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HIV/AIDS and Infectious Diseases: Prevalence and Attitudes Among U.S. Latinos...

HIV/AIDS and Infectious Diseases: Prevalence and Attitudes Among U.S. Latinos

Dr Li Loriz, PhD, ARNP, BC, Director, School of Nursing, University of North Florida

July 22, 2005 - UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminar

This is part 6 of an 8 part series of seminars on Hispanic Health Issues brought to you by the University of North Florida’s Dept. of Public Health, College of Health, a grant from AETNA, and the cooperation of Duval County Health Department.

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Aetna Presentation HIV/AIDS and Latinos Aetna Presentation HIV/AIDS and Latinos Presentation Transcript

  • HIV/AIDS and Infectious Diseases: Prevalence and Attitudes Among U.S. Latinos Dr Li Loriz, PhD, ARNP, BC Director, School of Nursing College of Health University of North Florida
  • Description of Latinos
    • Largest ethnic/racial minority group in the US (13% of the population)
    • Mexican Americans -60%
    • Puerto Ricans -15%
    • Cuban Americans -10%
    • Other Immigrants -15%
      • Dominican Republic
      • Central America
      • South America
  • Prevalence of HIV/AIDS
    • Latinos represent 14% of the US population
    • 20% cases of AIDS cases are Latinos (8,000+)
      • This percentage has increased from 18% in 1993
    • 19% of deaths due to AIDS
    • HIV is the 2 nd cause of death for Latino males 35-44 (5 th for White men)
  • Prevalence of HIV/AIDS
    • HIV is the 4 th cause of death for Latinas aged 35-44 and 25-34 (9 th and 8 th for White women)
    • Latino teens account for 21% of new AIDS cases
    • AIDS rate is five times more for Latinas than for White women
    • Latinos are more likely to test later in their illness than any other racial group
  • Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • Latinos are twice as likely to have gonorrhea or syphilis
    • Among minorities, Latinas report the second highest number of cases of gonorrhea
    • Latinos are at High-Risk of contracting the hepatitis C virus
  • HIV Transmission in Latinos
    • Males
      • 42% men who have sex with men
      • 34% contaminated syringes
      • 8% heterosexually
    • Females
      • 38% contaminated syringes
      • 47% sex with HIV positive male
  • Opinions on Key Issues
    • 40% view HIV/AIDS as the most urgent health problem in the US
    • 64% consider the problem to be more urgent problem for the country than a few years ago
    • 7 in 10 state AIDS is a problem for someone they know
    • 53% are personally concerned about becoming infected
  • Information Needed
    • 64% want more information about HIV/AIDS
    • Most want guidance on how to talk about HIV transmission with their children
    • 33% want more information on how to wear condoms
  • Misperceptions
    • HIV is transmitted through kissing
    • You can become infected by touching a toilet seat or sharing a drinking glass
    • 50% Inner city women stated using a diaphragm or having sex with a man who has had a vasectomy are successful ways of preventing HIV infection ( Hobfoll, 1994 )
    • Unprotected sex means having sex with someone that you do not know.
  • Beliefs
    • There is a cure for HIV, but not for AIDS.
    • HIV/AIDS is an agent of genocide created by the US government
    • HIV resulted from laboratory experiments that got out of control
    • There is a cure for HIV, but the government is withholding this information from minorities
    • AIDS is a disease that affects gays and foreigners
    • Essien,E. J., Meshack, A, and Ross,M (2002)
  • Barriers to Prevention
    • More than 1 in 5 Latinos live in poverty
    • Reluctance to acknowledge risky behaviors (males)
    • Reluctance to discuss condom use (females)
    • Barriers to access to appropriate health care
      • Stigma
      • Funding
      • Racial discrimination
      • Fear of deportation
      • Cultural and language insensitivity
      • Weak or fragile community-based capacity
  • Barriers to Prevention
    • Machismo-female passivity, male dominance and virility
      • Reduce safer sex practices and negatively influence
    • Marianismo-women maintain traditional gender roles
  • Barriers to Prevention
    • Lack of sex and health education at home and school
      • Abstinence and virginity until marriage
      • Sexual knowledge promotes sexual activity
    • Prohibition of contraceptive use by the Catholic Church
  • Barriers to Prevention
    • Latinas
      • Most approaches used to prevent HIV are based on men who have sex with men
      • View Latinas as not a “risk group” (being married protects them from infection)
      • Have other priorities and focus on HIV when it has a demonstrated impact on role in family
      • Ability to negotiate safer sex is difficult
  • Prevention for Latino Youths
    • School-based programs are critical before behaviors are established
    • Comprehensive programs with a focus on delaying sexual behavior and how sexually active can protect themselves
    • Community-based programs to reach out-of-school youth
    • Address sexual and drug-related risk
    • STD treatment
  • Prevention for HIV Drug Users
    • Needle prevention programs
    • Drug treatment programs
    • Use community outreach programs to reach drug users on the streets
    • Improve access to quality substance abuse treatment centers
    • HIV prevention programs in jails and prisons
    • Education on safe injection use.
  • Prevention Programs
    • Routine HIV testing as part of medical care
    • New models for diagnosing HIV infections outside medical settings
    • Preventing HIV infections by working with HIV-infected persons and their partners
    • Decreasing perinatal transmission
  • Specific Prevention Strategies
    • Encourage adherence to antiretroviral therapy
      • Decreased concentration in semen
      • Decreased maternal-fetal transmission
    • Dual approach to risk reduction
      • Abstinence/safer sex practices
      • Discontinuation of drug use/safer use practices
  • Specific Prevention Strategies
    • Disseminate prevention information through community organizations that represent and promote family life and health.
    • Tailor public information messages to emphasize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the family unit.
    • Market health promotion programs in a way that barriers originating in family structures are eliminated
  • Culturally Sensitive HIV Prevention
    • Show respect for community
    • Hire culturally appropriate workers who speak the language
    • Provide services in culturally appropriate atmosphere
    • Develop peer-education training programs
    • Address survival needs
    • Promote confidentiality and anonymity
    • Include lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities
    • Do not make assumptions based on appearances
    • Post hours of operation and accept walk-in appointments
  • THANK YOU