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UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars: Brief Review...

UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars: Brief Review

Dr. Judith Rodriguez, RD and Daniel Santibanez, MPH, RD, Department of Public Health, University of North Florida

September 23, 2005 - UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars

This is part 8 of an 8 part series of seminars on Hispanic Health Issues brought to you by the University of North Florida’s Dept. of Public Health, College of Health, a grant from AETNA, and the cooperation of the Duval County Health Department.

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Aetna Presentation Final Overview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. UNF Hispanic Health Issues Seminars: Brief Review Dr. Judith Rodriguez, RD Daniel Santibanez, MPH, RD University of North Florida Department of Public Health This is part 8 of an 8 part series of seminars on Hispanic Health Issues brought to you by the University of North Florida’s Dept. of Public Health, College of Health, a grant from AETNA, and the cooperation of the Duval County Health Department.
  • 2. Regional Distribution
    • Puerto Rican
    • Dominican
    • Central American
    • South American
    • Cuban
    • Central American
    • South American
    • Puerto Rican
    • Mexican
    • Central American
    • South American
    US Census Bureau 2003 14% 33% 45% 8%
  • 3. Hispanic Demographics
    • The largest minority group
    • Hispanics are a young, fast growing population
    • Larger families
    • Lower high school graduation rates
  • 4.
    • Self identity differs
    • Discrimination: One in three (31%) Latinos report they or someone close to them has suffered discrimination in the past five years; more (45%) report experiencing more subtle forms
    Hispanic Demographics (cont.)
  • 5. Hispanic Behaviors and Diversity
    • Demographic Complexity
        • Nativity status
        • US Born vs. Foreign Born
    • Hot – cold theory of disease
    • Spiritualism, Santeria and Fatalism
  • 6. Hispanic Behaviors and Diversity (cont.)
    • Problems spiritual in nature are treated with prayer and ritual
    • Influence of luck and God
  • 7. Discussion
    • What information about demographics and/or regional distribution was new to you?
    • What information have you used/has been especially helpful?
  • 8. Lifespan
    • Latino children in the U.S. are at extremely high risk for adverse health effects
    • Latino women have the highest birth and fertility rates of any other group in the U.S. and are faced with many challenges
    • Latino elders are more likely to report being in poor health, experience more restricted activity, and have more difficulty performing ADLs
  • 9. Obesity
    • Obesity prevalence is higher among:
      • African-American Females, Hispanic Americans (esp. Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans), Native Americans and Asians/Pacific Islanders
    • The associations of poverty, acculturation, exercise, and diet to BMI implicate societal as well as individual contributors to obesity among U.S. Latinos.
  • 10. Obesity (cont.)
    • Hispanics in Florida:
    • Prevalence of Overweight 58.1
    • Prevalence of Obesity17.1
    • Longer duration of residence in U.S. is associated with higher BMI
  • 11. Diabetes
    • Complications (heart disease, stroke, hypertension, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system, amputation, dental disease, pregnancy)
    • Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 1.5 times higher in Latinos than non-Latino whites
    • Two million or 8.2% of all Latino Americans aged 20 years or older have diabetes
  • 12. Diabetes (cont.)
    • In the United states among those between ages 45 – 74:
    • 24% of Mexican Americans have diabetes
    • 26% of Puerto Ricans have diabetes
    • 16% of Cuban Americans have diabetes
  • 13. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Heart disease the primary cause of mortality/death among Latinos
    • Heart disease and stroke claims the lives of 30% or more Latinos each year.
    • Total deaths rates for Mex Am:
    • about 29% for men
    • about 27% of women
  • 14. Cardiovascular Disease (cont.)
    • Risk factors and facts
    • MA men have higher TG & lower HDL
    • Genes account for 30-45% of difference in lipid profiles
    • Sedentary lifestyles (exercise & diet)
    • More years of immigration = more obesity
  • 15. Cancer
    • Hispanics’ risk of cancer can differ based on whether they are U.S. born or foreign-born, country of origin or heritage, degree of acculturation, and socioeconomic status
    • Hispanics/Latinos tend to underutilize cancer screening procedure for several reasons
  • 16. Cancer (cont.)
    • Compared to rates in the U.S:
    • Lower incidence rates of breast, colon and rectum, lung, and prostate cancers in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Central and South American countries than in the U.S.
    • Higher incidence rates of cervical, liver, and stomach cancers
  • 17. Discussion
    • What interrelationships do you see among obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer?
    • Is there one “take home message” about these conditions that you think you can use in your work with Hispanics?
  • 18. HIV/AIDS
    • 20% cases of AIDS cases are Latinos (8,000+) This percentage has increased from 18% in 1993
    • 19% of deaths within Latinos are due to AIDS
  • 19. HIV/AIDS (cont.)
    • HIV is the 2 nd cause of death for Latino males 35-44 (5 th for White men)
    • Latino teens account for 21% of new AIDS cases
    • AIDS rate is five times more for Latinas than for White women
  • 20. HIV/AIDS (cont.)
    • Transmission in Latinos
    • Males
      • 42% men who have sex with men
      • 34% contaminated syringes
      • 8% heterosexually
    • Females
      • 38% contaminated syringes
      • 47% sex with HIV positive male
  • 21. Environmental Health
    • Latino children disproportionately exposed to toxins, air pollutants, hazardous chemical waste, pesticides, and lead
    • In 2002, over 1.7 million Latinos reported that they currently have asthma
    • High risk due to overrepresentation of Latino workers in the more hazardous occupations and industries
  • 22. Substance Abuse
    • Smoking and Hispanics/Latinos
    • Lower rates of smoking than other groups, but Asian Americans
    • Hispanic women: Smoking rates were much lower than those among females of other races
    • Smoking by gender In 2002: 10.8 % women / 22.7 % men
  • 23. Substance Abuse (cont.)
    • Smoking and Hispanics/Latinos
    • Variations in smoking rates among Hispanic subgroups. In 2002: 27.2 % Puerto Ricans (highest), 10.7 % of Central-South Americans (lowest)
    • In 2002, 9.1 percent of Hispanic middle school students smoked.  Relatively equal to other racial/ethnic groups
    • Hispanics were less likely to attempt to quit
  • 24. Substance Abuse (cont.)
    • Alcohol and Hispanics/Latinos
    • Hispanic young people are more likely to drink and to get drunk at an earlier age
    • Alcohol use contributes to the three leading causes of death among Hispanic 12-20-year-olds: unintentional injuries, homicide and suicide
    • Hispanic high school students are more likely to report riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking
  • 25. Mental and Emotional Health
    • Latinos living in their countries of origin have less rates of mental disorders than those that migrate to the US (due to strong social networks)
    • Acculturative stress a factor for immigrants
    • Barriers to care include stigma, language, and access to mental health services
  • 26. Infectious Diseases
    • Latinos are twice as likely to have gonorrhea or syphilis
    • Among minorities, Latinas report the second highest number of cases of gonorrhea
    • Latinos are at High-Risk of contracting the hepatitis C virus
  • 27. Discussion
    • Which of these issues (environmental health, substance abuse, mental and emotional health, infectious diseases) is most relevant to your work?
    • What information about any of those presentations did you find most useful?
  • 28. Next Steps
    • What do you think would be most helpful now for you – in terms of seminars, information, programmatic approaches?
    • If we were to develop a follow up to this project (seminars) what do you think it should include?
  • 29. References
    • The references for the information provided on this summary is in the earlier presentation packets.
  • 30. Thank you!
    • Aetna
    • University of North Florida, Dept. of Public Health
    • Duval County Health Department
    • Northeast Florida AHEC
    • Mr. Daniel Santibanez
    • Mr. Juan C. Henao
    • You – the attendees!