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  • Great article. Thanks for the info, very helpful. BTW, if anyone needs to fill out a CA DMV DL 44, I found a blank form here: "" and also here "DMV Form ID Card"
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Fireengineering200901 dl

  2. 2. The newest vehicle in the Spartan Chassis line-up offers purpose-built value unattainable on commercial chassis. Satisfy your desires and your budget by configuring the NFPA- compliant Furion® fire truck cab/chassis to provide the greatest value for your community. 0901FE_C2 C2 1/7/09 8:57:32 AM
  3. 3. Enter 100 at 0901FE_1 1 1/7/09 8:57:39 AM
  4. 4. Got a PPE Problem? NFPA 1971 (Structural Fire Fighting) and NFPA 1992 (Liquid Splash) compliant. Also available in a 12” Zipper/Speed Lace. Built with CROSSTECH® footwear fabric for performance unmatched by any other waterproof, breathable barrier. CROSSTECH®, GORE® and designs are trademarks of W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. GLOBE FOOTGEAR products are sold by Globe Footwear, LLC. GLOBE and designs are trademarks of Globe Holding Company, LLC. 0901FE_2 2 1/7/09 8:57:41 AM
  5. 5. PROBLEM : STIFF, POOR-FITTING BOOTS HURT YOUR FEET AND YOUR PERFORMANCE. Unique cement construction combines contoured outsole, 3D lasting board with built-in flex zone, and multi-layer composite puncture protection. Without stiff welts, ribbed midsoles, or steel plates, this attachment process is far more flexible than traditional welt construction. Globe FootGear has been tested to withstand 1,000,000 flexes with no compromise in performance. SAY GOODBYE TO HEAVY, STIFF, MILITARY-CONSTRUCTION BOOTS FOREVER – GLOBE FOOTGEAR IS HERE. REMARKABLY FLEXIBLE WITH A UNIQUE CUSHIONED AND CONTOURED SOLE AND CUSTOM FIT SYSTEM, GLOBE FOOTGEAR FITS BETTER, GRIPS BETTER, AND FEELS BROKEN IN RIGHT OUT OF THE BOX. GLOBE FOOTGEAR COMES IN A RANGE OF STRUCTURAL, TECHNICAL AND EMERGENCY NFPA COMPLIANT STYLES. FIND THE GLOBE SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PPE PROBLEMS AT A CONFERENCE NEAR YOU, VISIT GLOBEFOOTGEAR.COM TO LOCATE YOUR GLOBE DEALER, OR CALL 800-232-8323. Globe FootGear is part of the Globe family of brands Enter 101 at 0901FE_3 3 1/7/09 10:28:51 AM
  6. 6. JANUARY 2009 VOLUME 162 NUMBER 1 TRAINING THE FIRE SERVICE FOR 132 YEARS PENNWELL CORP. 21-00 Route 208 South Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2602 Tel.: (973) 251-5040 P.O. Box 1260 Tulsa, OK 74101 (918) 835-3161 Features 63 THE FIRE SERVICE AND GREEN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: AN OVERVIEW Ronald R. Spadafora—Green buildings are the future. They help large municipalities across the country provide a healthful environment, fight climate change, and conserve natural resources. Be sure to include them in your preincident planning, as certain design features could impact firefighting operations in these buildings. 79 THE IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY ON FIREFIGHTING Timothy Kreis—How do homes and businesses that use solar energy affect fireground safety, and what can firefighters do about it? Incorporate solar energy into your training, and work to develop well-written code regulations and standard operating procedures. 85 ARE YOU PREPLANNING YOUR BUILDINGS? Jack J. Murphy—The importance of conducting building reconnaissance cannot be overstated. Good preincident planning addresses floor and roof assemblies, loads, and obvious signs of deteriorating or weakening structures. As the late great Francis L. Brannigan used to say, “Know your buildings!” BASIC FIRE SCHOOL, P. 16 SCHOOL P 93 99 CAPNOGRAPHY: A TOOL FOR EVERY PATIENT Jim Davis—It is considered the gold standard for assessing airway patency in patients and will become a mandatory part of advanced airway management. Take the time to understand capnography’s benefits and uses; soon, you won’t think of going on a run without using it. 105 GREEN CONSTRUCTION, P. 63 FIREFIGHTING CHALLENGES IN CONVERTED MILLS David DeStefano—Mill makeovers involve change of occupancy, which may change your firefighting options, priorities, and challenges. Fire departments must be involved at all levels in mill conversions—both fire prevention bureau personnel and responding companies—from the design phase through regular inspections. FIREFIGHTER INVOLVEMENT HELPS PASS ICC CODES Sean DeCrane—Fire service participation in the building and fire code process pays off. Here is a summary of the most important code changes that directly impact the fire service that came out of last September’s International Code Council Final Action Hearings. CONVERTED MILLS P. 93 MILLS, 4 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_4 4 1/7/09 9:10:35 AM
  7. 7. Proven Performance 4000 Series Rescue Tools 1993 First and still the only UL Listed rescue tools 1999 First rescue tools UL Classified to NFPA 1936 2005 4000 Series Introduced Today, Holmatro® continues to design and test to the more demanding requirement to achieve a UL Listing. The 4000 series is no exception. With features like our patented CORE Technology™, speed valves, unique i-Bolt system, and lighted handles, the 4000 series is engineered with all of the quality and reliability you’ve come to expect from Holmatro®. Holmatro® USA is still the only factory in the world able to produce and offer you UL Listed rescue tools. Whether you choose CORE Technology™, or a twin line system, our 4000 Series continues to help make your job... • FASTER • EASIER • SAFER (410) 768-9662 © 2008 Holmatro, Inc. 0901FE_5 5 Enter 102 at 1/7/09 9:10:41 AM
  8. 8. JANUARY 2009 VOLUME 162 NUMBER 1 PENNWELL CORP. 21-00 Route 208 South Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2602 Tel.: (973) 251-5040 TRAINING THE FIRE SERVICE FOR 132 YEARS P.O. Box 1260 Tulsa, OK 74101 (918) 835-3161 Departments 8 EDITOR’S OPINION “How Much Fire Service Can We Really Do Without?” 12 VOLUNTEERS CORNER “Developing Proficiency in Today’s Firefighters” 16 TRAINING NOTEBOOK “Basic Fire School: A Teaching Tool for Probies and Veterans” 22 FIRE SERVICE EMS “Fire/EMS Training Tips” TECHNOLOGY TODAY, P. 115 28 ROUNDTABLE “Prefire Planning” 115 TECHNOLOGY TODAY “Homes That Won’t Burn?” “Metal Buildings for Firehouses” 52 NEWS IN BRIEF 60 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 109 FIRE PREVENTION BUREAU “Chief Must Advocate Building Fire Safety” 117 2009 BUYERS GUIDE 111 FIRE COMMENTARY “Alarm Response Policies: To Go or Not To Go?” 169 PRODUCTS/SERVICES/MEDIA 168 APPARATUS DELIVERIES 170 COMING EVENTS 171 COMPANY/ASSOCIATION NEWS 171 NAMES IN THE NEWS 172 CLASSIFIEDS 176 RULES OF ENGAGEMENT “More Cool School: The IC’s Need to ‘Disconnect’ ” THE COVER: This mid-morning fire in Wheaton, Illinois, actually started in the rear of the living area and extended to the garage through an open door. First-due companies arrived to find heavy fire in complete control of the attached garage and rear of the house. As shown in the photo, crews stretched a 21∕2-inch attack line to the driveway to knock down the heavy fire in the garage. They then quickly repositioned the line to the front door to mount an interior attack. Bread-and-butter engine operations such as those shown at this fire require training, professionalism, and quick-thinking officers and firefighters to gain the upper hand. (Photo by Stephen J. Wilcox.) P i di l Postage P id at T l OK 74101 and at additional mailing offices. Periodicals P t Paid t Tulsa, d t dditi l ili ffi 6 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_6 6 1/7/09 9:10:42 AM
  9. 9. Enter 103 at 0901FE_7 7 1/7/09 9:10:49 AM
  10. 10. EDITOR’S OPINION How Much Fire Service Can We Really Do Without? BY BOBBY HALTON S AMERICAN CITIES AND towns face unprecedented issues regarding budgets, we all must begin to anticipate what the ramifications could potentially be regarding service delivery in our communities. The great statesman Tip O’Neil once said, “All politics is local,” and he was absolutely right. We also know that all fire protection is predominantly local in nature, and local budgets are shrinking fast. Reacting to these shrinking budgets in major metropolitan cities, towns, and villages, local fire departments have already experienced fire station closings, reduced staffing, and companies removed from service. The effects of this economic meltdown will reach every corner of American life, and public safety is no exception. We are witnessing local governments explain fire station closings and company removal with carefully chosen words such as “deactivation,” “brownouts,” and “furloughs.” These politicians are simply using words they learned from Frank Luntz, the author of Words That Work. These are words that make people feel better about closing fire stations and reducing fire protection. These words were selected because they reduce the anxiety and apprehension caused by words such as “closed,” “eliminated,” and “reduced.” Unfortunately, these less-threatening words will be of little comfort to those same citizens when those deactivated, “brownouted,” and furloughed firefighters are not available to answer the call in an emergency. All of this cutting and reducing is being done using the best statistical data that these good people can find to justify their positions. Sometimes, as you listen to their explanations, you feel like you’re watching a truckie trying to fix a computer with a halligan. Benjamin Disraeli said it best: “There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.” Unfortunately, statistics do little to help the citizen who is having trouble breathing, A 8 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_8 8 who is crawling through her smoke-filled home at two in the morning, or who has just had a car accident. We know that we are going to be asked to sacrifice; we know that, as citizens, we are going to be expected to do with fewer services than we have become accustomed to. The overriding question has to be, “To what extent are the ‘local’ citizens willing to reduce the level of fire protection and life safety that your department is currently providing?” Simply showing charts and graphs of run volumes with geographic overlays of response times and overly simplified statistical data does not show the real costs in human treasure. While we acknowledge that, even at standard-compliant levels, we cannot arrive swiftly enough 100 percent of the time, it is clear standard-compliant staffing and response times offer our citizens the best possible advantage. I must disagree with some of my, albeit, well-intentioned but inexperienced peers who have stated that staffing and response times are irrelevant to fireground safety. I could never find any way to legitimize such a statement simply because nothing could be further from the truth. Response times and staffing are critical on both sides of the survival equation. Experienced, street-savvy firefighters understand standard-compliant staffing offers firefighters the best possible safety margins; anything less increases our risks exponentially. The fire service exists for those very times when we can make a difference, when we can save a life, and when we can alleviate someone’s suffering. Cuts are coming; but, because of who we are, we will continue to provide the best possible service under whatever conditions we are forced to operate. More than a thousand homes in Southern California were tragically destroyed in the most recent firestorm. Unfortunately, this firestorm is still not completely contained; many more homes will be taken. To the credit of the excellent services provided by the personnel in the Region 1 mutual-aid group under the direction of Los Angeles County Chief Michael Freeman, at this point no lives have been lost. That statistic is the most important one, not to discount or underestimate the tragedy of all these families losing their property. We must applaud the efforts that saved all the lives in this firestorm’s path of fury. The question becomes for the good citizens protected in that region with such excellent fire responses, “How much fire service can they stand to live without?” If all politics is local, and our elected politicians must ultimately bear the responsibility for dividing up the pie of taxes and revenue to fund fire, police, sewers, roads, libraries, universities, and rest of the services that make up a community, what levels must exist? The answers to these questions will come from you. You must assess locally what your community’s needs are to safely protect the lives and property you have sworn to protect. Those in power and those who have elected them must heed your words. You have that power of influence, and with it comes awesome and dear responsibility. You have a responsibility to the men and women who stand with you and to those whom you serve. This is where politics gets “local” and life in the fire service—whether you want to admit it or not—is closely tied to local politics. When addressing this responsibility, remember all you have learned regarding staffing; response capabilities (task and tactical); fire behavior; human behavior; and, most importantly, the values that make you a firefighter. They are not statistics. They are not lies. 1/7/09 9:10:52 AM
  11. 11. RELENTLESS. Facing the unknown at every turn, ÀreÀghters need to have conÀdence in their gear. That’s why our scientists rigorously test our CROSSTECH® Products — so ÀreÀghters can focus on the hazards in their environment. Our fabrics reliably provide maximum heat stress reduction and durable liquid penetration protection. The barriers of choice for ÀreÀghters, EMTs, and law enforcement professionals, CROSSTECH Products have been tried, tested, and proven like no other. FireÀghters are relentless in doing their duty. We’re relentless in giving them the best possible barrier for their gear. 800.431.GORE CROSSTECH, GORE and designs are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates ©2008 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Enter 104 at 0901FE_9 9 1/7/09 9:10:54 AM
  12. 12. . . . . ▲ ▲ . . . . ▲ ADVISOR IN MEMORIAM VICE PRESIDENT–AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT MANAGER MARKETING PRODUCTION MANAGER SUBSCRIPTIONS PENNWELL CORP. CHAIRMAN PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER SR. VICE PRESIDENT–GROUP PUBLISHER, BID VICE PRESIDENT–GROUP PUBLISHER 1 EDITORIAL ADVISORS AND CONTRIBUTING EDITORS ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ PHOTO EDITOR ONLINE EDITOR 132. ▲ ▲ . . . ▲ EDITOR IN CHIEF EXECUTIVE EDITOR SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR PRESENTATION EDITOR TECHNICAL EDITORS ▲ ▲ ▲ . 21-00 Route 208 South, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2602 Tel.: (973) 251-5040, Fax: (973) 251-5065 Visit our Web site at: . ▲ TRAINING THE FIRE SERVICE FOR 132 YEARS . . . . ▲ 8▲ ▲ ▲ 9 7 7-200 Chief (Ret.) Bobby Halton ( Diane Feldman ( Mary Jane Dittmar ( Robert J. Maloney ( Derek Rosenfeld ( Josh Troutman ( Glenn P. Corbett, P.E. ( John (Skip) Coleman ( Mike McEvoy ( Nate DeMarse ( Peter J. Prochilo ( Anthony Avillo, Alan Brunacini, John M. Buckman, Michael N. Ciampo, Paul T. Dansbach, Frank L. Fire, Richard A. Fritz, William Goldfeder, Bill Gustin, Leigh T. Hollins, Arthur L. Jackson, Steve Kreis, Rick Lasky, John M. Malecky, David McGrail, John W. Mittendorf, Frank C. Montagna, Jack J. Murphy Jr., Mike Nasta, Gerard J. Naylis, Gregory G. Noll, John P. O’Connell, William C. Peters, David Rhodes, Rob Schnepp, William J. Shouldis, Michael A. Terpak, Jerry Tracy, Andrea Zaferes Thomas F. Brennan Gloria Adams Ron Kalusha Wendy Lissau Rae Lynn Cooper, Tulsa Sharon Spencer (800) 582-6949 ( P.O. Box 1260 • Tulsa, OK 74101 • (918) 835-3161 Frank T. Lauinger Robert F. Biolchini Lyle Hoyt Eric Schlett FIRE DEPARTMENT INSTRUCTORS CONFERENCE ® 21-00 Route 208 South, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2602 Tel.: (888) TEL-FDIC, Fax: (888) FAX-FDIC Visit our Web site at: EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR EDUCATION DIRECTOR CONFERENCE DIRECTOR CONFERENCE MANAGER CONFERENCE COORDINATOR EVENT OPERATIONS MANAGERS EXHIBIT MANAGERS FIRE ENGINEERING SUBSCRIBER SERVICE FIRE ENGINEERING ADVERTISING PRODUCTION FIRE ENGINEERING BOOKS & VIDEOS FDIC EXHIBITING FDIC REGISTRATION 10 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_10 10 Eric Schlett Chief (Ret.) Bobby Halton Diane Feldman Mary Jane Dittmar Ginger Mendolia Allison Foster, Kay Baker Lila Gillespie, Nanci Yulico (800) (918) (800) (888) (888) 582-6949 • Fax: (918) 831-9482 831-9143 • Fax: (918) 831-9415 752-9768 • Fax: (918) 831-9555 TEL-FDIC • Fax: (888) FAX-FDIC 299-8016 • Fax: (888) 299-8057 1/7/09 9:10:58 AM
  13. 13. Over-engineered? They sure don’t think so. When you put your life on the line, you need equipment that won’t let you down… regardless of the conditions. That’s why at Dräger, safety is everything and exceptional engineering is standard. And why our new PSS®7000 SCBA doesn’t just meet NFPA standards, it exceeds them. In fact, after a series of rigorous comparison tests by the Phoenix Arizona Fire Department, the Dräger PSS7000 was judged the best of all SCBAs on the market. The competition wasn’t even close. To see the details of the Phoenix test, visit For more information, contact your local Dräger fire service representative or call 1-800-615-5503. The PSS7000 – Re-engineered from the ground up, we took no shortcuts in developing the most ergonomically designed, easiest-to-use and easiest-to-maintain SCBA ever. It’s packed with features including: • Fully adjustable back-plate design • Durable rubber harness (500% more abrasion resistant than cloth) • Five-second cylinder change out • Active CBRN protection with 360° second-stage rotation • Waterproof internal Heads-UP Display • Dual voice amps • Sentinel 7000 – Dräger’s third-generation PASS technology with more than a decade of proven performance Enter 105 at 0901FE_11 11 1/7/09 9:11:03 AM
  14. 14. VOLUNTEERS CORNER Developing Proficiency in Today’s Firefighters BY NORM CARROLL EARS AGO, WE DID NOT NEED to spend much time with extra training because, after the initial training, we were out there doing the job every day. Now, we are not responding to as many fires; therefore, we need to spend more time practicing the skills so we can be proficient when asked to perform on the fireground. Over the past 24 years, I have developed some concepts that might help your firefighters acquire the training needed to maintain the proficiency level your public expects. Y ing session exciting. It will take a lot of work, but consider the result if you do not provide the best training possible to your firefighters. You do not want to become a statistic. So, you have to dazzle your firefighters. Use the computers they grew up with. Employ simulators, Power Point®, and Webcasts to get them interested in being the best they can be. DEVELOPING A SCHEDULE What are we going to drill on tonight? I don’t know if you have ever heard that before. I have, and it is a very dif- what the drill topic is, we can counter with, “What do you need signed off in your task book?” WHY CONTINUAL TRAINING? When I first started in the fire service, volunteer firefighters worked in their communities, and the business owners were also firefighters. It was not uncommon to have a business close down so all could go on the alarm. This was a great service to the community. Unfortunately, times change; the firefighters do not work in the community and even Firefighters must feel that they have ownership in the training program. They should want to be there and to get involved. Understanding the younger generation of firefighters is important in determining how they learn tasks. The latest generation has been brought up with computers and video games. These individuals expect everything to be instantaneous. They also subscribe to the concept that says, “If I do it wrong, I can press the reset button and start all over.” Unfortunately, there are no reset buttons in real life. We have to help them understand that this is just not possible. Because of technology, this generation also has never used many of the hand tools to which earlier generations have become accustomed. For instance, if you were trying to explain to a new firefighter how to start a positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) fan or a chain saw and that the action would be like starting a lawn mower, they might look at you and ask, “Where is the button to start it”? or they might even tell you, “Someone else is going to start it for me.” These are challenges you, as a trainer, will have to overcome to teach these firefighters. You also have to make every train12 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_12 12 ficult question to answer half an hour before the drill is supposed to start. Our department has developed a task book, a concept other departments use as well. The drills cover firefighter skills required by the state. Our combination department has a 12-member career staff and 45 volunteers. The state requires that a career staff member meet a minimum training level equal to 229 hours of training within one year of appointment. The career staff must accomplish 100 hours of in-service training annually. Since the career and volunteers are doing the same job, why is there a difference in the requirements? Since there was not a requirement for the volunteer firefighters, I created one for our department. I became a trainer and was certified to teach all the courses the state requires. As I started teaching the courses, the firefighters kept asking for more courses. Eventually, the firefighters met the 229 hours required by the state. Once a few achieved that level, they wrote the new standard, saying, “If I can do it, everyone can.” Now when someone comes up to ask though you might own a business in the community, you cannot close down for every alarm because there has been a marked increase in alarms. That is one reason training needs to be done all the time. Many firefighters work shifts other than 9 to 5. If they are working every Tuesday night at 7 p.m., how do they get their training? Create a schedule that has all shifts in mind and makes training a priority all the time. You can create a lesson on ladders and tell all firefighters it will be offered different days and nights throughout the week. If firefighters attend more than one session, what would be the problem? You would then have proficient firefighters. This should be everyone’s goal. I have seen trainers who are not there for the firefighters. If you are not there to train firefighters, why are you there? You need to be the one that leads the training. If the drill is to start at 10 a.m., be there and ready to go at 9:30 a.m. Firefighters’ time is precious. If we are not ready when they are, we are not taking care of their needs. Yes, there should 1/7/09 9:11:07 AM
  15. 15. Pierce Ultimate Configuration It’s called the PUC—a short name for a tall list of design breakthroughs. By John Phillips S horter, lighter, lower center of gravity, sharper turning radius, increased agility—it sounds like a to-do list created by engineers from a major auto manufacturer. Except this isn’t a passenger car or the latest crossover SUV. It’s Pierce’s new PUC, an acronym for Pierce Ultimate Configuration. The PUC isn’t a single piece of hardware, nor a lone accessory. Rather, it’s a whole new vehicle layout—a bumper-to-bumper rethink— that allows fire-and-rescue apparatus to carry more equipment on a smaller, more maneuverable, pump-and-roll platform. The patent-pending PUC design begins with the pumphouse. Traditional pumps are mounted amidships, driven by a split shaft off the transmission. That has always meant that four or five feet of real estate was consumed just by the pumphouse. The PUC’s pump, on the other hand, is driven off the engine’s flywheel—a rear engine power take-off. That, in turn, has allowed the pump housing to be moved far forward, above the frame rails and under the cab’s seat-box area. “The pump drive system is simple,” says Kevin Day, Fleet Services Manager for Oregon’s awardwinning Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue, “and it eliminates the need for additional drivetrain components used in traditional transfer-case designs. It saves weight, reduces drivetrain stress and, theoretically, reduces fuel consumption during pumping operations.” Day’s department, having purchased their first Pierce product in 1980, now operates a total of 80 response vehicles serving 418,000 citizens. The department’s Apparatus Committee, consisting of AOs, firefighters, officers and mechanics, has overseen the purchase of nine PUC pumpers. Six units have been delivered; three of those have already been introduced into service. Three more PUCs are scheduled for delivery next spring. Moving the pumphouse forward and downward accrued other benefits. For one thing, the pump’s position lowered the truck’s center of gravity, which made for more nimble handling. “As urban density increases, and streets and cul-de-sacs become more congested,” says Day, “maneuverability is a real consideration.” The far-forward pump also freed up as much as 30 percent extra storage space—up to 500 cubic feet—while simultaneously reducing the pumper’s wheelbase by as much as 18 inches. Day says his current 187-inch-wheelbase PUCs can carry more gear than the 212-inch-wheelbase pumpers they’ve replaced. “All of our medical equipment can now be located in one compartment,” he points out. “If the unit carries a full complement of extrication tools, we can now place it in the compartment more ergonomically for the crews.” The PUC is designed for easy maintenance. All of the pump’s plumbing and valving are mounted on top. “Accessibility is greater than any of our previous pumps,” Day says. “The time it takes to access valves and connections has been significantly reduced.” Because all Pierce pumpers have tilt-forward cabs, access is superb. “Any maintenance or repair can be performed at ground level, rather than on overhead lifts,” he adds. On traditional pumpers, the area reserved for crosslays was usually atop the pumphouse. But with the PUC’s pump moved forward, the crosslays have been relocated between the cab and the truck’s body, and they’ve been lowered to chest height. “Lower crosslays are easier to shoulder and easier to reload,” Day notes. Ladders, stokes baskets, and backboards are also far lower, as is the hosebed. “Firefighters risk injury to their knees and backs when shouldering a hose load and stepping off the tailboard,” Day continues. “The PUC body has a hosebed height nearly 11 inches lower than our previous pumper’s body. We anticipate that most of our firefighters should be able to shoulder the load from the ground.” What’s more, the PUC’s pump uses a large clutch that electrically engages the impeller, so putting the pump into gear no longer induces that awful grinding. And it’s a quick two-step process. “The apparatus engineer need only apply the parking brake and activate the pump drive,” Day says. Pump panels are available in side-or top-mount positions, with the operator standing next to hose connections instead of over them. “The inlets and discharge ports are low and easy to connect,” Day adds, “and the pump panel is laid out in an intuitive manner, with easy-to-use controls. In addition, the pumper’s exhaust stack is vertical, directed up and away from ground level operations, which also reduces noise at the pump panel.” All PUCs are true pump-and-roll designs, crucial for fighting a moving wildfire or for when you simply need to reposition the pumper for a better angle of attack. Since its introduction 18 months ago, the PUC has already accounted for more than 200 new Pierce orders. It is available on all Pierce custom chassis. John Phillips has been writing about cars since 1974, is the author of two books, and has been an editor at Car and Driver for 20 years. © 2008 Pierce Manufacturing. An Oshkosh Corporation Company. Enter 106 at 0901FE_13 13 1/7/09 9:11:08 AM
  16. 16. be some accountability on their part: They showed up when you told them to be there, excited about doing some training to make them more proficient. When you are instructing, you need to make sure you incorporate your department’s policies. What better way to make sure everyone is on the same page? Unfortunately, you may not agree with all your department’s policies, but they are the policies you have, so work with them. Do not try to undermine the authorities by telling everyone that the policy is wrong. If you want to change a policy, go to those making policy and ask if they might review the policy for revision. You will lose all credibility with the firefighters and management if you cannot follow policies. ••• There are many great new techniques for performing our jobs. Make sure that these techniques are safe and will work within your department and that everyone is fully trained in them before they are used at an incident. There is no automatic guarantee that a technique that works for one department will work for another. Instructors must demonstrate proficiency. They must be able to do the task they are teaching perfectly before the students. Firefighters must feel that they have ownership in the training program. They should want to be there and to get involved. It is up to the instructor to create this atmosphere. ● ● NORM CARROLL is a firefighter/ paramedic with the Manlius (NY) Fire Department. He has served nine and a half years as a career firefighter and six years as a volunteer in the same department. He has an associate degree in public fire protection from Rancho Santiago Community College in Santa Ana, CA. He has been with the New York State Office of Fire Prevention and Control since 2000 as a state fire instructor, teaches outreach courses in Onondaga County, and is an adjunct instructor with the New York State Academy of Fire Sciences and the Utica (NY) Fire Department Fire Academy. Enter 107 at 0901FE_14 14 1/7/09 9:11:09 AM
  17. 17. Enter 108 at 0901FE_15 15 1/7/09 9:11:12 AM
  18. 18. TRAINING NOTEBOOK Basic Fire School: A Teaching Tool for Probies and Veterans BY FRANK H. HAMMOND JR. 1 2 (1) Basic Fire School students attack a vehicle fire. The attack team approached at a 45° angle on the driver’s side front corner using a ground-sweep water application; the crew then moved to the passenger area to complete extinguishment. (Photos by author.) (2) A student is coaxed to the tip of Brewer (ME) Fire Department’s Ladder 1. Every student completed an aerial climb; many students climbed a ladder for the first time and experienced “height discomfort” issues. ROM RECRUIT SCHOOL TO advanced training events, it is almost a mantra: “Don’t forget the basics!” Basic Fire School not only provides an avenue to get your newest recruits up to speed; it can also deliver, as individual or grouped sessions, recurrent fire training to a fire department. Broken into 15 sessions, Basic Fire School covers all aspects of firefighting, from history to coordinated live-fire training evolutions [that are set up to conform to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1403, Standard for Live Fire Training Evolutions]. Fire service instructors, training officers, and company officers who provide firefighter training often look for a packaged, locally adaptable program that is easy to work with and significantly weighted with practical skills evolutions. Basic Fire School can be used in a myriad of applications, including regular company/ department training sessions, weekend training programs, and a recruit academy. It is loaded with evolutions to help your newest firefighter and challenge your seasoned firefighters. Although this F 16 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_16 16 program is not a path to certification, it can help firefighters achieve qualifications or enhance/renew skills they may or may not use at each response. As with most departments I have visited across the country, many fire departments in my area find it difficult to answer the question “What should we do for training this week or month?” Although NFPA 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications, along with several other standards such as those of the Insurance Service Office (ISO) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration clearly outline what needs to be done and, in some instances, how much time must be invested, few, if any, standards outline how to get it all done. What may seem rudimentary on the outside as far as class development goes is quite a hurdle whether you are a full-time training coordinator for a large department or the training officer for a smaller department. Time seems to be the largest obstacle when it comes to planning, preparing, and delivering quality, basic-level firefighter training. Basic Fire School makes it quite easy: All the training is broken down into four- and eight-hour sections and grouped into 15 sessions of approximately 16 hours each. It is very possible and very easy to take a section of the program on the fly and deliver it to new and veteran department members. During the course of 15 sessions, firefighters will don their personal protective equipment (PPE) at least 100 times, probably more. Proper PPE and SCBA donning procedures are covered during the first session and continue to the end of the program. Although this may not quite work for your recurrent training programs, I found it very helpful for getting the newer firefighters used to donning and doffing their gear safely and efficiently. For a mixed audience, you could set the newer firefighters up against the more experienced firefighters for time (and perhaps some bragging rights). Team building is one of the many unwritten by-products of Basic Fire School, along with training to a standard within the context of actual operations and learning in a safe, controlled environment. 1/7/09 9:11:15 AM
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  20. 20. TRAINING NOTEBOOK 3 4 (3) Students are guided through roof operations—again, for the first time for most of them. The first trip was made without SCBA; each subsequent operation followed the rule “off the ground—on air.” (4) “Marching Practice.” Students prepare for LP gas fires. Before working with live fires using LP gas, students engaged in practice runs using dry and wet lines. Once the fires were started, every student completed nozzle duty for at least one evolution. TRAINING SESSIONS The sessions are as follows: • Session I: Orientation—complete the required paperwork, then review the fire department’s history, organization principles, fire department roles, firefighter guidelines, standard operating procedures/guidelines and policies, regulations, and working with other agencies. • Session II: Firefighter qualifications, firefighter safety, firefighter rehabilitation, communications, self-contained breathing apparatus, and personal protective equipment. • Session III: Review National Incident Management System, fire behavior, fire response, and size-up. • Session IV: Fire extinguisher operations, including fire suppression using Class A, Class B, and simulated Class C fires. We took an old meter box, stuffed it with straw, and set the straw on fire; no live electricity was used. Gear Storage Solutions That Protect Your Investments Preserve and extend the life of Turnout Gear, Hose and Air Bottles by using Gearmasters or Ready Rack systems - both are designed to meet your needs and maintain your budget. Visit us online at or call 800-852-6088 for more information. GEARMASTERS TERS R 800.852.6088 Enter 110 at 0901FE_18 18 1/7/09 9:11:20 AM
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  22. 22. TRAINING NOTEBOOK • Session V: Firefighter tools and equipment identification, uses, and basic maintenance; several forcible entry techniques are practiced. • Session VI: Search and rescue operations, including primary and secondary search operations, along with patient carries and drags. • Session VII: Ladder operations for ground and aerial ladders. • Session VIII: Water supply principles and practices—fire hydrants, large-di- ameter hose, portable tanks, and rural hitch setups are covered. • Session IX: Firefighter survival practices, such as what to do when you are lost; calling a Mayday on a radio; rapid egress over ground ladders; plus “Stay low in the heat” and “If you cannot see your feet, you should not be on them.” • Session X: Hose, nozzle, streams, and foam operations such as loads, advances, taking up, rolls, and producing foam. • Session XI: Ventilation, salvage, and overhaul practices—on the roof with an ax; practice with pallets; breaking glass; and salvage cover rolls, folds, and throws. • Session XII: Complete ventilation, salvage, and overhaul practices; conduct prefire briefings. • Session XIII: Vehicle/refuse container fire operations. • Session XIV: Class B fire operations— we use liquefied petroleum gas. • Session XV: Class A fire operations. We bring it all together for combined operations—search, attack, backup, ladders, and ventilation. PROGRAM EASY TO ADAPT The written portion of this program provides information regarding the intent of each session, props, supplies needed, apparatus and tool needs, and learning/performance objectives. Although the framework of this program is quite structured, it is still adaptable to any department with any number of tools that may be available—for example, if your department does not have access to an aerial device or a 50-foot Bangor ladder, omit the objectives involving those tools. On the other hand, if you have a special tool or an appliance that you use regularly, simply plug it into the program at the spot that is right for your department. ••• From the newest recruit to the most seasoned veteran, competency in basic firefighting skills is a most critical asset. As a stand-alone fire academy type delivery or section-by-section sessions for regularly scheduled training, the department or company officers can use the Basic Fire School training package to provide safe, effective, and relevant fire training to the firefighters in their charge. ● ● FRANK H. HAMMOND JR., a 25-year veteran of the fire service, is a training program manager for the Maine Fire Training Program. He is a certified emergency medical technician, firefighter II, driver/operator, airport firefighter, fire instructor II, and fire officer II. He has an associate degree in fire science and also serves as a lieutenant with the Lincoln (ME) Fire Department. Enter 112 at 0901FE_20 20 1/7/09 9:11:30 AM
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  24. 24. FIRE SERVICE EMS Fire/EMS Training Tips BY BARRY S. DASKAL FFECTIVE IN-SERVICE EMS training is one very critical yet overlooked element in fire service-based EMS organizations. In many departments, EMS is considered a by-product or backburner service to fire suppression. With lower staffing levels, more calls for service, and administrators’ demands to do more with less, time for drilling and training is greatly reduced. EMS is often the first area to be sacrificed despite representing a disproportionately higher percentage of responses. In the volunteer environment, this is further exacerbated by time spent attempting to maintain necessary firefighting qualifications and Occupational Safety and Health Administration mandates. EMS training might only get brushed up on during the periodic refresher course time or, worse yet, might become nonexistent. Many agencies rely on patient contact through call volume as the way to keep their providers’ skills sharp. Maintaining EMS skills is just as critical as maintaining fire suppression proficiency. Like any profession, fire service trends run the gamut from basic firefighting operations to collapse rescue, trench rescue, hybrid vehicle extrication, hazardous materials, and weapons of mass destruction. Like other industries, our major focus in the fire service is “back to basics” firefighting. EMS responses are second nature. We encounter patients all the time, and their problems are generally the same. So why do we train? Don’t train only when a new intervention technique, medical device, or procedure is introduced. Train every day. Using skills on real patient encounters is not training; it might actually reinforce bad habits without our knowing it. Many EMS drills are just a by-product of firefighting drills. Vehicle extrication leads to a patient (generally a mannequin) being removed and then verbalizing and stabilizing injuries or a man- E 22 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_22 22 nequin “rescued” from a structure fire or collapse that is dropped at the feet of the EMS crew relegated to “standby.” For the fire/EMS officer who realizes, accepts, and embraces that EMS training must be at regular intervals, the question then becomes, “How do you accomplish this?” WHERE DO WE START? EMS drill planning essentially requires the same procedure for firefighting drills, with some subtle but distinct differences. The first decision is what to train on. Evaluate the patient types you regularly encounter, such as cardiac complaints, respiratory emergencies, diabetes patients, general illness, syncope, and motor vehicle crash patients. Develop a list of important skills used on a routine basis. These are your bread and butter responses. Think about some of your more unique responses—patient contacts where you had to think just a little bit outside of the box. Did the patient have an unusual chief complaint? Was a rarely used skill or piece of equipment called for? Once you identify target areas or subjects to train on, create a lesson plan. Firefighting drill planning for many officers has become very familiar. There are numerous premade templates and even full drills available online. One of the best resources for firefighters is provided by the Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute Web site. I prefer to use the fire service-based model resource, since this is the format with which personnel in combined fire/EMS agencies are most familiar. Take your topic list and write a brief topic description and what you hope to accomplish. Because we talk about inservice training with our members, we know our target audience and the level of instruction required. Here, there are distinctions between writing an EMS drill and planning a firefighting evolution. Establish a spreadsheet and a topic schedule. The first column lists the indi- vidual lesson topic. Then have several consecutive columns that include the following: the type of drill (lecture vs. hands-on or a combination of the two), a detailed description of the drill’s main focus and intention, the lead instructor and assisting facilitators, and any special notes (material resources, training locations, and any other pertinent information). RESOURCES AND REFERENCES Standard EMT and paramedic textbooks are your technical reference material. Your state, regional, and local policies and protocols are your detailed information sources. Another great resource is your standard patient care sequence—from your scene survey to transport. Your patient care report is a great format for identifying different areas on which to focus. Obtaining available equipment resources for EMS training can be more difficult than for fire suppression training. For fire training, securing a facility or other training location is often the greatest challenge. All the tools you need are on the rig. For EMS training, there are a few more intricacies; training materials tend to be the greatest challenge. What materials do you need? Are they easily obtainable? For your training to be effective, you require patients and some patient care aids. Budget constraints generally dictate what you can and can’t obtain. A moulage kit costing several hundred dollars may be too much of an investment, but $20 worth of make-up from the local pharmacy or big box store can be effective. An advanced life support (ALS) “mega-code” mannequin is ideal, but the $5,000 needed may not be readily available. You can convert the beat-up rapid intervention team training mannequin into an unconscious, unresponsive patient with simulated traumatic injuries with simple things such as various colored children’s clay, broken pieces of 1/7/09 9:11:44 AM
  25. 25. ® LIFEPAK 15 MONITOR / DEFIBRILL ATOR The New Standard in Clinical Innovation Physio-Control has partnered with emergency service professionals since the beginning. This experience, along with our partnerships with leaders in patient monitoring, provides us with the knowledge to create products and capabilities that no one else offers—to fit your clinical needs. We’ve been leading the way with proven clinical innovations from the beginning, and we continue to do so. The 15 is the newest monitor/defibrillator offered by Physio-Control, building on our legacy of partnership and trusted products. Designed to meet your needs now and in the future, it includes: „ Non-invasive and continuous detection of carbon monoxide (SpCO), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and methemoglobin (SpMET) through integrated Masimo Rainbow technology. „ The CPR Metronome with audible prompts has been proven to aid users in performing compressions and ventilations within the recommended range of AHA Guidelines1. „ Energy dosing to 360J for difficult-to-defibrillate patients. „ Easy to acquire pre-medication 12-lead ECG and reliable, continuous monitoring of all 12 leads in the background to alert you to changes via our ST Trending feature. The LIFEPAK 15 monitor/defibrillator raises the bar on clinical and operational standards, and durability. Go to to learn more about how the 15 sets the new standard in clinical innovation. Visit or call us toll free at 1.800.442.1142 for more information about other Physio-Control products. 1 Kern et al, AHA presentation abstract, Circulation 2008 Pending 510(k) Clearance Enter 114 at ©2009 Physio-Control, Inc. Redmond, WA 98052 USA. All rights reserved. 0901FE_23 23 1/7/09 9:11:45 AM
  26. 26. FIRE SERVICE EMS chalk, and some old spare clothes. Disposable supplies also present a stumbling block. To bandage a wound or stabilize a shoulder or limb, you must use gauze, triangular bandages, and tape. They cost money and must be restocked. Set aside a 20- or 30-gallon plastic container to keep “disposable” items in for reuse during training exercises. Human patients are generally easy to find. You can preprogram partners, crew, and other station members as patients using index cards with their chief complaint, history of the present illness or injury, medications, medical history, and other pertinent information. Conduct full interviews, deliver oxygen to your patient via nonrebreathing mask, conduct nebulizer treatments using water instead of medications (always use local policy and procedures as a guide), take vital signs, and perform hands-on assessment. For ALS scenarios, you can adapt and overcome. If ALS arms and mannequins are not available, you might consider reverting to the real thing. Anyone taught to establish an intravenous line practiced on themselves and their classmates. Again, follow local policy and procedures. You can place EKG machines on patients and take and interpret three-lead and 12-lead evaluations. For dysrhythmias that need attention, hand a Web site printout to the student instead of a rhythm strip. Use small sharps containers with IV tubing that has the injection port facing out as your patient’s arm, and administer medications. Place a small (50 ml) spiked saline bag under the patient and tape the tubing to the arm to represent an established IV line. MOTIVATION AND EXECUTION When writing your lesson plans, come up with a motivational statement—a brief paragraph that explains to the students the importance of mastering the skills they are about to learn. The motivational statement is generally interchangeable with the detailed description you plugged into your spreadsheet next to the topic. The firehouse is a good general place to perform your drills. The parking lot for your personal vehicles, the apparatus bay, lounges, offices, and inside or outside the location will suffice. After all, you routinely encounter patients in all of these locations. Choose a location for a particular evolution, and place your crew in that remote area with the equipment they would normally remove from the apparatus while you program and place the patient. Brief the crew on the situation they will respond to, and allow them to grab any additional equipment they feel they may require based on the dispatch information you give them. Give the crew a time limit (generally 10 minutes from initial patient contact). The crew responds to the patient location and begins care. The scenarios must be straightforward to start. You can throw every possible situation at your providers. It’s never a straightforward sick job with stable vital signs where a thorough evaluation and interview lead to an informed diagnosis and treatable situation. Instead, offer an acute pulmonary embolism patient frothing at the mouth and gasping for air or a motor vehicle collision victim who was thrown from the car and now has COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY COMPLETELY ONLINE DEGREES (Concentration in Fire Science) OTHER DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS AVAILABLE Enter 115 at 0901FE_24 24 1/7/09 9:11:46 AM
  27. 27. Photo by: Greg Collaco THE ONLY THING WE INSTALL IS CONFIDENCE. Fire doesn’t like to lose. Neither do we. A fire will battle to stay ablaze until its last ember is extinguished. Wouldn’t it be nice to arm your department with equipment that’s forged with the same fortitude? At Waterous, we design and manufacture the hardest fighting fire pumps, CAFSystems™ and portable pumps in the world. No one matches our technology, innovation, performance or craftsmanship. All of which provides the confidence you need to face the flames. Bring a better fight to the fire. Call 651-450-5000 / Visit Vehicle Mounted Pumps CAFSystems™ Foam Systems Portable Pumps Enter 116 at 0901FE_25 25 1/7/09 9:11:49 AM
  28. 28. FIRE SERVICE EMS an open head wound, unequal pupils, a hemopneumothorax, and unstable vitals. EXPECTED OUTCOME To determine if any training initiative is effective, you must have quantifiable, expected results. Run crews through several similar evolutions to establish whether they are consistently achieving a minimum standard. Evaluate the students using standard objective patient care criteria. An excellent resource is the practical testing sheets from the National Registry of EMTs or your local regional certification agency. In addition, I prefer to have the crews that are not involved in a particular evolution watch the current scenario. This allows them to observe the performance of the crew in action, critique their peers, and think about what they might have done differently. I find peer review more valuable than corrections coming solely from the instructor/evaluator. The majority of critique points are typically verbalized by the students’ peers. This leaves the instructor/evaluator room to add additional points or summarize the main learning points of the evolution. After several varied training sessions, look for patterns and see where improvement is needed. Are you bringing the right equipment in to every call? Are your crews working as a team, interacting with and feeding off each other, or are they islands unto themselves? Are your basic life support providers solid with assisted medication protocols? Are your ALS providers able to properly perform and interpret a 12-lead EKG? These regularly scheduled drill periods, combined with your formal quality assurance/quality improvement, should paint an accurate picture of the consistency and quality of patient care. When you have achieved this as your standard, it is time to set the bar higher and challenge providers to continue to advance their studies and skills. For agencies that require continuing education credits, the medical community always has some type of continuing education session in progress at regular intervals at various healthcare facilities. Your medical director can serve as a bridge to access this type of valuable training. Success in the field is a direct result of classroom training and preparation. Basic, regularly scheduled field fire/EMS service training will consistently improve your skills and have a greater positive effect on patient outcomes. ● ● BARRY S. DASKAL is a police officer/aircraft rescue firefighter with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. He is also a certified EMT-critical care and clinical lab instructor at the Nassau County (NY) EMS Academy and a member of the Wantagh (NY) Fire Department. He previously served as a police officer with the New York City Police Department and as a supervising fire alarm dispatcher with the Fire Department of New York. He has been a volunteer firefighter since 1990 and has served as a captain and training officer. He is the creator and host of “The Average Joe Firefighter Podcast” on Enter 117 at 0901FE_26 26 1/7/09 9:11:50 AM
  29. 29. It Works the Way You Think Computer-Aided Dispatch for Fire and EMS Public safety agencies respond to incidents differently so it only makes sense that they dispatch differently. RescueNet CommCAD is designed specifically for fire and EMS agencies, which means no more cumbersome workarounds for fire and EMS dispatchers. This map-centric dispatch system allows you to easily manage incidents within maps, which gives you a more in-depth assessment of the incident location and the surroundings. With CommCAD, you can customize panel and map views the way you want them; the way that makes the most sense to you. All of these capabilities that are inherent in RescueNet CommCAD take the guesswork out of dispatching and help you improve response decisions and times. RescueNet CommCAD is one component in a suite of integrated data management solutions that work together to improve operational efficiencies for both fire and EMS agencies. RescueNet CommCAD is backed by ZOLL Data Systems, so you benefit from years of experience in dispatch systems and hundreds of successful installations nationwide. To get your FREE white paper “The Top 10 Things to Consider when Buying a Computer-Aided Dispatch System”, call 800.474.4489 or visit 1.800.474.4489 Enter 118 at 0901FE_27 27 1/7/09 9:11:56 AM
  30. 30. ROUNDTABLE OPINIONS FROM AROUND THE COUNTRY Prefire Planning INDSIGHT IS ALMOST ALWAYS 20/20, but there is no substitute for being prepared. I’m not sure where preplans were invented. If it’s like most things in the fire service, some department had the idea of going out and looking at buildings and coming up with a few “preliminary” plans on what to do if that specific building catches on fire. Then, some firefighter on vacation or visiting an aunt in that town talked to a local firefighter who told him the department was very progressive, to the point that it went out and made plans for fighting a fire— before the fire occurred! The visiting firefighter then went back to his department and discussed the idea with someone who “bumped” it up through the food chain until the chief of his department now had a brilliant new idea! In Toledo, commercial buildings that meet specific hazard requirements are assigned to house captains. The house captain divides the preplans among the three shifts. Thursday is the designated preplan day. Company officers and their crews are required to complete the preplan in a specific timeframe. After new preplans are completed, companies update existing plans. There are specific forms and criteria for each preplan. Occupant name and occupancy type, special or hazardous processes, built-in fire suppression features, all fire department connections, hydrant locations and flows, and the building’s required fire flows are among some of the information gathered. The company officer’s battalion chief reviews the completed plans and then forwards them to headquarters, where they are again checked and then put into the preplan book for dissemination to all line companies. They are carried on all apparatus and are listed in alphabetical order by street address. —John “Skip” Coleman retired as assistant chief from the Toledo (OH) Department of Fire and Rescue. He is a technical editor of Fire Engineering; a member of the FDIC educational advisory board; and author of Incident H 28 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_28 28 QUESTION: Do your fire suppression units conduct prefire planning? If so, what information do they gather and where does the information end up? M Management f the S for h Street-Smart Fi S Fire Officer (Fire Engineering, 1997), Managing Major Fires (Fire Engineering, 2000), and Incident Management for the StreetSmart Fire Officer, Second Edition (Fire Engineering, 2008). Thomas Dunne, deputy chief, Fire Department of New York Response: Our fire units conduct fire prevention activities three times a week. In a department with well over 300 companies, this creates a lot of opportunities to discover situations that call for a prefire plan. The company officer can initiate some elements of a prefire plan and enter the information directly into our computerized dispatch system. Information gathered includes dangerous conditions, construction details, and tactical recommendations. This information is subsequently sent to every responding unit when an alarm is transmitted for that address. High-rises, large commercial buildings, and other complex occupancies may call for a more detailed prefire plan, including a building diagram along with response requirements, water supply information, tactical considerations, and any other items that may be vital to establish a safe firefighting strategy. Chief officers prepare these plans based on information drawn from our fire units. Chiefs can consult the plan while responding to an incident or when operating at the command post. The development of a full prefire plan may call for the experience and expertise of a chief or company officer, but discovering the need for one does not. We train our personnel to consider how they would fight a fire every time they walk into a building, whether they are there to perform an inspection, handle a minor emergency, or investigate a false alarm. I h In that way, our fire suppression units are i i always conducting prefire plans. Gary Seidel, chief, Hillsboro (OR) Fire Department Response: Our fire suppression personnel work with our fire inspectors to ensure that we have reviewed all appropriate occupancies, especially those with unusual fire or safety hazards, for construction type, occupancy type, fire protection systems, utilities, fire loads, storage, building inventory, exposures, egress and access points, and water supply. We look at existing building and occupancy records and use the site plans from our new construction inspectors. Otherwise, we create them from the beginning. Our inspections and prefire tours are conducted with the cooperation of the owner/occupants. Our preplans are entered into the department’s computers and are available to the whole department and are also added to our computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system and are available on our mobile data computers (MDCs); they are tied to our in-vehicle mapping program for use at an emergency scene. We also have hard copies in the stations and on the apparatus, should the computer malfunction. We revise our prefire plans periodically. If an occupancy or building changes, we complete or revise our prefire plan on the new certification of occupancy. Craig H. Shelley, fire protection advisor, Saudi Arabia Response: Being an industrial fire department, we perform preincident response planning at all facilities and buildings (other than residential areas) to which we respond—structures and vessels that make up the plant area, response times, construction, detection 1/7/09 9:12:00 AM
  31. 31. Tell Us Your Story When lives are in the balance and seconds count. for a chance e to o win * The truck pictured is no The truc pictu d is no he truck pictured not ru ctu ur ot the actual contest unit nd may the actual contest unit and may he actua ontest unit nd ma tual on est t nt s r ec fter ma ke eal add-ons. reflect after-market dealer ad on reflect after market deal add-on reflect after-market dealer add-ons er ke ea dd The Tradition ES contest unit features the following options: • International® chassis (4-door) • Hale® pump (1250 gpm) • 89 cu. ft. of NFPA hosebed storage • Adjustable ladder rack • • • • Side-mount pump panel Spacious body compartments for storage of NFPA equipment Extended enhanced body provides increased cubic feet of storage 1000-gallon tank Tell Us Your Story... Is your department the most deserving fire department in the U.S.? To mark the launch of the Tradition ES Series, E-ONE is offering your department the opportunity to win a new Tradition ES commercial pumper. Please “Tell Us Your Story” and let the industry decide. On January 16, 2009, E-ONE will begin our “Tell Us Your Story” contest in which your department could be eligible to win a new Tradition ES pumper. Simply visit and in 500 words or less tell us why your department deserves to win. Seven finalists will be announced on March 30, 2009 and the fire industry will vote online for the most deserving department. The winner will be announced during FDIC in E-ONE’s booth (#9104 – Lucas Oil Stadium) at 3:00 p.m. on Friday, April 24th. Submit your entry online by March 9, 2009. One entry per department. No purchase necessary. Void where prohibited by law. Visit on January 16th for contest rules and “Tell Us Your Story.” Thank you to our sponsors for their generous contributions: y p Enter 119 at 0901FE_29 29 © 2009 E-ONE, Inc. 1/7/09 9:12:05 AM
  32. 32. ROUNDTABLE and alarm systems, exposures, confined spaces, hazardous materials, fixed and semifixed extinguishing systems, contact information, and a sketch of the area to include hydrant locations and access points. Preincident response planning is the foundation of the incident action plan (IAP). Mitigating fires or emergencies in an industrial setting requires implementation of plans, preparation, and proper use of resources coordinated by an effective emergency management organization. However, even with a plan in place, success is not guaranteed. When preincident planning, one way to ensure all points are covered is to use the 15-point size-up acronym COAL TWAS WEALTHS and develop a checklist to ensure all points are considered. Each letter represents an item to be considered during size-up. By gathering as much of this information during site visits and preincident response planning, the incident commander can format an IAP much easier, and items to be addressed during size-up can be identified. Jim Mason, lieutenant, Chicago (IL) Fire Department Response: We do prefire planning with in-service suppression units. The inspections are primarily on commercial occupancies, schools, and the public areas of mixed-use buildings like stores with apartments. We don’t go into the private dwelling areas of these buildings. The primary reason for the inspections is to look for building code violations. The fire prevention section provides the addresses for the companies. The information acquired goes to the fire prevention bureau for enforcement purposes. We also do a “target hazard” inspection in which the company determines the address to be examined. These are buildings the company officers feel need to be gone through much more closely than the average occupancies in the area. The decision to inspect them is based on heavy occupancies like convalescent homes or even high-rises, but it could also be for buildings maintained under current codes or that have had occupancy changes over the years. The prevention bureau does not necessarily know the criteria for these inspections, but the firefighters working in the area know them. The inspectors look for ways to improve the response, such as the existence of installed systems, occupancy problems, and initial placement of the firstdue companies. A written form is completed and turned into district headquarters. The information is soon made available for all units responding to the address. David Rhodes, battalion chief, Atlanta (GA) Fire Department Response: Our department does not have an organized preplan system. This has been an on-again/off-again task that is currently off. Preplans are now done by self-initiative and include mostly target hazards such as fuel storage facilities. When we did preplans, our lack of a central repository and distribution system relegated the documents to a file cabinet or maybe on the battalion chief’s vehicle. Our department operates without mobile data terminals, so the preplans we have are paper copies and are limited to the first-due station. Since our program is off Enter 120 at 0901FE_30 30 1/7/09 9:12:07 AM
  33. 33. Enter 121 at 0901FE_31 31 1/7/09 9:12:14 AM
  34. 34. ROUNDTABLE again, updated preplans are left to the initiative of the company officer or battalion chief. Our fire companies do a minimum of 10 building familiarizations per month, but there is no system for capturing and sharing the information gathered. Bobby Shelton, firefighter, Cincinnati (OH) Fire Department Response: Every fire company in our department is responsible for fire safety inspections in their running areas. According to our procedures manual, it is the company commanders’ responsibility to do prefire plans of high-hazard occupancies such as medical facilities, industrial occupancies, and educational institutions. A copy of those plans and the information that should be provided on the plans are to be kept on the company level; a copy is sent to the Fire Prevention Bureau. On a regular basis, fire safety inspections are performed to keep company members familiar with occupancies and any changes that may occur within the structures. From time to time, the district chief may have a drill in a high-hazard occupancy in his district so that all companies on the first alarm can do a walk-through and discuss strategy and tactics as well as any special characteristics of the scene of which all members should be aware. Jeffrey Schwering, lieutenant, Crestwood (MO) Department of Fire Services Response: We have incorporated our prefire planning into our annual business inspection program, performed by our engine companies. This enables all members to take an active role in the preplanning process. The chief and assistant chief/fire marshal approve all preplans. The preplans are made readily available to all platoons for training purposes. Preplans are used in company drills, including those with our automatic-aid companies, to keep all responders on the same page. All preplans are based on a checklist used by all personnel and contain the size of the structure, utilities, construction, nearest hydrant, and other information that alerts our officers and members to what they may face. Also, our equipment may be on other assignments and an automatic-aid company would be first due to an incident in our city. The preplans are in the vehicles of the chief and assistant chief. Copies of the preplans are also in the captain’s office. We are preparing to make the preplan books available in the apparatus for our engine companies. The program has proven to be positive for our community and our department. It has been at least 10 years since our department has recorded a fire loss in a commercial business. The program will be updated and changed as our buildings change, to ensure the safety of all members. Ethan Holmes, firefighter, Wyomissing (PA) Fire Department Response: Our department members assist the fire commissioner in conducting fire inspections and developing prefire plans on the type of construction, utility locations, emergency contact information for normal operating hours and after hours, hydrant locations, alarm panel locations with applicable codes, special hazards (i.e., hazmats), fire protection sys- Enter 122 at 0901FE_32 32 1/7/09 9:12:16 AM
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  40. 40. ROUNDTABLE tems, and a drafted plan of the occupancy. We enter all of the information into our computers on our apparatus, where it can be easily located by street address, occupant name, or preplan number. A current hard copy of the plans is also kept in three-ring binders in the cab. We annually inspect our preplan guides and update them as needed unless there is a change of business prior to our annual updates. Richard Wood, captain, Enterprise Fire Company #1, Phoenix, NY Response: We did walk-throughs with the department in the past, but no one took notes or made a layout of the building. When I was voted in as captain in charge of training, I made up a sheet and gave one to all members going through the building; if one person saw something, he could note it so that all members would know what we are looking for in a building walk-through. After the walk-through, we would sit down and talk about what we saw and the problems we found. The list of what we were looking for was not the greatest, but it was a start. The information gathered is kept in a three-ring binder in the apparatus and the chiefs’ vehicles so first-due vehicles have the basic information on the building. Mike Bucy, assistant chief, Portage (IN) Fire Department Response: We revised our prefire planning process several times. We used to require loads of time and data but found the results were too “bulky” for our needs. We have since revised the information to a one-page sheet (two sheets if a map is included) that consists of the most basic information—location and contacts, hydrants in the area, size (which then calculates needed fire flow), construction type, hazards to personnel, and sprinkler systems. They are put into PDF form and added to the computers in the apparatus. Mark K. Stigers, assistant chief, Middletown Fire Protection District, Louisville, KY Response: We developed a multipage information-gathering template for our preplans that is included in the final preplan that gives the IC the detailed information he may need. We also put some of the more important data on a one-sheet “quick reference” page for the company commanders to use on initial arrival. Floor plans are added for new buildings by obtaining PDF files and inserting various information on these drawings from our preplan software. In cases where floor plans are not available, we draw them using the preplan software. We now place the preplans in binders; we recently acquired computers in the apparatus and command vehicles and use a thumb drive to access the preplans. It is easier to update using this system than going to each computer and updating; the company commander goes to our intranet site and downloads the updates. Edward Moore Jr., lieutenant, Jackson (NJ) Fire District 3 Response: We use a computer database program created by members of the fire district. The program is broken down into information screens for all EXPERIENCE OUR NEW SHIELD BUILDER AT : 1.800.955.8489 PAUL CONWAY YOUR SINGLE SOURCE FOR SHIELDS EQUIPMENT ALL FIREFIGHTER GEAR. SHIELDS FOR ANY STYLE OF HELMET TRADITIONAL OR MODERN. Enter 123 at 0901FE_34 34 1/7/09 9:12:26 AM
  41. 41. Enter 124 at 0901FE_35 35 1/7/09 9:12:33 AM
  42. 42. ROUNDTABLE four fire districts in town. The information gathered is also broken down into categories: Street Preplan, Business Preplan, Residential Preplan, Fire Hydrants, and Landing Zones. Street Preplan shows a map of the area along with directions from the fire station, hydrant locations, listings of all houses and all businesses on the street, intersecting streets with address ranges, and a map page overview graphic. Business Preplan contains all informa- tion for a commercial property. Information collected includes building construction, length, width and height, fire hydrants, auxiliary appliances, utilities, hazards, and pictures and maps. Contact information includes business owner, occupant, maintenance, and emergency contact. Each business has a drawing of the floor plan attached to the file along with general pictures of the building. Each preplan is updated annually, when the crew performs annual fire inspections. PERFECTED, PROVEN TRUSTED THE TECHNOLOGY LEADER SINCE 1989 FoamPro, the industry leader in foam management technology, offers the widest variety of fully automatic and easy-to-use proportioning and refill systems. Microprocessor-driven technology and flow-based automatic operation assures precision solution on demand. Specify the best on your apparatus. 1-800-533-9511 w w w. f o a m p r o . c o m Enter 125 at 0901FE_36 36 Residential Preplan includes the number of stories, house type, fuel, primary entrance, hazard information, basement, truss roofs, and swimming pools for water supply. A picture of Division A of the residence is also provided. Each fire apparatus has a laptop computer with touch-screen capability. The information is synchronized with the main computer server at the fire station. Responders can have access to information about any location. Brent Sanger, assistant chief, Atkinson (GA) Volunteer Fire Department Response: Our small volunteer department has a limited number of members. Our department conducts prefire plans using members available at the time. Prior to conducting prefire plans, all members undergo a training class explaining what a prefire plan is, how to conduct it, what to look for, and how to address questions or concerns from the business owners in the area. Before we began our prefire planning, a letter was sent to all occupancies in our district explaining what we would be doing, why, and how our members would be dressed. The last item was included to help reduce security concerns at some businesses. These occupancies include churches, schools, daycare centers, as well as regular businesses. So far there has been little resistance. After all our plans are complete, full copies are kept on all engines; simpler versions are distributed to neighboring departments that respond automatic aid to our district. Susan M. Kirk, fire prevention officer, Warren County (VA) Fire and Rescue Services Response: Three years ago when I started preplanning, there were a few plans in a file cabinet with some wellgathered information, but there was no way to readily access it for use at an incident. We realized that something had to be done; I organized and revamped this program. Our fire suppression units now complete preplans and submit information gathered to the fire administration, where they get put into an organized three-tier format. We have unit books for quick access that include basic written information, a site drawing, and a floor plan. 1/7/09 9:12:34 AM
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  44. 44. ROUNDTABLE Our second tier is our Command book, which travels with all officers for more in-depth material safety data sheets on hazardous substances, aerial and site photographs, emergency plans, contractor blueprints, and alarm system zone maps. Our third tier is our digital program; the chief, dispatch, or I can immediately e-mail our preplans to anyone with computer access. If we should call a specialty team in, we can e-mail them the information about the incident with all the preplan information at a touch of a button. A team three hours away will know the size and impact of the incident before even leaving home base. We have even placed these preplans with our mutual-aid companies in two separate jurisdictions and have made them available to our local Sheriff’s Office Tactical Team. Our fire suppression units gather this information on a predetermined form so all information is organized and uniform. Information includes building address and key holder information, key box information, building construction and features, water supply and suppression information, utility shutoff locations, alarm system features, exposures, concerns for life safety and health, chemical and tank information, and occupancy and hours of operation. A written format streamlines the forms and distribution. This program has decreased on-scene call time and resulted in more effective emergency mitigation. It has strengthened our relationships with local commercial businesses and has made us visible to the public. Richard Wilson, lieutenant, Bartlett (IL) Fire District Response: Our fire companies and medic companies conduct fire preplans. As we complete company inspections, one of our members draws the exterior of the building, noting entrances/exits, utilities, and special hazards. The preplans are limited to the information needed to make a great start at suppression if needed. The problem we had before establishing this preplan committee, headed by our Fire Prevention chief, was that everyone wanted to see different requirements. After the information has been gathered, it is now input into a computer program. Our next step is to have the information loaded to our laptops as well as our battalion chief’s vehicle. Beyond that, perhaps if other departments purchase that program, we may be able to link the information so that neighboring towns responding to our incidents will be able to have a heads up as well. Enter 127 at 38 January 2009 FIRE ENGINEERING 0901FE_38 38 Paul Dove, fire marshal, Coldwater (MI) Fire Department Response: Our department’s platoon members survey various buildings based on training assignments and target hazards annually. We also create CAD preincident survey drawings based on fire prevention inspections. These drawings are used during the platoon’s on-site surveys; changes discovered in occupancy, hazards, operations, and construction are noted so the stored plans can be revised. Information includes hazardous materials locations and products, utilities, fire protection systems and details, emergency contacts, floor plans, hazards, acces- 1/7/09 9:12:38 AM
  45. 45. Enter 128 at 0901FE_39 39 1/7/09 9:12:43 AM
  46. 46. ROUNDTABLE sibility, water supply, building construction, and egress points. The completed surveys are stored electronically on our city’s backed-up server; a copy is also added to each platoon and the administration’s preincident survey book. The plans are also loaded and updated to a board laptop as necessary; updated paper copies are distributed to all personnel as needed. Access to the plans is available through wireless Internet on the onboard laptop; the plans are also accessible by other jurisdictional agencies for use in addition to accessible mapping and utility plans for our jurisdiction. Jay Womack, lieutenant, Euclid (OH) Fire Department Response: Our department distributes building inspection forms to each company in the city monthly. The company officer ensures that these inspections are completed by the end of the month and are turned over to our Fire Prevention Bureau. The Bureau conducts follow-ups when the fire company doing inspections issues a hazard correction notice to the business owner. The inspection cards have pertinent information on one side: construction, fire protection, and the emergency key holders’ phone numbers. The reverse side of the card has the following: a plot plan that shows means of ingress and egress, hazards, and utility shutoffs. It is up to the crew to update the emergency contact information and to make changes to the plot plan to reflect the occupancy’s current layout. All of the data collected on the inspection cards/preplans is entered into the platoon chief’s computer, mounted in the command vehicle, for easy reference at the fire scene. These visits help us to visualize fire conditions in the building and run a hypothetical scenario of our tactics. We have found it beneficial to update our preplans. Just last week, for example, we came across a rear door of a commercial structure that appeared to be a simple steel exterior door. A closer look from the inside revealed a second door constructed of metal bars that had three deadbolts. This information went on the inspection card preplan form; it may one day save a life. George Potter, fire protection specialist (ret.), Board of Governors of Spain’s Firefighters Association Response: Prefire planning is a vital part of the emergency response plan. This document should include the following: accurate descriptions of the facility including location, access, construction information, and data on the activities carried out; fuels present and their locations and quantities; specific hazards; fire protection measures; resources available (and those recommended/necessary); and proposed emergency response actions to be executed within the entity’s internal structure (should you confirm alarms and evacuate, leaving the situation for the local emergency services to resolve, or stand and fight according to their capabilities and safety levels?). These internal response documents make it possible for firefighters and officers to foresee what could happen and how to act before a relatively small incident can become a disaster. Enter 129 at 0901FE_40 40 1/7/09 9:12:44 AM
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  48. 48. ROUNDTABLE One of the major faults, however, is that often a business or an industry will say that the emergency plan is in compliance with workplace safety legislation and effect only minimum implementation, limited response personnel training, little or no simulated emergency situation drills, and so on—without inviting the local fire department to come, watch, and participate. However, if the fire department is invited to take an active role in the implementation of the plan, comment on the results, and contribute suggestions for improvements, industry will have a solid partner to work with if and when an emergency should occur in the establishment. A great number of occupancies (industries, hospitals, commercial malls, high-rises, and so on) are required to have emergency response or self-protection plans. You should have copies available for all personnel in the department for consultation, to coordi- nate visits and tours, and to participate in the practical training of their personnel. Once you get these elements into your response procedures, the chances of successfully resolving emergencies improve dramatically. Thomas Sharpe, lieutenant, Hilda (SC) Fire Department Response: Ours is a small-town department, but we do have preplans on hydrant location and gallons per minute (gpm) information, basic facility information, type of construction, utility disconnects, unusual hazards, exposures, inside firefighting equipment information, needed fire flow, and after-hours contact. The plans are for businesses and places of public assembly. Nick Morgan, firefighter, St. Louis (MO) Fire Department Response: All front-line companies are required to conduct a prefire walkthrough inspection of buildings in their first-in still district at least three times per month on each shift. Of course, not all of our companies take this as seriously as they should. We have a basic guideline for each inspection that requires companies to record or update information on building layout, fire suppression or detection systems, the number and locations of nearby hydrants, the locations of utility shutoffs such as gas and electric, the locations of annunciator panels and emergency exits, a very basic description of construction type, and a brief narrative specifying which companies will respond to a first-alarm fire and the positions they will take on arrival. The information is compiled and kept in binders, which are kept in the office of each company’s captain. This is one of the most important routine tasks fire companies can perform. However, I believe the information we require is insufficient for the hazards presented by modern methods of building construction and fire loading. With the many new buildings being erected in our city, companies need to go out and walk through these buildings while they are under construction to see how they are being built. Finished buildings are deceptive. We are seeing increasing numbers of buildings with lightweight components Enter 131 at 0901FE_42 42 1/7/09 9:12:49 AM
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  50. 50. ROUNDTABLE such as trusses and wooden I-beams, tilt-up masonry walls, and lightweight steel framing and wall studs. In addition, many of the older buildings in the city are undergoing all types of rehab work, which completely changes the layout and fire loading of the structures, as well as adds lightweight building components to buildings that previously did not have them. On-duty companies should take every opportunity to visit these buildings, especially during construction or rehab, and become familiar with their layout and the hazards to firefighters created by the modern construction materials and practices. This information should be assimilated into a computer-based preplan system so that all of the companies in the city have ready access to it if a fire should occur in one these structures. Hugh Stott, deputy chief, West Chicago (IL) Fire District Response: For several years, our companies were out doing prefire surveys—measurement of the footprint of the building, the location of the key box, the location of the utility shutoffs, building construction hazards, overhead wires, chemical storage, the direction and distances to hydrants, and the location of alarm panels. That information was then entered into a computer to be converted into a usable and consistent format. We have been using mobile data computers for a few years to bring mobile mapping and incident information from the fire alarm office to our first-due apparatus. The data must be kept current. The keyholder and contact information is kept as current as practical by the alarm office, which receives the information from the Fire Prevention Bureau. Mike Reeves, captain, Lynchburg (VA) Fire Department Response: Our department conducted surveys in the past and filed them away, never to be seen again. We are now revisiting them under the name of “fire safety surveys.” This time we purchased a computer program in which to store the surveys. When a company is dispatched to an address where one of these surveys has been conducted, a pop-up on the responding unit’s computer makes the information available to all responding units. This program is in the early stages; it will take a long time to cover all businesses in town for information on water supply, hydrant location, key information, contacts, the building size and occupancy, and much more. In addition to information, digital photos and aerial views of the structures will be available. Rick DeGroot, deputy chief, Summit (NJ) Fire Department Response: Our small municipal department protects a suburban city of 25,000 in the NY/NJ metro area. We have recently implemented a program in which the suppression shifts are responsible for conducting preplans of commercial and multifamily buildings. Each platoon is assigned two building locations a month and performs site visits as a group while in service. One of the shift battalion chiefs is responsible for coordinating the program with the four duty shifts. Information includes construction type, occupancy, building status, emergency contacts, building size and layout, location of utility Enter 133 at 0901FE_44 44 1/7/09 9:12:56 AM
  51. 51. Enter 134 at 0901FE_45 45 1/7/09 9:12:59 AM
  52. 52. ROUNDTABLE shutoffs, fire suppression and detection systems, exposure information, water supply availability, access problems, and any other hazards. The building is then given a numerical rating based on all of these factors, resulting in a risk assessment score. The crews also take digital photos of the building from all exposures and also try to get a picture of the roof. A drawing is also prepared using CAD software to produce interior floor plans and an exterior plot plan of the building. We try to secure floor plans from the building owner, if available. All this information is then uploaded into a commercially available software program that allows access via the Internet. We are also in the process of equipping our front-line apparatus with laptops to access this information in the field. Our experience has been very positive so far. Building intelligence is a critical component of what we do, and many of us have overlooked 2.8 MILLION BTU VS. YOUR TRAINEES Challenge your trainees to fight the MAGNUM Fire Training System with extinguishers or handlines for full scale hands-on training. With an output of 2.8 million BTU your trainees feel the heat and learn how to respond. Smart Controls shutdown the auto-ignition only if the fire is knocked out completely. For more information visit us online at [ 1-888-4BULLEX ] [ WWW.BULLEXSAFETY.COM ] Enter 135 at 0901FE_46 46 it for years. Taking advantage of available technology to get this critical information to our firefighters at the emergency scene can help to make our jobs safer and to better protect the public. Chris Stephens, lieutenant, Decatur Township (IN) Fire Department Response: Unfortunately, our department has no formal prefire planning program. The administration will support company officers who want to initiate an aggressive prefire planning program within their companies. The company with which I operate began an aggressive prefire planning program two years ago. We began with the buildings in our immediate response area and then spread out into our seconddue areas. We looked at several types of preplan sheets and chose one used by a neighboring department. It includes address, occupancy, building construction type, box assignment, exposures, fire flows, predicted strategies, and anticipated problems. We use the reverse side of the sheet, which is blank, to draw a rough sketch of the building layout. If the building is a simple structure, we record all interior walls, doors, etc. The more complex the structure, the more we do not do this. At the least, we record the building’s shape, egress/ingress points, hydrant locations, and gas/electric meter location. If a building has standpipe or sprinkler connections, we record their locations along with the location of the riser rooms. Once the information is finalized, we put the preplan sheet into a binder that is kept on our engine. We do this to allow the first-due officer to refer to the information or to pass the binder on to the IC if it is a working incident. The final step is to pass the information on to the other shifts; this is done verbally, or the officer/ firefighter reviews the preplan sheets. If there is a serious building hazard or code violation, we notify our code/prevention department immediately. Andy Krajewski, battalion chief, Golden Gate Fire Control Rescue District, Naples, FL Response: We have prefire plans on every front-line apparatus, reserve pumper, and shift battalion chief’s ve- 1/7/09 9:13:00 AM
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