full-duplex
    • Token-Ring
      • Set the ring speed of the interface
      • Connect the token-ring interface to a MAU
  • WAN Interfaces
    • Synchronous Serial Interface
      • Cable types – V.35 or RS-232
      • Configure the proper encapsulation type
      • Use “show controllers” command to check if the interface acts as a DTE or DCE
      • If the interface is acting as a DCE – supply a clock rate
        • Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000
  • Other WAN Interfaces
    • ATM Interfaces
      • Operate at OC-3 speeds and higher
      • Configuring PVCs
    • ISDN Interfaces
      • Two different type of interfaces - the ISDN BRI and ISDN PRI
      • Both interfaces must establish communications with the ISDN switch before passing data
    • Asynchronous Interfaces
      • The AUX (Auxiliary) port on a Cisco router can be configured as an asynchronous port
      • Support dial-in modems
  • Router Interfaces States
    • Interface X is down, line protocol is down
    • Interface X is up, line protocol is down
    • Interface X is up, line protocol is up
    • Interface X is administratively down, line protocol is down
    • The first listing refers to the physical layer status of the interface. To troubleshoot the physical layer issue – show controllers
    • The second listing reflects the data-link status. UP – UP state reflects a successful sending and received keepalives.
  • DTE and DCE interfaces
    • DTE and DCE status is determined by the configuration of the cables attached to the interface.
    • Router#show controllers serial 0
    • …………… V.35 DTE Cable
    • Router#show controllers serial 1
    • …………… .V.35 DCE Cable, clockrate 56000
    • Router#show controllers serial 2
    • …………… , No cable
  • Cable connection
    • Router Ethernet 10BaseT interface to a 10BaseT hub or LAN switch – straight through cable
    • One router Ethernet interface to another router Ethernet interface – crossover cable
    • Direct connection between PC with Ethernet interface to a router Ethernet interface – crossover cable