Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Em mag nov09
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Em mag nov09

630
views

Published on

Conheça um pouco mais de nossos serviços de BOMBEIRO INDUSTRIAL em www.resgate.com

Conheça um pouco mais de nossos serviços de BOMBEIRO INDUSTRIAL em www.resgate.com

Published in: Business, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
630
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. inside: Long-term recovery gets too little attention Rebuilding New Orleans public schools HELL ON RISE IN DEADLY WILDFIRES HAS COMMUNITIES WORLDWIDE RETHINKING STRATEGIES Issue 6 — Vol. 4 November/December 2009
  • 2. The Premier Industrial Emergency Event SAFETY SECURITY SHIPPING/RAIL HAZMAT TRANSPORTATION PETROCHEMICAL/CHEMICAL FACILITIES MEDICAL POWER PLANTS EMS FIRE Sponsoring Organization: 5 th ANNUAL HOUSTON, TX For more information, visit www.ifssevent.com or call 832-242-1969. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 3. TCIP 201 0 TECHNOLOGIES FOR CRITICAL INCIDENT PREPAREDNESS Conference and Exposition February 2–4, 2010 Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Set in historic downtown Philadelphia—with more than 1,500 attendees, and numerous technology exhibits and demonstrations expected—TCIP 2010 is not to be missed. tcipexpo.com Discover cutting-edge technologies and training tools ■ Registration is FREE! ■ Share and discuss best practices ■ Exchange ideas and network with experts Potential Session Topics: Virtual USA, Pandemic Preparedness and Response, Addressing the Active Shooter Threat, and Lessons Learned/Best Practices in Recent Rail Incidents. Critical Connections Linking Responders with Technology Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 4. ON THE COVER 22 Hell on Earth The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to rethink how they handle infernos. Contents Cover photo provided by Ross Beckley FEATURES 40 Recovery Starts Now Emergency management experts say long-term recovery gets too little attention, but should be a critical component of prevention. DEPARTMENTS 46 Community Ties Santa Barbara County, Calif., moves disaster planning and coordination forward by teaming with a charity and a private company. 50 A Recipe for Chaos States and locals will have to quickly find ways to spend stimulus cash. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE BURNFIRE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE 4 EM11_04.indd 4 12/8/09 2:09:32 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 5. Windows®. Life without Walls™. Dell recommends Windows. TOUGH THIN DELL INTRODUCES THE THINNEST RUGGEDIZED TABLET ON THE MARKET. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 6. Group Publisher: PHOTO COURTESY OF JOCELYN AUGUSTINO/FEMA Steve Towns stowns@govtech.com EDITORIAL Editor: Jim McKay jmckay@govtech.com Associate Editor: Elaine Pittman epittman@govtech.com Managing Editor: Karen Stewartson kstewartson@govtech.com Assistant Editor: Matt Williams mwilliams@govtech.com Features Editor: Andy Opsahl aopsahl@govtech.com James Featherstone, General Manager, Los Angeles Emergency Management Department Chief Copy Editor: Miriam Jones mjones@govtech.com Staff Writer: Hilton Collins hcollins@govtech.com Editorial Assistant: Cortney Towns ctowns@govtech.com DESIGN Creative Director: Senior Designer: Graphic Designer: Illustrator: Production Director: Production Manager: Kelly Martinelli kmartinelli@govtech.com Crystal Hopson chopson@govtech.com Michelle Hamm mhamm@govtech.com Tom McKeith tmckeith@govtech.com Stephan Widmaier swidm@govtech.com Joei Heart jheart@govtech.com PUBLISHING VP of Strategic Accounts: VP Bus. Development: Major Player 10 Scott Fackert sfackert@govtech.com Executive Editor: 20 Contributors Martin Pastula mpastula@govtech.com Publisher: REST OF THE BOOK 8 Tim Karney tkarney@govtech.com VP Emergency Management/ Homeland Security: Contents Don Pearson dpearson@govtech.com Founding Publisher: Jon Fyffe jfyffe@govtech.com Tim Karney tkarney@govtech.com East Regional Sales Directors: East West, Central Point of View 54 12 Account Managers: Products Are Blue-Light Phones Necessary? West, Central Melissa Cano mcano@govtech.com Erin Gross egross@govtech.com Business Development Director: Glenn Swenson gswenson@govtech.com Bus. Dev. Managers: Lisa Doughty ldoughty@govtech.com John Enright jenright@govtech.com Pat Hoertling phoertling@govtech.com Kevin May kmay@govtech.com Regional Sales Administrators: Sabrina Shewmake sshewmake@govtech.com Christine Childs cchilds@govtech.com National Sales Administrator: Jennifer Valdez jvaldez@govtech.com Director of Marketing: Andrea Kleinbardt akleinbardt@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Events: Whitney Sweet wsweet@govtech.com Associate Dir. of Custom Events: Lana Herrera lherrera@govtech.com Custom Events Coordinator: Karin Morgan kmorgan@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Publications: Stacey Toles stoles@govtech.com Custom Publications Writer: Jim Meyers jmeyers@govtech.com Director of Web Vikki Palazzari vpalazzari@govtech.com Products and Services: Web Services Manager: Peter Simek psimek@govtech.com Custom Web Products Manager: Michelle Mrotek mmrotek@govtech.com Web Advertising Manager: Julie Dedeaux jdedeaux@govtech.com Web Services/Project Coordinator: Adam Fowler afowler@govtech.com Subscription Coordinator: Gosia Colosimo subscriptions@govtech.com East 56 In the News Eric’s Corner: 14 Lessons Observed, not Learned Quick Action 58 The Louisiana Recovery School District teamed with FEMA for a speedy beginning on the long path of rebuilding New Orleans public schools. Last Word Don’t Ignore Needs of the Children 18 EM Bulletin CORPORATE CEO: Executive VP: Executive VP: CAO: CFO: VP of Events: Marketing Director: Attend All-Hazards, All-Stakeholders Summits Emergency Management to visit San Francisco, Seattle and Houston in 2010. The face of emergency management is becoming more complex and the challenges are increasing. This makes it even more important to engage in crossjurisdictional relationships and to learn and share solutions for community preparedness and disaster mitigation. The All-Hazards, All-Stakeholders Summits will address best practices to prepare for and mitigate natural and man-made hazards, such as fires, earthquakes, mudslides and terror threats. The events will provide community leaders and emergency managers the opportunity to forge new cross-jurisdictional relationships and exchange knowledge. 6 Leslie Hunter lhunter@govtech.com Shelley Ballard sballard@govtech.com Topics include: ✓ innovating solutions and technology; ✓ best practices on collaborative emergency management planning; and ✓ newest U.S. Department of Homeland Security and FEMA initiatives. Join us for summits in San Francisco, Seattle, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami and Boston. For registration information, contact Jeremy Smith at 800/917-7732 ext. 1402 or jsmith@govtech.com. Dennis McKenna dmckenna@govtech.com Don Pearson dpearson@govtech.com Cathilea Robinett crobinet@centerdigitalgov.com Lisa Bernard lbernard@govtech.com Paul Harney pharney@govtech.com Alan Cox acox@govtech.com Drew Noel dnoel@govtech.com Government Technology’s Emergency Management is published by e.Republic Inc. © 2009 by e.Republic Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed by writers are not necessarily those of the publisher or editors. Article submissions should be sent to the attention of the Managing Editor. Reprints of all articles in this issue and past issues are available (500 minimum). Please direct inquiries to the YGS Group: Attn. Mike Shober at (800) 290-5460 ext.129 or governmenttechnology@theygsgroup.com. Subscription Information: Requests for subscriptions may be directed to subscription coordinator by phone or fax to the numbers below. You can also subscribe online at www.emergencymgmt.com. Canada Post Publication Mail Agreement 40048640, undeliverables 2-7496 Bath Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4T 1L2 100 Blue Ravine Road, Folsom, CA 95630 Phone: (916)932-1300 Fax: (916)932-1470 www.emergencymgmt.com e The inside pages of this publication are printed on 80 percent de-inked recycled fiber. A publication of EM11_04.indd 6 12/8/09 2:10:02 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 7. For safety administrators, waiting is not an option. When it comes to public safety, getting the right resources to the right spot simply can’t wait. The BlackBerry Tour™ with GPS tracking is here to help. Dispatchers can track resources and route employees to the jobsite, all with just the flick of a thumb or two. It’s getting easier to stay on top of things. All kinds of things. Only on the Now Network.™ 1-800-SPRINT-1 sprint.com/business The B lackB erry ®T ou r™ 9630 smart phone ® Coverage not available everywhere. The 3G Sprint Mobile Broadband Network reaches over 255 million people. Offers not available in all markets/retail locations or for all networks. Other restrictions apply. See store or sprint.com for details. ©2009 Sprint. Sprint and the logo are trademarks of Sprint. Research In Motion, the RIM logo, BlackBerry, the BlackBerry logo and SureType are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and may be pending or registered in other countries—these and other marks of Research In Motion Limited are used with permission. Other marks are the property of their respective owners. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 8. Contributors Paul Wormeli Hilton Collins Contributing Writer Staff Writer Wormeli is co-chairman of the NIEM Communications and Outreach Committee. He is also the executive director of the IJIS Institute. He can be reached at paul.wormeli @ijis.org. Collins is a staff writer for Government Technology magazine. He’s written extensively on IT security and work force issues. Prior to joining Government Technology, Collins wrote for the Davis (Calif.) Life Magazine on various subjects. Matt Williams Assistant Editor Williams is the assistant editor of Government Technology magazine. He was formerly a sportswriter for newspapers, and was a researcher for Sports Illustrated. Andy Opsahl Features Editor Elaine Pittman Opsahl joined Government Technology in 2005. He regularly covers government IT outsourcing and private-sector solutions in government. Opsahl also writes for Government Technology’s Public CIO. Associate Editor Pittman is also a staff writer and copy editor for Government Technology magazine. She previously worked as a copy editor for the Fort Collins Coloradoan. Jim McKay Editor McKay also is the justice and public safety editor of Government Technology magazine. He has spent more than a decade as a writer, editor and contributing writer for publications, including The Fresno (Calif.) Bee, The Vacaville (Calif.) Reporter and The Ring magazine. 8 EM11_08.indd 8 12/8/09 2:04:05 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 9. For the high-risk areas you need to protect every day, ADT® has proven homeland security solutions. 5 2 4 6 3 1 1. Government Square 2. Water Treatment Plant 3. University Campus 4. Port Authority 5. Mass Transit/Airport 6. High-crime Zone Security requirements at the city and county levels are more complex than ever. Which is why the resources of ADT Security Services can really help. Not because we’re the world’s largest electronic security company. But because ADT is helping regional and municipal governments like yours, every day, all across America with inter-operable solutions scaled and tailored to your needs. Effective security planning, technology and services for the many public decisions you face: homeland security, life safety, crime prevention, emergency preparedness and more. Our dedicated state and local government sales representatives can help you put together a customized plan for your city or county today. Call 1-866-748-9166 or visit ADT.com/gov to see ADT Homeland Security successes at work. Network Video Mass Notification Access Control Critical Condition Monitoring Schedule 84 Homeland Security SAFETY Act Certified and Designated for Electronic Security Services ADT state license numbers are available for review at www.ADT.com or by contacting 1-800-ADT-ASAP.® ©2010 ADT Security Services, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ADT, the ADT logo, ADT Always There and 1-800-ADT-ASAP are registered trademarks of ADT Services, AG, and are used under license. 73566_ADT_AD9-170.indd 1 12/4/09 5:01:04 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 10. Point of View Are Blue-Light Phones Necessary? When I think about safety on college or university campuses, and distribute emergency information via text messaging and blue-light phones — those iconic, stand-alone towers with a blue Twitter. Twitter is the grapevine of choice for college students, light on the top — aren’t the first thing that jumps to mind. and even for those of us in the “older” generation. The service A college or university campus has different safety concerns relays more information faster than any other medium. than an elementary or secondary school, one being remote Whether blue-light phones are expendable is still debatable locations where students might need help, like parking lots or on most campuses. The major argument for keeping them is deserted quads. The 20-year-old solution has been remote blue- that parents and students want them. Some campuses believe light call boxes with direct access to police dispatch. the units’ visibility adds value to the perception of security, or Given all that, and with the proliferation of cell phones and that they play a role in application decisions, or that repurposing wireless 911 service, how necessary are the blue-light phones? them with cameras and speakers extends their security presence. Certainly today’s units can offer more than just a blue light The fact is, they’re rarely used — and when they are, it’s not for and direct access to police dispatch. They can be purchased or emergencies. For example, they’re used for nonemergency road retrofitted with cameras, sirens and loudspeakers. Emergency service requests, like flat tires or a jump-start. More often, they’re messages can be micro-broadcast to anyone standing in a limited intentionally activated as a prank, which diverts resources from radius. The cameras can watch — like Big Brother — innocent real emergency calls. They have other drawbacks: The lights offer and nefarious activity. a false sense of security — the perception of safety — and they The lights offer a false sense of security — the perception of safety — and they are expensive to install and maintain. But do they really create a safer campus? I posed this question are expensive to install and maintain. Laws or codes don’t require to other college and university emergency managers. I received the lights: there are no standards to govern what they look like or lots of comments and positions, but only one affirmative answer: where they’re placed. Best Public Safety/Trade a reply from one campus describing a call from a student who’d The bottom line is the question of the lights’ return on invest- 2009 Maggie Award just been robbed. By promptly describing the perpetrator, that ment. Where else could our shrinking security dollars be used? person was picked up a short time later. More officers? A better emergency notification system? Buying There are some reasons a campus might want to keep blue- cell phones for students who don’t have one? Campus budgets are light phones, such as failed 911 service or geography that causes being slashed and serious decisions are at hand. We don’t want to spotty wireless coverage. They also might offer some redundancy cut security services any more than we want to cut anything else, if cellular service fails, although most new units depend on radio but we must make choices. reception of some sort. I’m a parent. I have a daughter in college. I’d vote to take the Even so, we should be looking to the future. New technology blue-light phones out and apply that money against the next will resolve reception and delivery problems. Like it or not, tuition hike. k communication is moving inexorably into the wireless realm. There aren’t too many college students who don’t have a cell Valerie Lucus is the emergency and business continuity manager at the University of California, Davis. She also writes the Campus Emergency Management blog at www.emergency mgmt.com. phone, and most of them use cell phones constantly to communicate with their friends. The Virginia Tech shootings and Hurricane Katrina showed how effectively students can receive Valerie Lucus Questions or comments? Please give us your input by contacting our editorial department at editorial@govtech.com, or visit our Web site at www.emergencymgmt.com. L E A D , F O L L O W O R G E T O U T O F T H E W AY. 10 EM11_10.indd 10 12/8/09 2:01:19 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 11. State and Local Solutions Disaster Recovery Wildland Fire Counter-drug Cooperative Purchasing Surplus Personal Property Serving Your Community’s Needs Whether you’re advancing your IT infrastructure, responding to natural disasters, waging the war against drugs, or replacing office furniture, you need quick-and-ready access to mission-critical resources. GSA makes it easy for state and local agencies to procure leading-edge IT products, professional services and solutions, surplus personal property, temporary housing and shelters, firefighting equipment, a variety of law enforcement and security products and services, and much more. By leveraging the government’s buying power, we provide best-value solutions from pre-qualified contractors. Best of all, we put you in control and a step ahead to accomplish the task at hand. GSA is here to help. www.gsa.gov/stateandlocal or (800) 488-3111 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 12. In the News Rhode Island Tracks H1N1 Using Electronic Prescription Data BY ELAINE PITTMAN st our other medications, and we can map that again , Rhode Island TO HELP TRACK H1N1 TRENDS actual disease,” she said. surveillance indicators of c prescription include a health officials are receiving electroni The other surveillance indicators age groups to identify outbreaks based on the reporting data syndromic surveillance system — the data from and ZIP codes. The state receives s for influenza-like illness c link with of emergency room visit retail pharmacies through an electroni sites across the state that also — and 25 physician State health Surescripts, an e-prescriptions network. report influenza-like illness data. h excludes personal ase in the officials view the data, whic “You would expect to see the incre in Tamiflu information, to identify increases medication when you start dispensing of anti-viral ons. ” Zimmerman prescriptions or other anti-viral medicati to see peaks in influenza-like illness, an, chief of health According to Amy Zimmerm the trends; it allows said. “So it allows us to monitor Rhode Island prescribing.” information technology for the us to identify if there’s potentially over state’s of the s Department of Health, 100 percent observing e-prescription trends allow She said s, and 80 l pharmacies can receive e-prescription and ensure that retai state health officials to monitor dispensed ensed. “For percent of those pharmacies can have their anti-virals are being appropriately disp then ts and prescription data aggregated at Surescrip iflu is appropriate to be dispensed for instance, Tam Zimmerman resistant to it used by the state to monitor H1N1. H1N1, but seasonal flu seems to be promoting e-prescribing said the state has been nal flu and not a lot of — so if there’s a lot of seaso Rhode Island lot of Tamiflu since 2003 in collaboration with the H1N1, you would not expect to see a tion. “When Institute, a nonprofit organiza Quality an said. ted to pilot being dispensed,” Zimmerm determine Surescripts first came into being and wan The information helps health officials d Rhode Islan the e-prescribing network, it chose is needed to ensure that antiif additional education to do that,” appropriately. and partnered with the Quality Institute viral medication is being prescribed she said. anti-viral medication If the reports say that a lot of to report information Surescripts uses the pharmacies’ data is being dispensed, but there’s not being s are how much Tamiflu and other anti-viral an outbreak in the area, officials can indicating information findings. dispensed to patients and categorizes the educate doctors in the area about the p. The reports are sent to by ZIP code and age grou th has said, it’s a different “As the director of heal said. the state every two weeks, Zimmerman measure that has become being able to tool; it’s another re together,” “The data is very valuable for very handy in putting the big pictu to see if there monitor trends over time to be able the anti-viral Zimmerman said. k is an increase in the dispensing of 12 EM11_12.indd 12 12/8/09 3:03:28 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 13. California Braces for Mutating H1N1 Virus BY JIM McKAY RESPONSE TO THE H1N1 OUTBREA K will be a marathon, and health-care officials may have difficulty keeping up with a barrage of patients and maintaining supplies. That was one of the messages delive red to an audience of health-care workers at a statew ide disaster planning conference for hospitals called From Readiness to Recovery on Sept. 15 in Sacramento, Calif. Dr. Gilberto Chávez, state epidemiologist and chief of the Center for Infectious Diseases for the California Department of Public Health, said most of the cases of flu in California have been H1N1 and that 1,806 people have been hospitalized and 152 have died (by Nov. 7 those numbers had increased to 5,380 hospi talized and 297 dead). Chávez said there’s a temporary reprie ve from the virus, but that will change this fall. Officials found this summer that although there may have been a good supply of anti-virals, masks and ventilators, they weren’t always easily accessible. One of the lessons learned from this past summer is to develop better communication between governmen t agencies and the private sector, and among governmen t agencies and jurisdictions. k ‘Third Wave’ o f H1N1 Due BY JIM McKAY THE U.S. DEPARTMEN T of Homel Security’s (DH and S) Alexander said even thou Garza tried to fears and pr gh the numbe quell is up ovide answer r of flu infect for this time of s to an inqu ions and anxious year, the deat isitive group in Nov been as great as h rate hasn’t ember at the Annual Intern officials though 57th ational Associa t it might be. A question w tion of Emerge Managers Con as raised abou ncy ference in Orl t why Presiden Barack Obam ando, Fla. a waited so lo t Garza, the DH ng to declare S’ assistant secr a national em the flu etary for health ergency. The affairs and ch ief medical offi participant sa had nine patie id she cer, said eventu everyone who nts dying in ally her intensive wants an H1N unit before th care 1 flu shot will e declaration. able to get on be e and that the “Declaring a na delay in provid the vaccine is tional emerge ing edged n’t because of ncy is a double sword,” Garza a shortage, bu delay in vacc said. “You wan ta ine developm in place [befor t policies ent. Most in interactive sess e it’s done]. A the ion agreed that lso, some peop interpret thin communicatio le among gove gs the wrong ns rnment entit way, as if th something we’r ies and med ere’s facilities need e not telling th ical s to improve. em.” He said there “Developing needs to be [a vaccine] better two-way communicatio from scratch difficult, and n between lo is and the the antigen w cal governm federal govern asn’t growing ents and had to be ment about w well redone,” Garza on in the com hat’s going said. Part of th munities. He sa reason for th e to be mor e delay is th id the response at officials w e of a commun has ensure that th ant to just ity response an e vaccine is sa getting a vaccin d not fe. The vaccin going through e. e is all the same sa One participan fety tests that regular flu vacc t from a med the ine undergoes, Queens, N.Y., ical facility in he said. said the comm Projections ar unication betw e that the va his facility an een ccinations will catch up with d state and lo demand by th cal governmen lacking. Garza e end of Decem t is Garza said. By said fusion ce ber, used to that time, a go nters would help dissemin od portion of be population m ate informatio the “we som ay have natura n and that ehow have to ov l immunity. Although Gar ercome this id za said the intelligence is ea that all “third wave” law enforcem H1N1 is on its of ent related.” k way, there’s so me good new s. He 13 EM11_12.indd 13 12/8/09 3:04:09 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 14. Lessons Learned by Matt Williams Quick Action The floodwaters of New Orleans surrounded this school. New Orleans was evacuated following the breaks in the levees as a result of Hurricane Katrina. The average public school building in New Orleans is nearly 70 years old. But there’s an exception on Trafalgar Street. Opened in August 2009, Langston Hughes Elementary is the first new school built in the city since Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005. The campus includes a media center, high-tech classrooms, a gymnasium and full cafeteria. It replaces the former campus that was damaged by Katrina; class previously was being held in temporary modular classrooms. The difference isn’t lost on students. “You go into that new facility and you see the difference that children feel from that facility is amazing,” said Paul Rainwater, the Louisiana Recovery Authority’s executive director. “It’s a beautiful building.” “Beautiful” hasn’t been a commonly used descriptor for the New Orleans school system — even before Katrina’s destruction. Test scores were down, infrastructure was aging and financial management was lacking. “The public schools in New Orleans were probably the worst school district in the country before Katrina — or one of the [bottom] two: New Orleans and Detroit,” said Ramsey Green, the chief operating officer of the Recovery School District (RSD), which was created in 2003 to take over dozens of schools in the parish that were underperforming. Schools controlled by the RSD had about $1 billion in deferred maintenance that had nothing to do with the storm, he said. That amount more than doubled after Katrina damaged or destroyed 120 school buildings. Due to decreased enrollment after Katrina, the RSD decided to close some schools and rebuild others. As of press time, 37,000 students were attending RSD schools in 85 buildings, Green said. “We agreed not to rebuild 50 schools. And we started construction on what we call the Quick Start PHOTO COURTESY OF JOCELYN AUGUSTINO/FEMA The Louisiana Recovery School District teamed with FEMA for a speedy beginning on the long path of rebuilding New Orleans public schools. program of five new schools in New Orleans about two years ago,” Green said. The new Langston Hughes was the first Quick Start school built, with another four expected to open in 2010. Quick Start is seeded by a $150 million lump sum from the FEMA Public Assistance Program that consolidated 100 separate grants. This innovative “lump sum” funding approach required collaboration by the RSD, FEMA, Louisiana Recovery Authority, Congress and many other stakeholders. State and local officials hope to scale up Quick Start to include the RSD’s capital plan for a complete rebuilding of the New Orleans school system, at a projected $2 billion cost. The ‘Lump Sum’ Approach Rebuilding schools so quickly has been an epic challenge. Quick Start wouldn’t have been possible without legislative changes made at the state, local and federal levels to 14 EM11_14.indd 14 12/8/09 3:09:02 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 15. The Expressway To be Prepared Governmental cooperative purchasing Entities working together to save money! NATIONALLY LEVERAGED PRICING EASY ROUTE ® See for yourself www.TCPN.org Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 16. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE LOUISIANA RECOVERY AUTHORITY Lessons Learned Langston Hughes Elementary opened its doors in August 2009. The state-of-the-art school provides classrooms equipped with the technology for 21st century learning. expedite construction and streamline the disbursement of payments to the RSD and contractors. Katrina was such a catastrophe that the old rules weren’t effective. “The way FEMA works is that after a disaster they come in and do an assessment of a building — they do a quick-and-dirty assessment. They say, ‘OK, you had $2 million of damage. Move on,’” Green said. “But we’re finding that their initial assessments were undervalued by more than 100 percent in many cases.” Green said FEMA sometimes would initially commit (or “obligate”) dollar amounts well short of what was needed. “We’d write a new version of the project worksheet, and see the amount obligated go from $2 million to $30 million. That’s a regular occurrence,” he said. Traditionally FEMA would pay only for damage. Representatives would inspect a building all the way down to moldy ceiling tiles. The RSD and state officials quickly realized that this kind of time-intensive approach wouldn’t work for a project as large as rebuilding an entire school system. Green said Louisiana lobbied and got federal laws changed so that school districts can now transfer funds between projects without incurring a 25 percent penalty. The state also was able to consolidate its National Flood Insurance Program penalties, which saved another $70 million. And FEMA streamlined the reimbursement process further by consolidating the $150 million earmarked for Quick Start into a single grant. Rainwater began working on the RSD in 2008 when Gov. Bobby Jindal appointed him to manage the Louisiana Recovery Authority. Rainwater saw an immediate problem that was bogging down construction: Contractors weren’t being paid in a timely manner. So Louisiana created a new payment system called Express Pay. “When the RSD sends the state an invoice, it used to take 60 days to pay it out. Now it takes between five and 10 days. So we do a cursory look on the front end, and then a tougher audit on the back end. If there’s a mistake — and there has been no fraud — we just credit it on the next invoice,” Rainwater explained. In sum, Rainwater said government officials did all they could to streamline rebuilding without violating the Stafford Act, which is the statutory authority for FEMA’s disaster response. The result is that Langston Hughes Elementary was built and opened in two years. Built to Endure Prior to Katrina, almost none of the schools in New Orleans were built to withstand a flood. Some of them were elevated, but most were built with first-floor kitchens — easily destroyed by a hurricane. By contrast, Langston Hughes Elementary and all other school construction is being built to withstand the next storm. The Louisiana Legislature adopted the International Building Code. “We also have to build to FEMA’s base flood elevation, which means our buildings either have to be raised a minimum of three feet, or they have to be wet or dry flood-proofed,” Green said. The RSD is opening a school in January 2010 that is wet flood-proofed, which means a floodwall is inside the walls — absorbing three to four feet of water without incurring into the building. All windows are missile resistant to absorb 130 mph winds. The RSD also implemented new procedures to minimize damage. The school district went into action before Hurricane Gustav made landfall in 2008. Plastic bags were put over all IT equipment, and computers were moved into hallways so if windows broke they wouldn’t be water damaged. Principals and teachers took photographs of classrooms to document them in case they were damaged and the school district had to go back to FEMA for additional funds. “Had Gustav been worse, we would’ve been a lot better off purely because we learned a lot of lessons after Katrina,” Green said. And those lessons learned extend beyond emergency preparation. The RSD is building its schools to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver standard for green building design. Some schools will have rain catchment systems, dualpane windows and photovoltaic systems. Classrooms also are being modernized to include digital whiteboards and laptops. But those improvements come with a hefty price tag. “Pretty much all that we build is paid for by FEMA, which puts us in an awkward position in trying to do a capital plan,” Green said. “We have a $2 billion rebuilding program that takes place over 10 years, and that’s only partially funded at present [at $750 million]. We believe all of that should be funded by FEMA, and we’re working to get that done.” The purse strings are controlled by Tony Russell, the acting director of the FEMA Louisiana Transitional Recovery Office. Rainwater said because state and local stakeholders are working well with Russell and FEMA on the shared vision, he’s optimistic that an agreement will be reached, even if that means receiving the funds a chunk at a time rather than the preferred lump sum. “What we can’t do is continue this building by building, classroom by classroom. It just takes too long,” Rainwater said. k 16 EM11_14.indd 16 12/8/09 3:09:38 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 17. &/($5,1* 7+( :$< 72 5(&29(5< DISASTER R ECOVERY SPECIALIST Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 18. EM Bulletin Hackers Unite in the Name of Disaster Preparedness PHOTO COURTESY OF JEREMY JOHNSTONE/YAHOO INC. BUILDING A DEVELOPER COMMUNITY to tackle IT issues related to disaster relief isn’t a simple task, but when Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, NASA and the World Bank team up, they mean business. In November, the entities sponsored a two-day event in Mountain View, Calif., — called Random Hacks of Kindness (RHoK) — in which developers tried to solve real-world disaster relief issues with technology. Patrick Svenburg, senior manager of Microsoft Federal Business, said Microsoft, Google and Yahoo recognized that there’s a stovepiped approach to technology because they each have their own systems. For example, he said there were 17 different missing persons databases online during Hurricane Katrina, and “we know how to fix that.” The first RHoK hackathon — an event where programmers met and worked on technological solutions to a defined set of challenges — combined coders and subjectmatter experts to address IT problems related to disaster preparedness and relief. One of the applications developed, called Break Glass, runs on a smartphone and is a combination of an emergency preparedness plan and a disaster notification tool to alert friends and family about one’s well-being. All of the hacks will be posted on GitHub — an open source community — so developers can continue to work on the solutions’ code. THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS faces stiff opposition to its directive to cut down trees within 15 feet of thousands of miles of levees nationwide. The corps said trees can harm the structural integrity of the infrastructure, obscure visibility and impede access for maintenance and inspection, hindering flood-control operations. But opponents said a tree has never been responsible for a levee breach and removing vegetation around levees is an unnecessary cost that harms the environment. Trees are an essential part of the river system, critics say. “Water, as it’s going from the mountains to the oceans, goes under the ground, under the levees, into the floodplain, and as it does it is filtered,” said Bob Freitag, director of the University of Washington’s Institute for Hazards Mitigation Planning and Research. He said that’s the process that provides clean water to the nation’s lakes and rivers, and without vegetation the process is gone. Freitag said a better solution is tiered levees, moving the levees back or removing them altogether. 18 PHOTO COURTESY OF PATSY LYNCH/FEMA National Levee Cleanup EM11_18.indd 18 12/8/09 11:06:27 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 19. Citizens’ Perceived Preparedness Doesn’t Match Measures Taken THE 2009 CITIZEN CORPS NATIONAL SURVEY, a report released by FEMA in August that evaluates the nation’s progress on personal preparedness, indicates that perceived emergency preparedness among citizens can differ from the actual measures they’ve taken. The report highlighted an important finding from the Citizen Preparedness Surveys Database — which contains 102 surveys on individual preparedness, 29 surveys on business preparedness and 11 surveys on school preparedness. The report said, “In nearly all cases, these surveys substantiate that the proportion of those who have taken appropriate preparedness measures is much lower than those that indicate that they are prepared.” Participants were asked to identify potential reasons for not preparing, and 30 percent said the primary reason was that they thought emergency responders would help them in the event of a disaster. Respondents also were asked, “What is the main reason you have not received any preparedness training?” Thirty-three percent said it’s difficult to get information on what to do. DEMONSTRATING A PERFECT BLEND of indigenous traditions and modern hazard mitigation practices, eight villages throughout the flood-prone region of the Pangasinan Province in northwestern Philippines are using the kanungkong — a bamboo communication device — to warn citizens of rising floodwaters. A 2008 study by Lorna Victoria of the United Nations’ International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, describes how the device, which was traditionally used to gather village residents to public meetings or signal a woman’s need for help during labor, was shown to be a highly effective early warning system for floods. The villages established the warning system with help from the Program for Hydro-Meteorological Disaster Mitigation in Secondary Cities in Asia. The system consists of auditory alarms from the kanungkong that coincide with different alert levels. This alarm system combined with staff, gauges and radio communications to signal rising waters from the City Disaster Coordinating Council, proved highly effective during the 2007 monsoon season. Pangasinan was hit by Typhoon Chan-Hom in May 2009 and by typhoons Ketsana and Parma in September and October 2009. PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA PHOTO COURTESY OF U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM Perfect Match: Indigenous Knowledge and Emergency Management Emergency Management 19 EM11_18.indd 19 12/8/09 11:10:17 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 20. Major Player James Featherstone General Manager, Los Angeles Emergency Management Department James Featherstone was appointed general manager of the Los Angeles Emergency Management Department in October 2007. He is a veteran of the Los Angeles Fire Department, and has served in various capacities, such as public information officer, fire academy instructor, chief officer’s staff assistant, station commander and task force commander. Featherstone has worked in numerous crises in Los Angeles, including the 1992 riots, the 1993 firestorm, which burned more than 14,000 acres, and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. He was selected as fire plans officer for the 2000 Democratic National Convention, for which he developed the department’s operational and tactical plans. Earthquakes, mudslides, fires and terrorist threats all are potential disasters in Southern California. How do you stay on top of all of it? We must be prepared for a plethora of natural hazards, and also the potential for some man-made disasters that are unintentional. We have basic preparedness, and we have preparedness specific to certain disasters — what we call “triggers.” We think preparedness is a lot of sharing of preparedness efforts across many different types of disasters, but there’s also a certain amount of specificity depending on what the disaster is. Are the fundamentals the same in terms of preparedness and planning for all disasters? If so, what are the fundamentals? There are some common denominators in disasters or emergencies. One of the things that we look at in emergency management is sometimes called The Five Pillars: situation status; resource status; commander’s intent; whether the commander’s intent is at the tactical level, the strategic level, the grand strategic or policy level; and information management. A standing objective in our [Emergency Operations Center] is crisis information management — how we manage the message. What is going on? What are we doing about it? What would we like the public to do to assist themselves and to assist us? And the final thing is to have processes: a planning process, a prevention process, a response process and a recovery process. The people of L.A. are used to fires, earthquakes and everything else. Does that make it easier, or in some ways harder? Yes to both of those. “Used to” is an interesting phrase because we have our share of fires and other disasters and catastrophes here in Southern California. But we must be careful that we don’t become jaded by these emergencies and crises. So it’s a constant struggle every day to get the message out — to make sure we have a message that goes out that is effective for the response community, the prevention components and the general public. And citizens must realize that they become first responders in times of crisis. How do you get that message across? PHOTO BY: That message is very important. We understand how critical messaging is and we do regular routine messaging — day-to-day messaging — but we also have specific messaging that we push out in times of crisis or potential crisis. We found that by managing the information, it’s a force multiplier for the response effort. k by Jim McKay 20 EM11_20.indd 20 12/8/09 11:55:37 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 21. L - 3 M a r C o m®: FIRST RESPONDERS INTEGRATED INSTANTLY L-3’s MarCom® integrated voice and data hybrid router system provides critical fixed or mobile command stations with seamless interoperable communications for coordination of first responder teams. A MarCom-based command station allows agencies and departments to deploy interoperable communications with existing legacy radios so all calls and messages go through. To learn more, visit L-3com.com/MARCOM or call 856-338-6170. L-3com.com C 3 ISR > GOVERNMENT SERVICES > AM&M > SPECIALIZED PRODUCTS Communication Systems-East Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 22. THE RISE OF MORE DANGEROUS WILDFIRES FORCES COMMUNITIES WORLDWIDE TO RETHINK HOW THEY HANDLE INFERNOS. ON EARTH W HEN FIRES RAGED through southeastern Australia in February 2009, the stunning display of destruction was like to a modern-day hell on Earth. Hundreds of infernos ignited on Saturday, Feb. 7 and spread under torturous weather conditions. Communities were assaulted in the states of Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania. The region’s residents already were suffering through a heat wave — temperatures climbed north of 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Melbourne was scorched by three consecutive days above that threshold in late January before hitting 115 degrees on Feb. 7, the city’s hottest day on record — actually lower than the 118 degrees recorded by Avalon, Victoria, the same day. Winds of more than 60 mph compounded the hazardous conditions. When the blazes began, the gales fanned flames faster than residents or firefighters could react. HILT ON C OL L IN S , S TA F F W RI T E R 22 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 23. PHOTO PROVIDED BY ROSS BECKLEY Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 24. reported that only one building in the entire town was left standing. Firefighting efforts continued for days as temperatures cooled. Casualty reports varied, but a March 9 press release from the Victoria Police confirmed that 173 lives were lost. Although some fires began before or after Feb. 7, that date that month saw the most ferocious blazes. Consequently that day is widely called “Black Saturday.” CALIFORNIA’S ‘100-YEAR BLAZES’ SHOW AUSTRALIA THE WAY PHOTO PROVIDED BY ROSS BECKLEY Corp. reported the same day that 1,300 homes were lost northeast of Melbourne. According to a Feb. 8 Brisbane Times story, up to 80 percent of Marysville, Victoria, was destroyed by flames. An article in The Australian, also dated Feb. 8, Areas Most Affected by the Fires SOURCE: SYDNEY MORNING HERALD The parched environment and the blazes’ ferocity exceeded everything fire agencies had experienced previously, according to Steve Warrington, a deputy chief officer of the Country Fire Authority (CFA). “We know that a fire will go so fast under certain conditions. Of course, when you’re working in conditions that you haven’t seen before, it’s very hard to predict what that fire’s going to do,” he said. More than 4,000 firefighters from different agencies were dispatched. Many came from the CFA or the Victorian government’s Department of Sustainability and Environment. In some places, witnesses reported seeing flames leaping more than 300 feet high and melting aluminum. The convection effect from fire plumes generated winds that appeared to unscrew trees from the ground; the bushfires occurred primarily in rural areas and grasslands. “It was well beyond the norm,” Warrington said. And that experience is being felt worldwide as climate change, population growth and other factors increase the danger from wildfires. In Australia, news outlets chronicled the catastrophic damage. The Irish Times reported on Feb. 9 that flames scorched more than 1 million acres, and the Australian Broadcasting Victoria can do nothing but recuperate and prepare for the next big blaze. Californians know this well. More than 340,000 acres in California were burned by fires from Aug. 1 to Sept. 7, 2009. Flames from the Station Fire in unincorporated Los Angeles killed two firefighers and destroyed more than 160 structures in about a week. In another example, then-Lt. Gov. John Garamendi declared a state of emergency in August for the Lockheed Fire — a blaze that prompted the evacuation of approximately 2,400 people in the Santa Cruz Mountains and destroyed nearly 8,000 acres. Those were just two fires among thousands in California in 2009. According to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, 6,000 fires burned from Jan. 1 to Aug. 29. In 2008, 4,500 burned in the same period. 24 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 25. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 26. IMAGE COURTESY OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION the hope that some changes could be made for this fire season,” said Professor John Handmer of the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University). He’s also the director of the Centre for Risk and Community Safety, which conducts research for the Royal Commission. The interim report doesn’t address key issues like fuel management or how to remove and relocate dry wood, grass and other natural materials that can strengthen flames. However, the document includes recommendations for improving emergency notification for the 20092010 bushfire season. The final version of the report is due July 2010. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE BURNFIRE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE “Before the last five or six years, it was, ‘Well, this is a once-in-a-100-year event,’” said Lou Paulson, a fire captain for the Contra Costa County Fire District and president of the California Professional Firefighters. Previously 15 years or more would pass between notable wildfires. “They’re now coming all the time,” Paulson said. That means authorities might have to rethink fire mitigation and preparation since these scorchers are becoming more frequent. In Victoria, Australia’s government didn’t waste time getting to work. The 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission was formed on Feb. 16 to investigate the fires’ causes, and to address preparation and response for the next one. The commission has engaged citizens for their views and is working with researchers, emergency services personnel and other publicsector entities. The commission released an interim report in August. “It was released with One month after the fires, Marysville, Victoria, was still closed to public access. All of Main Street was destroyed, except two buildings, a motel and a bakery. The Victoria fires sprang up in several rural locations. Victoria’s rural population comprised more than 1 million people in 2007. Although Victoria has more than 5 million residents, most live in the capital city of Melbourne, which was largely unaffected by the catastrophe. Warrington said ground forces were so blindsided by the fires that they couldn’t get a handle on them quickly, much less make speedy assessments for the public. “It went faster, longer and harder than we’d predicted,” Warrington said. “When you’ve got a 15-minute window to warn a community that they’re about to be engulfed by fire, it becomes very, very difficult. It’s not just about the window. What do the people do under those circumstances? You can’t evacuate them. You can’t put them on the road. You just hope like heck they bunker down in that environment.” This difficulty impeded the government’s ability to relay information quickly enough. “It was faster than we were able to know ourselves as a firefighting service,” Warrington said of the fire. “And therefore, if we didn’t know, we couldn’t communicate that to the public, so we were criticized for that.” The interim report revealed that no emergency warning signal was used to alert the public and that “other avenues for issuing and raising awareness were not encouraged, such as the use of local sirens or the use of commercial radio and television.” But in California, many of those communications lessons already have been learned. The Los Angeles Fire Department has received attention for using Twitter for crisis communication in real time. Los Angeles fire personnel used Twitter to help tackle a fire in Griffith Park in May 2007. Brian Humphrey, a public service officer for the department, read tweets about the fire sent by citizens, some of whom were on the opposite side of the blaze from the firefighters. They tweeted about wind conditions and fire behavior, so Humphrey tweeted back asking them to call him. They did and told him information about the fires that he then passed along to firefighters, which ultimately aided their containment strategy. Warrington wants to use the Internet’s power similarly in Victoria. “We’ll be looking at, obviously, how we can increase the speed and accuracy of our messaging,” he said. Ideas include creating a comprehensive Web site for bushfire information. The interim report disclosed that existing Web sites and phone lines had incomplete or outdated information when the Victoria fires hit. 26 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 27. ADVERTISEMENT Genetec Innovative Solutions About Genetec Genetec is a pioneer in the physical security and public safety industry and a global provider of world-class IP video surveillance, access control and license plate recognition (LPR) solutions. With sales offices and partnerships around the world, Genetec caters to markets such as transportation, education, retail, gaming, government and more. How Can Emergency Management Facilities Benefit from Genetec’s Solutions? Unsurpassed Scalability With unmatched standards in scalability, the Security Center can accommodate geographical Critical Response Time Genetec’s metadata engine indexes and analyzes data from multiple security systems to alert security operators of very precise incidents. Security administrators can also pre-program sophisticated event/alarm procedures for efficient response to emergency occurrences. Information Sharing Genetec’s Federation architecture allows emergency management facilities to easily share security data across various independent organizations, as it unifies autonomous systems from local law enforcement, fire departments, or even schools within the district. Open Architecture Built on the concept of an open architecture, Genetec’s unified security platform allows you to leverage previous hardware and infrastructure investments so that you can lower your total cost of ownership. You can also choose best-of-breed manufacturers to enhance your system and always benefit from the option of emerging technology as it is released. Customization Genetec’s software development kits (SDK) or Professional Services gives organizations options to customize Genetec’s suite of solutions based on their specific business processes or requirements. Nothing is out of reach when the choice is made for Genetec’s for access control, video surveillance or license plate recognition. Reliability To ensure that your system is protected at all times, Genetec’s full suite of solutions offers powerful failover and redundancy features that warrant no single point of failure. High-end integrity safeguards are also available to protect against tampering, interception and distortion of security data. GSA Schedule Contractor Genetec’s GSA Federal Supply Schedule Number is GS-35F-0284U. Genetec is entitled to sell all of our products including video surveillance, access control and license plate recognition solutions to US Government agencies through our approved GSA partners. Contact us today for more information. CORPORATE PROFILE Genetec’s product offerings: Genetec Security Center is a unified security platform that seamlessly blends Genetec’s IP video surveillance, access control and license plate recognition systems within a single innovative solution. Developed with simplicity of operation in mind, the Security Center consolidates and standardizes the common aspects of security operations and makes them easily accessible via a unique client application called the Security Desk. Omnicast™ is the IP video surveillance system of the Security Center that provides seamless management of digital video, audio and metadata. Synergis™ is the IP access control system of the Security Center designed to offer end-to-end IP connectivity, from access control reader to client workstation. AutoVu™ is the IP license plate recognition (LPR) system of the Security Center that accurately reads license plates from virtually any part of the world in both fixed and mobile installations. regions of any size. Genetec solutions can be installed in a single location and later be expanded across various public buildings and properties throughout a municipality. Genetec 2280 Alfred-Nobel Blvd Suite 400 Saint-Laurent, QC H4S 2A4 Tel: 1 (866) 684-8006 Fax: 1 (514) 332-1692 www.genetec.com 27 EM11_27.indd 27 12/9/09 4:11:56 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 28. said. “There’s not a cloud in the sky, and we still haven’t gotten any bloody rain.” Between the drought, rising temperatures and dry air, Australia’s climate was conducive for fire. The road out of Marysville, Victoria, to the east was completely overcome with fire. No trees or structures survived. He also wants to use Twitter for real-time information exchange. “How can we use that to try to find out where the fire is? How quickly it’s going? What’s going on? We’ll look at every possible means to try to inform the public,” he said. Warrington mentioned other strategies, including sending automated messages to phones with fire-related information. He also spoke of unique protection plans and approaches for each town that’s at risk for fire damage and death. The Royal Commission’s interim report recommended that the country be more open to using national warnings and notifications during major fires. arson or other physical actions. Conditions at the time, were hot and dry, Warrington said. “We had a number of fatalities just because of the heat wave,” she said. “The trains stopped running. The power went out because of the heat wave. The whole state was tinder dry.” Australia has been dealing with serious drought. According to the report Climate Change in Australia, rainfall in southern Australia has declined over a 30-year period. The report also indicated that the country’s frequency of hot days and nights has increased. “We’re in winter and I look out the window — it’s a lovely sunny day. It’s warm,” Warrington CLIMATE CHANGE MAKING A DEADLIER PLANET The emergence of larger, more frequent fires hasn’t gone unnoticed by those who wonder what role climate change plays on a hotter, deadlier planet. “If we phrase the question, ‘Did climate change cause the fires?’ I think we have to say, ‘No, almost certainly not.’ But if we say, ‘Did climate change contribute to the fires?’ Then I think we can say that it quite likely did,” RMIT University’s Handmer said. The concern is that hotter temperatures exacerbate fire conditions. Many causes of the Victoria fires were attributed to lightning, PHOTO COURTESY OF THE BURNFIRE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE DOES ‘STAY AND DEFEND’ DELIVER FALSE SECURITY? When flames are approaching, people need to act quickly. Victorians have a long-standing fire strategy in place called “prepare, stay and defend, or leave early,” also known as “stay or go” for brevity’s sake. The approach, which also is applied in other Australian states, calls on individuals to prepare for fires beforehand and defend their homes from flames if possible. If not, they should leave long before the fire arrives. It’s up to residents to decide what’s best based on the information available. But the Victoria fires besieged communities so quickly that people had less time — sometimes no time — to act. Normally the Australian Bureau of Meteorology will broadcast a fire conditions bulletin a few days in advance to warn the public, which Warrington said happened before Feb. 7. But even so, people were stunned. “You’re living in the bush. You’ve got your curtains down. You’ve got the air conditioning going. You’re probably watching football on the [television],” Warrington said. “The first thing you hear about as the thing flashes across the screen is, ‘There’s a fire in your community.’ You’ll open the window and the fire is literally at your back door.” The “stay or go” policy has drawn criticism. Harold Schaitberger wrote in the Los Angeles Times on Jan. 23 that “stay and defend is clearly a half-baked idea” because common citizens aren’t firefighters. His article responded to news that California fire chiefs were considering the tactic for the state. On Aug. 20 the San Jose Mercury News reported that the California Professional Firefighters dubbed the approach “stay and die.” The Royal Commission’s interim report called for a re-examination of the policy’s messaging, and said citizens should more fully understand the risks of remaining at home. The policy may not be as simple as its detractors suggest. For starters, “prepare, stay and defend or leave early” is often shortened to “stay and defend,” “stay or go” or something similar. 28 IMAGE COURTESY OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 29. “We know that a fire will go so fast under certain conditions. Of course, when you’re working in conditions that you haven’t seen before, it’s very hard to predict what that fire’s going to do.” — Steve Warrington, deputy chief officer, Country Fire Authority The word “prepare” is missing, so some feel its meaning has been compromised. “The emphasis on preparation hasn’t gone through very strongly because there’s no point staying and defending if you haven’t done your preparation — and that’s not preparation on the day [of a fire]. That’s well and truly beforehand,” said Gary Morgan, CEO of the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre, which is assisting the Royal Commission’s research. The key message is that residents in a bushfire-prone region should leave ahead of time, Warrington said. They shouldn’t wait to leave until they see the fire. “Only stay if you’ve prepared your home and if you’re physically capable of doing it. If you’re in a bloody wheelchair or you’re unstable, you quite clearly can’t stay,” he said. But do even the able-bodied have that much nerve? “‘Leave early’ and ‘stay and defend’ potentially gives folks a false sense of confidence that they’re going to be able to deal with things,” Paulson said. “We’ve had people in the past who’ve said, ‘I’m going to stay in my house.’ And then at the last minute, when they see the fire coming they want to leave.” For years, the stay-or-go policy was in place for “regular” fires. The Black Saturday flames were unheard of for civilians, let alone the professionals. If firefighters have trouble managing, it’s unclear what the public can really do. “What do you do about the fire that happens at 1:00 in the afternoon on Thursday when people are at work? How do you deal with people who are entrenched and want to go back and protect their homes? ” Paulson asked. In the July 11 article Let’s Not Throw Good Policy into the Fire, CFA Fire Captain John Schauble wrote that the stay-and-defend policy is rooted in practices of rural people who’ve dealt with fires for generations and had to fight fires to protect their property and livestock. In the past, staying at home in isolated areas was the main option for those who lived too far from firefighters. They stayed and defended because that was their only option. Schauble supported the policy, but pondered how well it would apply in urban settings. “I think that fire is just too variable to be able to have any policy that is going to work all the time,” said U.S. Forest Service researcher Sarah McCaffrey. She accepts Victoria’s policy, but said no approach should be a one-size-fits-all solution. The Victoria infernos were monsters. “It was a very fast-moving fire. I certainly heard interviews with people who couldn’t leave, but they knew how to stay. They wanted to leave but they knew what to do, and so they actually managed to stay and survive,” she said. The Royal Commission’s interim report said there should be more options than staying or going, and that “a person’s preferred option may not be possible and sometimes fails.” “The more options you have, the better,” McCaffrey said. “Either ‘stay and defend is the solution everywhere’ or ‘fast evacuation is the solution everywhere’ is problematic to me.” As Australia continues its debate regarding the merits and application of stay or go, emergency managers around the world will be watching. Circumstances may change by July 2010, when the Royal Commission’s final report is scheduled for release. But for now, the Victorian government is standing by its policy while admitting that bushfires, like stay-or-go tactics, can be more complicated than they first appear. PREVENTION MUST BECOME BIGGER PART OF EQUATION Back in California, Ventura County fire professionals encourage residents to evacuate early if they know a fire is coming. But since not all Californians comply, the county educates them about how to prepare their homes if they choose to stay before help arrives. The plan is called “Ready, Set, Go!” Sound familiar? Ventura’s approach certainly sounds a lot like Victoria’s. In fact, U.S. fire officials were considering the Australian approach in early 2009. Advocates felt that the public should know COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE AS GLOBAL WARMING brings extreme heat waves and rising temperatures, emergency managers must be aware of how the new climate may affect their communities. A National Wildlife Federation and Physicians for Social Responsibility report, More Extreme Heat Waves: Global Warming’s Wake Up Call, addresses how cities can proactively prepare for climate change. “We are going to have more heat waves and more of these extremely hot days, and there are measures that we’ll need to do to adapt to those changes,” said Amanda Staudt, climate scientist for the National Wildlife Federation. “But the other important message is that we can make a difference in terms of how many hot days we have in the future by making good choices now about our global warming pollution.” According to Staudt, steps that emergency managers and state and local governments can start taking to combat the effects of climate change include: developing heat watch warning systems; personalized outreach to at-risk citizens, like going door to door to provide information about heat waves; • establishing public cooling places; • working with power companies to ensure that citizens’ power isn’t turned off during a heat wave due to nonpayment of bills; and • providing low-income residents with cooling assistance, like improving insulation in their homes. She also suggested that cities start building more green space, like parks, and planting trees, which will reduce the urban heat island effect — meaning built-up areas are hotter than nearby rural areas. • • — Elaine Pittman Emergency Management 29 EM11_22.indd 29 12/9/09 10:44:50 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 30. Australia’s Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre researchers wanted to learn more about a house that was successfully defended by its owner amid the firestorm in Strathewen, Victoria. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE BURNFIRE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE “We’ve had people in the past who’ve said, ‘I’m going to stay in my house.’ And then at the last minute, when they see the fire coming they want to leave.” — Lou Paulson, fire captain, Contra Costa County Fire District; president, California Professional Firefighters prevention and better warnings will become more prominent in time. “We’ve been more focused on the response portion of it, but I really think the prevention portion is going to become a bigger key,” he said. That would mean focusing more on the reduction and removal of dry, combustible PHOTO COURTESY OF THE BURNFIRE COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE what to do in case firefighters couldn’t reach them in time. County Fire Chief Bob Roper told the Los Angeles Times on Jan. 13, “We don’t have enough resources to put an engine at every house in harm’s way. We figure, if people are going to stay, maybe they can become part of the solution.” Roper and likeminded professionals in Southern California were concerned about leaner budgets that will impede their ability to finance firefighting. And they could become more overstretched as more people move into denser, fire-prone communities. Firefighters from seven Southern California districts met in fall 2008 to discuss adopting a preparedness approach similar to Australia’s. The preliminary discussions preceded the Victoria fire and the ensuing re-examination of Australia’s fire tactics. Some fire districts, like Ventura County, decided to move forward, as Ready, Set, Go! demonstrates. If money and resources become tighter as fires become more frequent and dangerous, perhaps citizens and firefighters need a more cooperative approach. Paulson thinks that 30 materials near properties, known as fuel or vegetation management. Planners might also push for building structures with less combustible material or not building in certain areas. “I think, from an urban-planning perspective, the urban sprawl of a lot of cities — instead of redeveloping a section, they will just expand their borders and sprawl out to the interface,” Paulson said. “What they should be doing is urban renewal and infill.” He also questioned why houses are being built in fire-prone areas. As super fires come and go, communities will be asking these kinds of questions for the foreseeable future. In the meantime, citizens and firefighters will have no choice but to get ready for the heat. Infernos wait for no one — even people who are ready for them. k Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 31. Alumni Profile APU Master’s Degree, Homeland Security Certificate in Emergency Management Alumni Profile UNLV Executive Master of Science Degree In Crises and Emergency Management ECEM Overview The University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Department of Public Administration is offering the Executive Master of Science Degree In Crises and Emergency Management (ECEM). As a result of national, state, and local experiences such as September 11, 2001, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, the United States must come to grips with topics such as government responsibility and accountability, coordinated response and recovery, and citizen awareness and preparedness. UNLV recognizes the continuing need for experienced leaders who can provide direction for our nation in times of great challenge and it is proud to offer the ECEM degree which began in 2003. Dr. Karen Cieslewicz: It’s not often a professional with a doctorate returns to school to earn a master’s degree, but for Dr. Karen Cieslewicz it was the right decision for her unique and multifaceted career path. Dr. Cieslewicz is a subject matter expert consulting with federal agencies in all aspects of disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, medical planning and implementation. Additionally, she serves as a compliance and training officer for the Baltimore County Department of Public Health, a surgeon and an adjunct faculty member to name a few of her many roles. “Since high school, I wanted to be a doctor,” she explains, “I’ve always been interested in being a healer.” After serving in the U.S. Army and working for the Department of Defense, Dr. Cieslewicz earned her medical doctorate and later was working as research assistant in vascular surgery in Baltimore when 9/11 occurred. “I lost friends in the Pentagon and World Trade Center in New York,” she recalls. Since 9/11 and the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, a new and changing era in emergency management and civil defense emerged and she wanted to be a part of it. There wasn’t an exact blueprint at the time for a surgeon working alongside various first responder organizations. So Dr. Cieslewicz blazed her own trail seeking a dual education in homeland security and emergency management. “I started researching educational programs at a time when emergency management was in its infancy and no other college had what American Public University (APU) offered,” she says, “It’s what makes APU so unique.” This is the 2008 graduating class for ECEM which includes, Richard Wells (Director of GIS at City of Las Vegas), Jim Lopey (Deputy Sheriff of Washoe County), Marc Glasser (Federal Agent), Dustin Olson (Deputy Police Chief for UNLV), Christopher Sproule (Fire Fighter for City of Las Vegas), Stephen Gay (Engineer for North Las Vegas), Kim Ferguson (Director of Emergency Management at Nevada Energy), Monique Sanchez (Los Alamos Labs), Ernest Chambers (Las Vegas Metro), Elliot Jones (City of Las Vegas Fire Fighter) and one faculty member s (Dr. Paul Davis) and a guest lecturer (Dr Wade Ishimoto). Dr. Cieslewicz required a program that was flexible to her demanding professional schedule, which included trips overseas for outside government training. “There were two things I looked at in universities — flexible classroom environments and the quality of instructors.“ Her expectations were exceeded at APU. “The instructors are not just about academics, they are practicing professional,” she says. Teaching is part of Dr. Cieslewicz’s own professional responsibilities. She approaches her craft with the same vigor and support she received from her APU instructors. “I had instructors who challenged me to avoid the normal way of looking at things and to develop research that really pushed the envelope,” she says. UNLV ECEM Program 4505 Maryland Parkway Box 456026 Las Vegas, NV 89154 (702)895-4828 American Military University | American Public University Homeland Security Programs Emergency & Disaster Management Programs (877)777-9081 | www.apus.edu http://urbanaffairs.unlv.edu/ pubsadmin/ edge American Public University and its sister university American Military University are both part of American Public University System. EM12_31.indd 1 12/9/09 2:39:07 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 32. Education Directory Emergency Management and Homeland Security Certificate Programs Institution Contact Phone E-Mail American University of Puerto Rico Rosabel Vazquez (787) 620-1032 rosabel@aupr.edu Barton Community College Bill Nash (785) 238-8550 nashw@bartonccc.edu Blair College Don Collins (719) 574-1082 Bryman College San Jose North Alan Pruitt (408) 246-4171 Center for Homeland Defense & Security Office for Domestic Preparedness Kevin Saupp Columbus State Community College Tracy Lamar-Nickoli (614) 287-2681 jthoma10@cscc.edu Columbus State Community College J.R. Thomas (614) 287-2681 jthoma10@cscc.edu Community College of Denver Public Security Management John Belcastro (303) 556-2485 john.belcastro@ccd.edu Corinthian Colleges Inc. Academic Affairs Daniel Byram (714) 427-3000 ext. 201 dbyram@cci.edu Cumberland County College Charles Kocher (856) 691-8600 ext. 277 cjprofkocher@aol.com Curry College Steve Belaief (617) 333-0500 sbelaief0902@curry.edu Delgado Community College Patrick Cote (504) 361-6246 pcote@dcc.edu Fairleigh Dickinson University Off-Campus Credit Program Ronald Calissi (202) 692-6520 calissi@fdu.edu George Washington University Greg Shaw (202) 991-6736 glshaw@gwu.edu Georgetown Public Policy Institute Virginia Anundsen (202) 687-2269 vla@georgetown.edu Georgetown Public Policy Institute Eugenia Pyntikova (202) 687-3422 ep72@georgetown.edu Indiana University School of Public & Environmental Affairs Kelly Brown (765) 455-9328 kelkebro@iuk.edu Iowa Central Community College Homeland Security Training Center Michael Burke (800) 362-2793 ext. 2226 burke@triton.iccc.cc.ia.us John Jay College of Criminal Justice Julie O’Brien (212) 237-8433 terrorism@jjay.cuny.edu Johns Hopkins University Steven David (410) 516-7530 sdavid@jhu.edu Johns Hopkins University Dorothea Wolfson (202) 452-1123 dorotheawolfson@jhu.edu John Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Thomas Mahnken (202) 663-5947 tmahnken@jhu.edu Kaplan College Frank Desena (866) 523-34737 ext. 7457 fdesena@kaplancollege.edu kevin.saupp@dhs.gov Lakeland Community College Fire Science & Emergency Management Department Lee Silvi (440) 525-7252 lsilvi@lakelandcc.edu Lamar Institute of Technology Jim Doane (409) 880-8093 doanej@lit.edu Long Island University at Riverhead Homeland Security Management Institute Vincent Henry (631) 287-8010 vincent.henry@liu.edu Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice Phillip Schertzing (517) 432-3156 schertzi@msu.edu Missouri State University Bernard McCarthy (417) 836-6679 bernardmccarthy@missouristate.edu Northern Virginia Community College Linda Malami (703) 257-6634 lmalami@nvcc.edu Ohio Dominican University Renee Aitken (614) 251-4761 aitkenr@ohiodominican.edu Parks College Stuart Goldman (303) 745-6244 Penn State University Peter Forster (814) 863-8304 pkf1@psu.edu 32 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 33. Sometimes people in your line of work don’t get the credit they deserve. - Bachelor of Science in Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness - Bachelor of Arts in Criminal Justice - Graduate Certificate in Homeland Security - Master of Arts in Liberal Studies – Homeland Security Earn credit for college-level knowledge you’ve gained through training: Finish your degree. Anytime. Anywhere. Visit www.tesc.edu or call (888) 442-8372. 00327 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 34. Education Directory Emergency Management and Homeland Security Certificate Programs Institution Contact Phone E-Mail Penn State Fayette’s Center for Community & Public Safety Ted Mellors (724) 430-4215 tam5@psu.edu Pikes Peak Community College Lonnie Inzer (719) 502-3195 lonnie.inzer@ppcc.edu Purdue University School of Industrial Engineering Dennis Engi (765) 496-7757 engi@ecn.purdue.edu Saint Louis University Institute of Biosecurity Larry Bommarito (314) 977-8135 bommarlg@slu.edu Southwestern College Kevin Farlow (316) 684-5335 kfarlow@sckans.edu Southwestern College Kelley Krahn (888) 684-5335 ext. 124 online@sckans.edu Southwestern College Mike Packard (316) 684-5335 mpackard@sckans.edu Southwest Tennessee Community College Business Department Tracy DeWitt (901) 833-8973 tdewitt@southwest.tn.edu Tulane University School of Continuing Studies Keith Amacker (504) 247-1662 kamacker@tulane.edu University of Central Florida Naim Kapucu (407) 823-6096 nkapucu@mail.ucf.edu University of Cincinnati/Clermont College Head Criminal Justice Program Ed Bridgeman (513) 732-5251 ed.bridgeman@uc.edu University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Debbie Sagen (719) 262-3357 dsagen@uccs.edu University of Denver Graduate School of International Studies David Goldfischer (303) 871-2564 dgoldfis@du.edu University of Findlay School of Environmental & Emergency Management Harold Huffman (419) 434-5814 huffman@findlay.edu University of Massachusetts Lowell Kim Downey (978) 734-2143 University of Massachusetts Lowell David Hirschel (978) 934-4106 cfgradadvisor@student.uml.edu University of Massachusetts Lowell Cathy Kendrick (978) 934-2495 catherine_kendrick@uml.edu University of New Haven Thomas Johnson (203) 932-7260 tjohnson@newhaven.edu University of New Haven John Tippit (650) 787-9684 jtippit@earthlink.net University of South Florida Sally Szydlo (813) 974-3783 apex@eng.usf.edu University of Southern California Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering Evelyn Felina (213) 740-7549 efelina@usc.edu University of Tennessee Center for Homeland Security & Counterproliferation Macel Ely II (865) 740-1748 mely3@utk.edu Virginia Commonwealth University John Aughenbaugh (804) 828-8098 jmaughenbaug@vcu.edu For more information, please visit www.fema.gov. 34 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 35. UMUC EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AN URGENT NEED. IMMEDIATE OPPORTUNITIES. Preventing and responding to disasters. Preparing for acts of terrorism. Government and private employers are creating thousands of jobs for managers with these critical skills. Be ready with a bachelor’s degree in emergency management from University of Maryland University College (UMUC). You’ll learn the leadership and analytical skills employers want for managers who need to make split-second decisions. preparation and response plans crisis management and disaster response monthly payment plan available Enroll now. Call 800-888-UMUC or visit umuc.edu/standup Copyright © 2009 University of Maryland University College Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 36. Education Directory Master’s Degree Programs Institution Program Contact Phone E-Mail Adelphi University Emergency Management Programs Richard Rotanze (516) 877-4572 rotanz@adelphi.edu Arkansas Tech University Emergency Administration and Management Ed Leachman (479) 964-0536 eleachman@atu.edu American Public University American Military University Emergency and Disaster Management Chris Reynolds (877) 777-9081 creynolds@apus.edu California State University Long Beach Professional Studies Department Anthony Argott (888) 999-9935 aargott@csulb.edu Eastern Kentucky University Master of Science in Safety, Security & Emergency Management Elizabeth Ballou (859) 622-8325 elizabeth.ballou@eku.edu Eastern Michigan University Department of Interdisciplinary Technology Gerald Lawver (734) 487-3170 skip.lawver@emich.edu Elmira College Master of Science in Emergency Preparedness Angela Wood (607) 735-1825 awood@elmira.edu Florida Atlantic University Crisis & Emergency Management Master of Business Administration Program Mantha Mehallis (561) 297-0052 mehallis@fau.edu Florida State University Florida Public Affairs Center and the Center for Disaster Risk Policy Janet D. Dilling (850) 644-9961 jdilling@mailer.fsu.edu George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster and Risk Management Gregory L. Shaw (202) 994-6736 glshaw@gwu.edu Georgia State University Master of Public Administration with a Concentration in Emergency Management William L. Waugh Jr. (404) 651-4592 wwaugh@gsu.edu Jacksonville State University Institute for Emergency Preparedness Barry Cox (800) 231-5291 bcox@jsucc.jsu.edu John Jay College, City University of New York Master’s Degree Concentration in Emergency Management Norman Groner (212) 237-8865 ngroner@jjay.cuny.edu Lynn University Master of Science in Administration/Specialization in Emergency Planning Ernest G. Vendrell (561) 237-7146 evendrell@lynn.edu Louisiana State University Disaster Science and Management John C. Pine (225) 578-1075 jpine@lsu.edu Loma Linda University Emergency Preparedness and Response Program Ehren Ngo (909) 558-8519 engo@llu.edu Massachusetts Maritime Academy Emergency Management and Facilities Management Alfred Towle (508) 830-5098 dce@maritime.edu Metropolitan College of New York Emergency & Disaster Management School of Public Affairs & Administration David Longshore (646) 243-7608 dlongshore@metropolitan.edu Millersville University of Pennsylvania Master’s Degree in Emergency Management Henry W. Fischer (717) 872-3568 hfischer@millersville.edu National University Master of Science in Homeland Security and Safety Engineering Dr. Shekar Viswanathan (858) 309-3416 sviswana@nu.edu New Jersey Institute of Technology Information Systems Department Michael Chumer (973) 596-5484 chumer@njit.edu New York Medical College, School of Public Health Graduate Certificate in Emergency Preparedness Michael Reilly (914) 594-4919 michael_reilly@nymc.edu North Dakota State University Master’s Degree in Emergency Management Daniel Klenow (701) 231-8925 daniel.klenow@ndsu.edu Northcentral University Graduate Degree Programs with Homeland Security Specialization Francisco C. Lopez (877) 756-0839 flopez@ncu.edu Norwich University Master of Science in Business Continuity Management, Online John Orlando (802) 485-2729 jorlando@norwich.edu Oklahoma State University Master of Science in Fire and Emergency Management Administration Anthony Brown (405) 744-5606 osu-femp@okstate.edu 36 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 37. Serve. Learn. Lead. AMU offers respected online degree programs designed for students who want to advance their career. Our Emergency and Disaster Management and Fire Science programs are among 3 of 76 online degree porgrams for those who wish to serve, learn and lead in their professions. 2009 International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) Recipient: • Academic Recognition Award, Emergency & Disaster Mgmt. Program. • Student Council Chapter of the Year, APUS’ International Association of Emergency Managers Student Association (IEMSA). amuonline.com | 877.777.9081 AMU is a member of the regionally accredited American Public University System (APUS). Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 38. Education Directory Master’s Degree Programs Institution Program Contact Phone E-Mail Olivet Nazarene University Master of Science in Nursing Degree: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Readiness Track Linda Davison (815) 939-5340 ldaviso@olivet.edu Park University Disaster and Emergency Management Concentration within the Master of Public Affairs Degree Laurie N. DiPadova-Stocks (816) 421-1125 ldipadovastocks@park.edu Saint Leo University Criminal Justice Rande Matteson (352) 588-8848 rande.matteson@saintleo.edu Saint Louis University Master of Science in Biosecurity and Disaster Preparedness Larry Bommarito (314) 977-8135 bommarlg@slu.edu Saint Xavier University Graduate Certificate in Disaster Preparedness and Management James C. Hagen (708) 802-6220 hagen@sxu.edu Texas A&M University Graduate Certificate in Environmental Hazard Management Michael K. Lindell (979) 862-3969 mlindell@archone.tamu.edu University of Chicago Master of Science in Threat and Response Management Marsha Hawk (773) 702-0460 mhawk@uchicago.edu University of Colorado at Denver Emergency Management and Homeland Security Lloyd Burton (303) 315-2482 lloyd.burton@cudenver.edu University of Connecticut Masters of Professional Studies In Homeland Security Donna Lee Campbell (860) 486-0184 donna.campbell@uconn.edu University of Delaware Master of Environmental and Energy Policy and Ph.D. in Environmental and Energy Policy Young-Doo Wang (302) 831-8405 youngdoo@udel.edu University of Florida Master of Science in Fire and Emergency Services Barbara Klingensmith (352) 369-2800 klingensmithb@dfs.state.fl.us University of Nevada at Las Vegas Executive Master of Science in Crisis and Emergency Management Program Christine G. Springer (702) 895-4835 christine.springer@unlv.edu University of New Orleans Master of Public Administration with Hazard Policy Track John J. Kiefer (504) 280-6457 jkiefer@uno.edu University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Master of Science in Disaster Management Jim Porto (919) 966-7354 jim_porto@unc.edu University of North Carolina at Charlotte Master of Public Administration with Emergency Management Concentration James W. Douglas (704) 687-4532 jwdougla@uncc.edu University of North Carolina at Pembroke Emergency Management Master of Public Administation Concentration Nicholas Giannatasio (910) 521-6531 nicholas.giannatasio@uncp.edu University of North Texas Master of Public Administration with Specialization in Emergency Administration and Planning Bob Bland (940) 565-2165 mpa@unt.edu University of Richmond Master of Disaster Science Degree, Online (Thesis Track) Leigh Anne Giblin (804) 287-6897 lgiblin@richmond.edu University of South Florida, College of Public Health Graduate Certificate in Disaster Management Wayne Westhoff (813) 974-6621 wwesthof@hsc.usf.edu University of Tennessee, Knoxville Emergency Management within Master’s Degree in Safety Susan M. Smith (865) 974-1108 smsmith@utk.edu University of Washington Bob Freitag (206) 818-1175 bfreitag@u.washington.edu Virginia Commonwealth University Master of Arts and Graduate Certificate in Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness John Aughenbaugh (804) 828-8098 jmaughenbaug@vcu.edu Virginia Commonwealth University Graduate Certificate in Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness Gregory L. Shaw (804) 827-0879 glshaw@vcu.edu Institute for Hazard Mitigation Planning and Research For more information, please visit www.fema.gov. 38 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 39. Application deadline is on May 1, 2010. Enroll now by calling (702) 895-2640. text for UNLV ad in EM Sept.indd 1 9/24/09 12:15:37 PM SM “Protecting Our Homeland in the 21st Century” Protect Your Homeland. Become Certified in Homeland Security, CHS® today. The CHSSM program has earned its reputation as the premier group dedicated to providing certification, training, and continuing education to professionals across the nation who are committed to improving homeland security. We boast a total commitment to our country’s safety, an extraordinary knowledge base, and an in-place organizational structure that delivers the highest-quality certification and continuing education opportunities in homeland security. Join us today as we work together to protect what matters most—our families, communities, country, and way of life. ✯✯✯ GI BILL APPROVED! ✯✯✯ The American Board for Certification in Homeland Security, CHS ® 2750 E. Sunshine St. | Springfield, MO 65804 | www.abchs.com | (877) 219-2519 | cao@abchs.com EM11_39.indd 1 12/10/09 11:39:56 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 40. RECOVERY 40 STARTS N EM11_40.indd 40 12/9/09 2:26:57 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 41. ANDY OPSAHL»FEATURES EDITOR I NOW EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT EXPERTS SAY LONG-TERM RECOVERY GETS TOO LITTLE ATTENTION, BUT SHOULD BE A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF PREVENTION. Emergency Management 41 EM11_40.indd 41 PHOTO PROVIDED BY ROSS BECKLEY t seems obvious that communities hit by disasters are doomed to repeat history if they don’t recover in ways meant to anticipate similar events in the future. However, many emergency management experts are concerned that long-term recovery isn’t receiving the attention it needs. The crux of the problem is a lack of coordination between the players contributing to long-term recovery. Federal, state, nonprofit and volunteer groups tend to respond to emergencies independently, often rebuilding the same vulnerabilities that compounded the disaster in the first place. Public empathy and zeal to rebuild often propel well intended recovery efforts without those involved knowing relevant regulations, according to Gavin Smith, executive director of the Center for the Study of Natural Hazards and Disasters at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. States tend to be sluggish about communicating that data to recovery groups, often doing so after efforts are near completion. In some cases, federal funding that could have helped recovery becomes available long after projects have started. 12/9/09 2:28:02 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 42. PHOTO PROVIDED BY DIANNA GEE/FEMA FEMA Hazard Mitigation Specialist Larry Ruffin (right) and Field Inspector Bruce Figoli (left) discuss rebuilding options with disaster survivor Dan Haley in March 2008 after a hurricane in Cynthiana, Ky. Haley planned to rebuild using mitigation techniques for greater resistance to high winds. It seems that society’s natural inclination is to find a uniform approach for all communities to make long-term recovery improvements. However, most experts warn that’s a foolish expectation, given the diversity of needs and resources in local areas. Emergency management officials and analysts can offer examples of what works, but most agree that the real answers are within each community. UNIFORM COORDINATION MYTH Most agree that more coordination between the different players in a recovery is essential for effective long-term efforts. However, Smith said it’s unrealistic for federal or state planners to mandate uniformly who the coordinating organization should be. This lack of uniformity can be maddening for government planners, especially at the federal level, due to the logistics involved in disbursing funds. Pronouncing that recovery funds will always go to “agency X” is simpler to administrate. “In different communities, different players take on the collaborative leadership role,” Smith said. “It could be a neighborhood association. It could be local government. It could be a member of the private sector. I’m suggesting the federal, state and local governments’ role can be to provide education and outreach training for teams at the local level — not necessarily dictate recovery, but help them build their capacity.” Smith said he’d like to see a new federal recovery act that mandates federal or state agencies to coach individual communities in identifying who their recovery players and leaders are. That lead player would interact with federal and state agencies regarding funding. Smith also wants to see this act earmark funding for long-term preventive recovery activities, especially training. “There has been post-Katrina legislation. At least on its face, it’s trying to address some of these issues, but it’s hard to tell how effective that is,” Smith said. “The federal government tends to spend the bulk of its time dealing with the postdisaster aftermath, rather than investing in pre-event planning for postdisaster recovery or investing in capacity-building.” Once that coordination happens, state and federal agencies need to be ready to update the recovery groups on relevant regulations immediately after a disaster strikes, said Nancy Dragani, executive director of the Ohio Emergency Management Agency. “You can’t wait anymore. You can’t even wait until day three or four,” Dragani said. “When the water is still up, you need to begin communicating with the constituents and volunteer groups.” “Recovery starts the minute the response to an event occurs,” said John S. Fernandes, administrator of the Los Angeles County Office of Emergency Management. His agency is widely viewed as having a well organized long-term recovery coordination for mudslides. Mudslides in Southern California typically result from wildfires eliminating the vegetation that would normally contain that mud during rainstorms. While the fires are still burning, Los Angles County begins setting up incident management centers devoted to the mudslides anticipated to result months later. “We establish teams to assess the fire damage areas and look at the weather pattern trends in respect to what to expect in terms of rainfall,” explained Fernandes. Based on that analysis, the incident management team conducts a public outreach campaign advising citizens on what to expect and where to go for assistance. The team also uses the data to plan where to set up temporary shelters. Smith said there’s a common misconception that nonprofits can do no wrong during disasters. “They cut through the red tape. They may assist individuals more quickly than the federal government. They may, for example, repair their house shortly after the storm, whereas it might take months, and in some cases years, to get federal assistance,” Smith explained. “They’re well intentioned efforts, but oftentimes nonprofits rebuild the damaged homes to their previous conditions in areas that just received storm surges or flooding. They’re in essence setting the stage for the next disaster.” Ohio recently learned that the hard way after a local flood. The state waited several days before advising volunteers on the new baseflood elevation rules and requirements for “substantially damaged” homes. “There was intense motivation to rebuild very quickly — to build within one or two days. By day five, our flood plain managers got in and said, ‘Wait a minute, you have substantially damaged homes, which fall under different criteria for rebuilding,’” Dragani said. “People were already halfway through a rebuild. They didn’t want to hear it at that point. I wouldn’t have wanted to hear it at that point.” 42 EM11_40.indd 42 12/9/09 2:29:42 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 43. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 44. REALISTIC PRECAUTIONS It’s also important to promote a culture of realistic expectations regarding long-term recovery, said Claire B. Rubin, emergency management adviser and president of Claire B. Rubin and Associates. There’s no such thing as foolproof long-term recovery because disasters behave differently each time they strike. As important as it is to have a thorough long-term recovery plan, communities should be mindful of the limitations Mother Nature imposes on any prevention strategy, said Rubin. She warned that even areas with mature, well thought-out recovery plans can be caught illequipped. She pointed to several hurricanes that hit Corpus Christi, Texas, during a span of time when the city had the same disaster officials. “There was that hard-earned experience, and yet the characteristics of at least two of the hurricanes — 10 years apart — were entirely different. One pushed water in, and salt water pushed up into fresh water streams and caused a serious problem. The subsequent hurricane, because of the way it hit, sucked water out and left boats pulled out and then thrown back on the shore,” said Rubin. “I was absolutely struck that even if you knew Corpus Christi was going to get hit, even if you had the same public officials in place with prior knowledge, the characteristics of the hit could be different, even though it was the same disaster agent — a hurricane.” can provide the services demanded of them after emergencies. “It’s a chicken-and-the-egg kind of thing. People are challenged in moving back into a community that’s devastated until the businesses are there to support them, yet the businesses can’t survive until the people are there to purchase those goods and services,” Dragani explained. “Understanding how the economic impact on small business affects long-term recovery and being able to tie them into any long-term recovery plan should be one of the top three priorities.” She also pointed out that rebuilding public buildings should reflect the inevitable population shifts that result from natural disasters. For example, imagine a hurricane devastated an area with a 12,000-student school. The rate of people moving out of the area might dictate that only an 8,000-student school need be rebuilt. She recalled a situation in earthquake-prone Marin County, Calif., where meticulous long-term recovery had only a limited benefit. She described the county’s zealous disaster recovery official. “He had run everybody through all kinds of emergency drills and practices. They were really kind of sick and tired of him. Then they experienced a disaster, but it wasn’t an earthquake. It turned out to be extreme storms and then landslides, all of which were related to earthquakes. They have unstable soil, so they were relatively well prepared, but not for the disaster that actually hit them,” Rubin said. She remarked that communities could reach a general level of useful long-term prevention, but more research is needed first. “The thing about a really comprehensive recovery strategy framework and plan is that it would involve multiple federal agencies. That hasn’t been tackled yet. This is not anything that’s going to resolve very easily. It’s going to require a really major study,” Rubin said, later adding, “If I were in a major job at FEMA or the DHS, I would convene an expert panel at the National Academy of Public Administration or the National Academy of Sciences. You need multiple disciplines and multiple agencies’ perspectives.” Ohio’s Dragani has a few suggestions for such a plan. She said recovery operations typically lack strategies for ensuring that small businesses FAILING THE FEDERAL THRESHOLD PHOTO PROVIDED BY RICHARD O’REILLY/FEMA This house is being rebuilt as debris from a tornado still covers the ground. Homes should not be rebuilt to previous conditions but to withstand the next disaster. 44 One challenge of the long-term recovery discussion often ignored is when disasters fail to qualify for receiving federal disaster declarations. Not reaching that threshold sharply limits the amount of federal assistance communities can get for long-term recovery. “If you aggregate all smaller events that are never declared federal disasters, they exceed the total damages of those events that are declared,” Smith said. Dragani said states should establish programs that mirror those offered by FEMA, but with lower eligibility thresholds. “In Ohio, we have an individual assistance program that the governor can activate at his or her discretion. The only threshold is that we have to have a Small Business Administration disastertype of situation, which is far easier to get than a threshold for a federal disaster,” Dragani said. She added that states could put special effort into organizing the appropriate volunteers in different communities. Dragani recommended that states collaborate with the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster group. She warned of the citizen backlash that can happen without contingency plans for not meeting the federal threshold. “If I live in a community and we have 15 homes that are destroyed, and one of those homes is mine, I don’t really care about the federal threshold. It was a disaster for me.” k EM11_40.indd 44 12/9/09 2:31:25 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 45. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 46. In November 2008, more than 200 homes in Santa Barbara were destroyed by a rapidly moving wildfire that originated from the remains of a day-old bonfire. PHOTO COURTESY OF MICHAEL MANCINO/FEMA Community Ties Santa Barbara County, Calif., moves disaster planning and coordination forward by teaming with a charity and a private company. BY EL AINE PIT TMAN I A S S O CIAT E E DITOR Through a partnership with a philanthropic organization and a private company, the Santa Barbara County, Calif., Office of Emergency Services (OES) has improved its disaster preparedness and response initiatives to ensure that officials can communicate with residents when power, landline phones, cell phones and the Internet are down. The genesis of the improvements was a Santa Barbara Civil Grand Jury report released in 2006 that identified gaps in community preparedness and recommended that the OES become a stand-alone government department. Shortly thereafter, the Orfalea Foundations, a Santa Barbara-based philanthropic organization that includes the Orfalea Fund and Orfalea Family Foundation, took interest in resolving the county’s issues. Natalie Orfalea, the wife of Kinko’s copying and printing founder Paul Orfalea, noticed the foundation was receiving requests related to emergency preparedness programs. Those requests, and the Orfaleas’ desire to help the community, prompted her to approach the county and James Lee Witt Associates. Together, they established the Aware & Prepare Initiative, a public-private partnership that aids the community’s disaster preparedness and response capabilities. “The idea from Orfalea was we get everybody together in the same room and work together as much as possible in a strategic way, rather than having our various agencies and resources go to individual funders and end up not working in a 46 EM11_46.indd 46 12/8/09 2:20:36 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 47. coordinated manner,” said Michael Harris, the OES emergency operations chief. Removing the OES from the fire department was one of the first changes made in response to the Civil Grand Jury report. “[Michael] Brown, the county executive officer, moved OES within the County Executive Office and brought me in to work with the staff to put some strategic direction to the department, add some forward movement and address some things that needed improvement,” Harris said. When the partnership began in 2007, the OES shortly before had been made a stand-alone department, according to Barbara Andersen, the Aware & Prepare consultant for the Orfalea Foundations. “When we started the initiative a couple years ago, there was a need for leadership when it came to emergency preparedness and emergency services in Santa Barbara County,” she said, later adding, “Mike Harris had just come on, so it was really ripe for someone to take the initiative and help the community move forward.” Harris said the partnership’s predominant focus has been emergency preparedness and infrastructure, centered on Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster, also known as VOADs. “[The VOADs] bring together nongovernmental agencies in partnership with our department to look at the capability around disaster recovery and response,” he said. If a major disaster hits locally, they’re coordinated to work together. For example, VOADs include food banks, nonprofit agencies that distribute clothing to the needy, and nonprofits that aid financial recovery. “You have organizations and agencies that day in and day out provide a service to your community,” Harris said. “The question is: During an emergency, how do you work with them? That requires up-front planning, discussion and organization.” Constant Communication One initiative that evolved from the partnership was the Radio Ready program, which ensures that officials can communicate with the community during an emergency even if power, phones, cell phones and the Internet are inoperable. Harris said a group of concerned citizens approached the county with the idea, and those citizens worked with the public-private partnership to add satellite communication equipment to the county’s infrastructure. They 47 EM11_46.indd 47 12/8/09 2:21:16 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 48. In October 2007, wildfires burned more than 500,000 acres from Santa Barbara County to the U.S.-Mexico border. also distributed hand-crank radios to citizens. The satellite communication equipment was installed in the county’s two emergency operations centers, multiple radio stations and a duty officer vehicle. “I think local government really needs to realize that [nongovernmental organizations], the philanthropic community, local foundations and even philanthropic individuals are really an asset to them.” — Barbara Andersen, Aware & Prepare Initiative consultant, Orfalea Foundations “We serve all of Santa Barbara County, which is 2,700 square miles. It would be impractical to have a county radio station, so we have this partnership with local media, including radio stations that have generators,” Harris said. “We now have satellite links with those radio station control rooms to help us broadcast emergency information to the community.” Since the partnership was established, there have been five major incidents in the county that demonstrated the importance of disseminating public information, Andersen said. “Especially during the Gap Fire [in July 2008] there were a lot of intermittent fire outages, and a lot of people didn’t know to have a hand-crank radio or battery-operated radio on hand to get the information they so desperately needed,” she said. She added that the participating citizens had researched what equipment the county needed for satellite communications and how to coordinate the equipment’s installation. The citizens also worked with the OES to establish relationships with the radio stations and educated the public about the importance of having backup radios. Moving Forward The partnership began with an initial commitment from the Orfalea Foundations for three years, Andersen said. When the partnership ends at the end of 2010, the foundation will begin a two-year phaseout. Harris’ advice for local emergency agencies that are interested in partnering with privatesector and nonprofit organizations is to clearly identify goals, like the seven priority themes Aware & Prepare’s 7 Priorities The Santa Barbara County, Calif., Office of Emergency Services, the Orfalea Fund and James Lee Witt Associates worked together to determine priority themes and funding areas for improving emergency preparedness. The themes were based on what the partners saw as the priority areas for the county’s operational area, said Michael Harris, the emergency operations chief of the Office of Emergency Services. The seven priorities were: 1. public education and awareness — establish strategies to help prepare the public for emergencies; 2. coordination and communication — develop relationships between the local government and private and nonprofit organizations; 3. preparedness — develop an inclusive planning process and target the community via training and exercise programs; 4. emergency public information — develop strategies and capabilities to warn the public about a disaster; 5. resources and personnel — develop caches of disaster supplies, and know what skills individuals and organizations can contribute; 6. authority and management — understand the capabilities of emergency leadership to provide command, control and coordination of disaster response activities; and 7. Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) — develop a VOAD group, which is composed of nongovernmental agencies that partner with the local government to aid disaster preparedness and response. PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA identified for the Aware & Prepare Initiative. “Even if you don’t have an Orfalea Fund or Foundation in your neighborhood or community, you can still work with your community to identify the directions that you want to go and the things that are worth following up on,” he said. “This creates a sense of community and direction, and when people feel like there’s some ownership, they’re more likely to participate.” “We now have satellite links with those radio station control rooms to help us broadcast emergency information to the community.” — Michael Harris, emergency operations chief, Santa Barbara County, Calif. Andersen said the greatest lesson the foundation learned is that it takes a lot of effort, time and trust to build a partnership. “I think local government really needs to realize that [nongovernmental organizations], the philanthropic community, local foundations and even philanthropic individuals are really an asset to them,” she said. k 48 EM11_46.indd 48 12/8/09 2:22:20 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 49. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 50. A Recipe for Chaos BY PAU L WOR M E LI States and locals will have to quickly find ways to spend stimulus cash. T he combination of funding contained in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and fiscal 2009 and 2010 budget appropriations eventually will provide a special surprise package for public safety and emergency management agencies. But it will also provide a good measure of chaos — and possibly abuse — as state and local governments try to spend billions of dollars in a short time frame. After cutting $157 million from the Byrne Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) program for fiscal 2008 appropriations (a 67 percent reduction from the previous year), Congress decided to restore the program’s funding to more than $550 million for fiscal 2009 and moved along appropriations for fiscal 2010 (which started in October) without any cuts. Then came the Recovery Act — the stimulus. It gives states $2 billion alone in JAG block grants, plus $1 billion from the Community Oriented Policing Services program, and another $1 billion for discretionary and related grants. The result is that the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) will have had more than $4 billion in grants to award within a 12-month period. This is roughly 20 times what was previously available. The Bureau of Justice Assistance estimates that it will need to process about 7,000 grant applications, about four times more than in 2008. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) won’t have as much of an adjustment because it had been getting higher levels of funding than the DOJ before the Recovery Act. The DHS got a comparable amount as the DOJ from the stimulus act — $3.2 billion to hand out on top of the normal fiscal year appropriations. Understaffed and Overworked Handling the entire life cycle of grant processing for this funding is a significant challenge for DOJ and DHS staffs. But there’s an even greater level of complexity for the state agency administrators who are involved in distributing both the DOJ and DHS block grant funding. These state offices generally are understaffed and overworked in normal times, and handling this increased workload will stress them all. Even at the federal level, cracks are beginning to be noticed. In a report issued in June, the DHS Office of Inspector General concluded that: “The department has put a great deal of effort into improving its processes and controls over awarding, managing and monitoring contract and grant funds, but it still needs to do more. The department should address the risks of a shortage of trained contracting personnel, such as contracting officers, contracting officer technical representatives and project managers, as well as a shortage of trained grants management personnel. The department also needs to continue to improve its oversight of the grants it awards to state and local recipients. Finally the department needs to identify prudent measures to track the Recovery Act funds while simulta- neously working to complete its remediation of material weaknesses in its financial management systems and processes.” It only takes a few minutes browsing on Recovery.gov to see that the money isn’t moving to the distribution levels as anticipated. As of mid-August, the funding available for the DOJ, as reported by the agency recovery sites, showed that just $970,000 of approximately $3.3 million available had been paid out; and of $861,545 from the DHS, only $99,815 had been paid out. Looking across the states and the federal agency programs, those payout figures hover around 10 percent of the available funding. Federal authorities also recognize that the challenges brought on by distributing so much money so quickly can lead to fraud and abuse. The DOJ’s Antitrust Division has launched an initiative to train government officials and contractors to recognize and report illegal profiteering from stimulus projects. According to its inspector general, the Social Security Administration has received reports of fraudulent e-mails that link to what appears to be the agency’s official Web site, instructing individuals to submit personal information to receive their $250 one-time economic recovery payments. Mistakes Expected It’s likely that mistakes will be made, but probably many of them will be unintentional as state and local agencies rush to spend this funding. One of the chief deterrents to intentional abuse, 50 EM11_50.indd 50 12/8/09 2:27:17 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 51. Available in early 2010! This free first-of-its-kind online training covers the development and maintenance of collaborative planning relationships, the sharing and tracking of information, patients, and resources, Building Collaborative Disaster Planning Processes Between Hospitals and Emergency Management and examples of disaster preparedness and response via a large scenario case study. Each of the four course modules will be approximately one hour in length and feature pre-filmed streaming video with synchronized transcript and slides. Additional materials will be Photo credit: FEMA/Greg Henshall. available for download. Each participant will also be placed into a state-specific virtual community to foster increased collaboration. This training will be available nationwide in early 2010. There will also be live Q&A sessions for each state, featuring a panel of subject matter experts from within each state who will address state-specific implementation of general ideas presented. For more information, visit http://www.tinyurl.com/acep-cdp. For questions, contact Linda Becker at lbecker@acep.org. This program is supported by Cooperative Agreement Number 2007-GT-T7-K020, administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/FEMA. Points of view or opinions in this program are those of the author(s) and do not represent the position or policies of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/FEMA. EM11_51.indd 51 12/10/09 10:09:28 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 52. Following the States That Spent Stimulus Funds on Public Safety The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, passed in February, contained a $48.6 billion appropriation for Department of Education allocations to state governors. This money, disbursed according to population statistics and dubbed the State Fiscal Stabilization Fund (SFSF), is designed to “advance essential education reforms to benefit students from early learning through post-secondary education.” Unknown to many, 18.2 percent of this money could be spent at the governor’s discretion (labeled the Government Services Fund) for a limited variety of things, including public safety initiatives. Some states chose not to allocate any money for public safety, while others chose to assign all discretionary dollars to safety-related programs. The chart lists the 28 states allocating some portion of discretionary funds to public safety. It highlights the total SFSF dollars provided to the state, the total dollars associated with the Government Services Fund, the percentage of the Government Services Fund allocated to public safety, and the total public safety dollars this represents. States Total State Fiscal Stabilization Funds Percentage Total for Public Government Safety Services Dollars Total Public Safety Dollars California $5,960,267,431 $1,084,768,672 100% $1,084,768,672 Pennsylvania $1,905,620,952 $346,823,013 100% $346,823,013 Georgia $1,541,319,187 $280,520,092 100% $280,520,092 North Carolina $1,420,454,235 $258,522,671 100% $258,522,671 Washington $1,002,380,010 $182,433,162 100% $182,433,162 $596,355,871 $532,798,000 $597,741,302 $719,676,984 $367,422,833 $876,940,096 $755,135,000 $235,589,279 $108,536,769 $66,870,956 $103,328,917 $130,981,211 $66,870,956 $159,603,097 $141,074,570 $42,877,249 89.4% 100% 73% 57% 100% 40% 33% 100% $97,031,871 $96,969,236 $75,430,109 $74,659,290 $66,870,956 $63,841,239 $47,006,047 $42,877,249 $1,463,709,963 $266,395,213 12% $31,168,240 Minnesota $667,888,000 $121,555,616 25.6% $31,118,238 Rhode Island South Dakota $164,929,269 $127,497,174 $30,017,127 $23,204,486 100% 100% $30,017,127 $23,204,486 Massachusetts Wyoming Iowa $994,258,205 $67,620,000 $386,373,745 $180,954,993 $12,306,840 $70,320,022 11% 100% 17.4% $19,905,049 $12,306,840 $12,235,684 Arkansas $363,053,019 $66,075,649 10% $6,607,565 $472,821,000 $823,661,000 $77,150,000 $246,576,628 $148,689,792 $1,202,770,052 $85,644,337 $23,794,343,364 $582,048,587 $86,053,422 $149,906,302 $14,041,300 $44,876,946 $27,061,542 $218,904,149 $15,587,269 $4,300,472,212 $105,932,843 5.9% 3% 26% 6.7% 10% 1.2% 6.6% $5,068,547 $4,092,442 $3,650,738 $3,006,755 $2,706,154 $2,626,850 $1,028.760 $2,906,497,081 $31,143,239 Alabama Kentucky South Carolina Maryland Kansas Wisconsin Tennessee Nebraska Source: Galain Solutions Ohio Oklahoma Indiana Vermont Idaho Montana Virginia North Dakota Grand Total Median 65% in the minds of many proponents, is the requirement to report the expenditures in detail and show the actual outcome related to saving or creating jobs. The reporting requirements are much more complete than any previously attempted grant-management process. Concerns about possible abuse, as well as the reporting requirements, are slowing the funding distribution; the real workload of handling so many grants also is a factor. So agencies that still have projects in mind aren’t yet out of luck in seeking funding. The state agency administrators for both the DOJ and DHS funding should become your best friend if you are seeking funding or advice on how to do so. As overworked as they are, these staffs have been fully briefed on the possibilities, are endeavoring to apply them in each state and will comply with the reporting requirement. Progress also has been made in using Grants.gov to announce grant programs for multiple agencies, and most individual agencies also have program guidelines and grant program potentials (e.g., www.ojp. usdoj.gov/funding/solicitations.htm and www. homelandsecurityfunding.info). While funding will continue through the 2010 calendar — including year two of the Recovery Act funding — there will also be new fiscal year funding that continues to support improvements in public safety and emergency management. So this is not just a flash in the pan. Indications from numerous of state agency administrators are that IT projects are likely prospects for Recovery Act funding. In many cases, agencies have had plans to modernize their IT infrastructure that have been on hold during the financial crisis that states in particular have found themselves. The federal funds can permit important infrastructure improvements to move forward, often with money saving and job producing consequences. k Conclusions 52 • $2.9 billion of Recovery Act state stabilization funds have been allocated to public safety (through the Government Services Fund). • Seventy-four percent of the total is being spent in five states: California, Pennsylvania, Georgia, North Carolina and Washington. • Eleven states are spending 100 percent of their Government Services Funds on public safety. EM11_50.indd 52 12/8/09 2:28:39 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 53. Emergency Management Resource Center Disaster preparedness and emergency response are complicated when incompatible systems and equipment limit communications capabilities. We’ve gathered together some of the best tools, tips and resources to help you improve your communications technologies and keep your personnel informed, and our communities safe. Resources Include: 4National Survey Results are in! Find-out where your peers sit in terms of mobile technology usage to help you benchmark your own capabilities. 4Case Study: Lee County Sheriff’s Office enhances officer safety with a real-time location data solution. 4Case Study: California State University Long Beach police increase communication efficiencies with voice and data interoperability. Sponsored by: Visit Today at emergencymgmt.com Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 54. Products Map Maker Depiction mapping software allows emergency managers to build, use and present custom, interactive maps and simulations. By combining geography, data and other information with what-if possibilities, emergency managers can garner views into possible situations. Educators are also using the software to enhance student learning with scenarios, and first responders can use it as a training tool. Depiction lets users make living maps by merging personal and freely available data, and update their maps with live field reports. The software costs $89. www.depiction.com Suiting Up Safe Quarters To ensure that first responders are kept as safe as possible when responding to an emergency, advances in every aspect including outerwear are important. Lion Apparel introduced Janesville CB-Xit — an ensemble that’s designed to envelop firefighters with thermal and moisture resistance, as well as single-exposure protection from chemical warfare agents, like sarin and mustard gas. The suit is compliant with the National Fire Protection Association’s Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting (NFPA 1971). It also meets the standard’s optional chemical, biological and radiological particulate terrorism agent protection criteria. www.lionpsg.bz The Rapid Deployment Shelter System is a rigid wall structure that was developed by the Y-12 National Security Complex at the U.S. Army’s request and manufactured by Adaptive Methods. The shelter unfolds from a 20-foot standard shipping container into a 400-square-foot refuge at the touch of a button. It can be deployed by one person in less than two minutes. When the unit is no longer needed, it returns to the shipping container to be transported. It can be reconfigured for a variety of applications including first responder or family housing, barracks, offices, medical triage and command, control and communications centers. www.adaptivemethods.com Loud and Clear Communication and realism are important aspects of emergency training drills, and the Technomad Military PA System provides high-powered communications while the SuperConductor MP3 military player/recorder injects audio into the scene. The PA system has a weatherproof design and features high-quality sound and longdistance output. The SuperConductor can automatically play files on a scheduled basis and also record live field audio direct to MP3 format for immediate or future playback. http://military.technomad.com 54 EM11_54.indd 54 12/8/09 2:26:22 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 55. New on emergencymgmt.com Looking to Advance Your Career, Get Promoted or Make a Change? 67% of Emergency Management’s audience will invest in training and education by 2010 year-end! Emergencymgmt.com is your one-stop to achieve your professional goals in law enforcement, emergency management and homeland security. Take advantage of our thousands of job postings, responder certificates and accredited degree programs in the homeland security and emergency management categories to help you succeed. Or, if you’re looking to advertise a position, post it to let us help with your recruitment. 2009 Best New Website – Bronze The opportunity is yours. Visit emergencymgmt.com today! Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 56. Eric’s Corner Lessons Observed, not Learned W Later in the same disaster we had the great idea of putting We learn from others by reading case studies, after-action reports, results of audits and investigations, and from personal experience. In the personal experience category, I favor learning by participating in disaster exercises. Though successful exercises are good, it’s many times the failures that provide the real learning opportunities. up reader board signs along the heavily impacted areas, since Most of the time the after-action report that says “lessons preparation for a disaster. What they do remember is what they learned,” actually means “lessons observed.” We read, we listen, did for the last disaster exercise. This is why it’s very important perhaps we even experience the event, yet we don’t learn from that people do things correctly during a disaster exercise. If they others’ mistakes or from the ones we make ourselves. follow a flawed procedure, but they get away with it, not only people didn’t have power and couldn’t get radio and TV announcements for a phone number to call and report damage. Road crews were wonderful about getting the reader board signs deployed and operational. But — you guessed it — the number on the signs was wrong. We made two mistakes in one disaster. People rarely remember what they read or are trained on in As adults, we’re programmed to learn from other adults. It’s has a lesson not been learned, a negative learning experience one reason that when you do training for adults you should has been reinforced by “success.” Disaster exercises are the great allow time for small group discussion. Having an “expert” up front learning laboratory. If you want to “learn lessons,” have a robust doing the instruction and sharing his or her knowledge pales in disaster exercise program. comparison to one peer looking another peer in the eye and say- People also forget how they do things during exercises and ing, “Let me tell you what I did that I’ll never do again.” It’s at those actual events. Not only does time heal all wounds, but it also moments we learn best when learning from one another. makes people fail to remember how to operate in an Emergency I really believe in “institutional knowledge” when it comes to Operations Center. If you’re only doing one functional exercise emergency management and disasters. The experience of going a year, it will be difficult for people to retain what they learn through a disaster is seared into one’s brain. When a mistake from one year to the next. is made, there’s a long-term impression that’s indelibly fixed on What are the lessons to be learned? Read, study and try to your memory. I’ll give you a great example. assimilate information from others’ experiences. But in most When issuing a news release that provides a telephone con- cases, these will be just lessons observed. The way to learn tact number for the public, that number needs to be double- and remember the lesson is by doing and creating your own checked, even triple-checked before the news release is sent. I learning experiences. k have been burned more than once. During a large-scale power outage due to a huge windstorm, by Eric Holdeman Eric Holdeman is the former director of the King County, Wash., Office of Emergency Management. His blog is located at www. disaster-zone.com. we provided a 1-800 number for the public to report damages. Someone transcribed it wrong, and it was some form of “adult” call line. Not the first time a number was wrong in a news release, but there had been nothing like that before. 56 EM11_56.indd 56 12/8/09 2:30:58 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 57. BACK BY POPULAR DEMAND! 2010 ALL-HAZARDS/ ALL-STAKEHOLDERS SUMMITS Get a rare look with your peers and some of the most forward-thinking minds in the industry into the latest innovation and best practices around multiagency prevention and response to disasters, terrorism and epidemics. SUMMITS COMING TO YOUR AREA: MARCH: Seattle APRIL: San Francisco OCTOBER: Houston Los Angeles WHO SHOULD ATTEND: 4 First Responder Management (Police, Fire, EMS, HAZMAT) 4 Emergency Management Officials 4 Critical Infrastructure Authorities NOVEMBER: Miami Boston 4 Homeland Security Officials 4 Public Health Professionals 4 Emergency Planning Executives Registration is FREE for public sector. For registration & sponsorship details, contact: Lana Herrera @ 916.932.1353 | lherrera@emergencymgmt.com Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 58. Last Word Don’t Ignore Needs of the Children In one of Craig Fugate’s earliest public comments as FEMA administrator, he acknowledged what those of us in the disaster relief community have been saying for years: The unique needs of children are too often ignored during disaster relief efforts and we need to do much more to protect them. This was a powerful and promising embrace of change for an untenable situation. From 9/11 to Hurricane Katrina to the California wildfires, those of us in the child advocacy community or on the front lines of disasters have witnessed firsthand the devastating effects of a relief and recovery system that often has failed our children. For example, children are rarely counted separately from adults in shelter facilities, making it difficult to provide services that meet their needs and keep them safe. There is often a shortage of diapers, wipes and cribs — items essential to a baby’s well-being — and bathrooms are too often inaccessible or not closely monitored for safety and security. In a new report from Save the Children’s U.S. Programs, The Disaster Decade: Lessons Unlearned for the United States, we surveyed the disaster preparedness requirements that are currently in place in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Specifically we looked to see if they met four basic standards for protecting children who are in schools or child-care facilities during disasters: plans for parent-child reunification, evacuation measures, plans to accommodate children with special needs and multihazard disaster plans. We found that just seven states have implemented all four of these minimal standards. The lack of preparedness is astonishing when you by Mark Shriver consider that there are 67 Mark Shriver leads Save the million children in schools Children’s domestic emergency and child-care facilities on response programs to ensure children’s needs are incorpoany given weekday. rated into disaster preparedness, response and recovery plans. FEMA Administrator Craig Fugate (at podium) addresses questions about children’s needs during disasters along with Mark Shriver (left) at the 2009 National Press Club in Washington, D.C. Photo Courtesy of Bill Koplitz /FEMA There are steps that can be taken now to protect our children. Save the Children is advocating a five-point plan for positive change on this issue that includes tying federal child-care and education dollars to the four basic criteria outlined in the report and community work closely with local childcare providers and regulators to ensure that they have basic plans in place to protect kids during disasters. When it comes to robust and effective disaster relief, there is probably nothing The lack of preparedness is astonishing when you consider that there are 67 million children in schools and child-care facilities on any given weekday. creating a “kids desk” at FEMA. We want to make child-care centers eligible for federal disaster aid for the first time. But we can all play a role in helping to make change. Emergency providers are among the most powerful and credible advocates on behalf of better disaster policy. So it’s crucial that the emergency management more important than effective and thorough planning by everyone — from families to governments. And with good planning, we can ensure that emergency providers are able to do what they do best: protect people. Now is the time to take action so that the next disaster response doesn’t become a disaster in its own right. k 58 EM11_58.indd 58 12/9/09 2:19:50 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 59. Talkgroups Push-to-Talk Emergency Response Formerly Mobile Satellite Ventures SkyTerra Communications 10802 Parkridge Boulevard, Reston, VA 20191-4334 Tel: +1 703 390 2700 www.skyterra.com Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  • 60. new threats require new solutions Armed forces and emergency responders can count on new, specialized solutions from Smiths Detection to protect and defend against growing CBRNE threats. LCD 3.3™ personal, hazardous vapor identifier HazMatID Ranger™ suspicious substance identification Bio-Seeq™ PLUS bio-threat assessment For more information: call toll-free 1 888 473 6747 or 1 203 207 9700 email GMER.Americas@smithsdetection.com ! W NE Bio-Seeq™ PLUS HazMatID Ranger™ LCD 3.3™ www.smithsdetection.com Bio-Seeq™ PLUS, HazmatID Ranger™, LCD 3.3™ are trademarks of Smiths Detection Group Ltd. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE