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Hardware & softwares

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  • 1. Hardware and Software Chapter 2
  • 2. Learning Objectives
      • Identify and discuss the role of the essential hardware components of a computer system.
      • List and describe popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each.
      • Outline the role of the operating system and discuss how operating systems have evolved over time.
      • Identify and briefly describe the functions of the two basic kinds of software.
  • 3. Computer System Components Math calculations Access, decode, coordinate instructions Hold program instructions and data
  • 4. Hardware Components in Action
    • Instruction phase
      • Step 1: Fetch instruction
      • Step 2: Decode instruction
    • Execution phase
      • Step 3: Execute the instruction
      • Step 4: Store the results
  • 5. Execution of an Instruction
  • 6. Processing and Memory Devices
  • 7. Processing Characteristics and Functions
    • Machine cycle time: Time to execute the instruction phase
    • Clock speed:
      • Rate at which electronic pulses are produces.
      • Measured in MHz
    • Wordlength
      • Bit (Binary digiT): 0 or 1
      • Unit for moving data
      • Wordlength: The number of bits a CPU can process in a unit time
      • 32-64 bit processors
  • 8. Moore’s Law
    • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months
  • 9. Number of Bytes
  • 10. Types of Memory (1)
    • Random access memory (RAM)
      • Volatile
      • Extended Data Out (EDO) RAM
      • Dynamic Ram (DRAM)
      • Synchronous DRAM:
        • Faster transfer speed between memory and processor
  • 11. Types of Memory (2)
    • Read-only memory (ROM)
      • Non-volatile
      • Permanent data and instructions from manufacturer
      • Types
        • PROM: Programmable
        • EPROM: Erasable programmable
  • 12. Basic Types of Memory Chips
  • 13. Secondary Storage and Output Devices
  • 14. Cost Comparisons for Various Forms of Data Storage
  • 15. Secondary Storage Access Methods
    • Sequential access
      • Access in the same order it was written
      • Ex: Need to access memory location 5. Then, you need to go through 1, 2, 3, and 4 first.
    • Direct access
      • Directly access the location
      • Faster than sequential access
    • Sequential access storage devices (SASD)
    • Direct access storage devices (DASD)
  • 16. Secondary Storage Devices (1)
    • Magnetic tapes: Similar to audio tapes, SASD
    • Magnetic discs: Hard disk, DASD
    • RAID: Redundant array of independent inexpensive disks
      • Data stored more than once in one of the disks
      • Even if one disk fails, data can still be retrieved
    • SAN: Storage area network
      • Consist of many storage devices
    • Optical discs, DASD
      • CD-ROM
  • 17. Secondary Storage Devices (2)
    • Magneto-optical discs
    • Digital versatile discs (DVD): Up to 17 GB storage
    • Memory cards
      • Installed in a slot
      • Portable
    • Expandable storage: Removable disk cartridges
      • Portable
      • Zip drives
  • 18. Types of Secondary Storage
  • 19. Hard Disc
  • 20. Storage Area Network
  • 21. Digital Versatile Disc Player
  • 22. Expandable Storage
  • 23. Comparison of Secondary Storage Devices
  • 24. Input Devices
    • Personal computer input devices
      • Keyboard
      • Mouse
    • Voice-recognition devices
      • Microphone
      • Software to convert voice into bits
    • Digital computer cameras
      • Record images and video
    • Terminals
      • Connects to a powerful server for computations
    • Scanning devices
      • Page
      • Handheld
    • Touch-sensitive Screens
  • 25. A PC Equipped with a Computer Camera
  • 26. Output Devices
    • Display Monitors
      • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
      • Wide
      • Lights up pixels
    • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
      • Flat panel
    • Printers and Plotters
      • Speed measured in pages (page printed per minute)
    • Music Devices
      • MP3 Players
  • 27. Laser Printer
  • 28. Types of Computer Systems
  • 29. Overview of Software
  • 30. Overview of Software
    • Computer programs: Sequences of instructions
    • Documentation: Describe program functions
    • Systems software: Coordinate the activities of the hardware
    • Computer system platform:
      • Hardware configuration + systems software
    • Application software: Programs that help users with certain tasks
  • 31. Classifying Software by Type and Sphere of Influence
  • 32. Systems Software
  • 33. Operating Systems
    • Perform common computer hardware functions
      • Ex: Get input from keyboard
    • Provide a user interface
      • Command-based user interface (ms-dos)
      • Graphical-user interface (windows)
    • Provide a degree of hardware independence
      • Application program interface
    • Manage system memory
      • Convert logical view to physical view
  • 34. Operating Systems
    • Manage processing tasks
      • Allocate computer resources
      • Multitasking (run more than once application at a time)
      • Time-sharing (allow multiple access to a system)
    • Provide networking capability
      • Enable connection to the Internet
    • Control access to system resources
      • Authentication
    • Manage files
      • Access to files
  • 35. Role of the Operating System
  • 36. Application Program Interface
  • 37. An Example of the Operating System Controlling Physical Access to Data
  • 38. Popular Operating Systems
  • 39. Workgroup Operating Systems
    • Windows 2000 Server
    • Unix
    • Netware
    • Red Hat Linux
    • Mac OS X Server
  • 40. Consumer Appliance Operating Systems
    • Windows CE .NET
    • Windows XP Embedded
    • Handheld PC
    • Pocket PC
    • Palm OS
  • 41. Application Software
  • 42. Sources of Software
  • 43. Proprietary and Off-the-Shelf Software
  • 44. Examples of Personal Productivity Software
  • 45. TurboTax
  • 46. Quicken
  • 47. Word Processing Program
  • 48. Spreadsheet Program
  • 49. Database Program
  • 50. Graphics Program
  • 51. Software Suites
  • 52. Enterprise Application Software
  • 53. Use of Integrated Supply Chain Management Software
  • 54. Selected Enterprise Resource Planning Vendors
  • 55. Summary of Programming Languages
    • First: Computer interactions written in machine code
      • Machine language
    • Second:
      • Abbreviations for common operations
      • Assembler converts code to machine language
      • Assembly language
    • Third
      • Instructions are English-like
      • Compliers convert code to machine language
      • Fortran: Good for scientific computing
      • Cobol: Good file handling
      • Java: Good for Web applications
  • 56. Summary of Programming Languages
    • Fourth
      • Even easy for non-programmers
      • Tell what to do, not how to do it
      • Focus, Powerhouse
    • Visual Programming Languages
      • Point-and-click
      • Drag-and-drop
      • Useful for user interfaces
      • Visual Basic, Visual C++
    • Object-oriented Languages
      • Objects contain data, methods to operate data
      • C++, Java
  • 57. Summary
    • Hardware devices work together to perform input, processing, data storage, and output.
    • There are two main categories of software: systems software and application software.
    • An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware to support users’ computing needs.
    • Application software may be proprietary or off-the-shelf.
    • There are five generations of programming languages, plus object-oriented programming languages.

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