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  1. 1. A publication of e.Re publica on e Republic May/June 2010 inside: Private-sector organizations in the EOC Destined for a life in emergency management FIRST LINE OF RESPONSE PLAGUED BY OUTDATED TECHNOLOGY, LACK OF STANDARDS 911: A NATIONAL Issue 3 — Vol. 5 PLIGHT?
  2. 2. From Incident Management to Incident Prevention A Case Study on the G20 Summit Response and Readiness In September 2009 the world came to Pittsburgh. Presidents, prime ministers, and other world leaders gathered to discuss global economic issues at the G-20 summit. UNPRECEDENTED COLLABORATION Throughout the G20 there was an unprecedented level of round-the-clock communication among security and emergency personnel. More than 900 additional users—many of whom had never used Knowledge Center before—were seamlessly integrated into the system. Knowledge Center allowed users to share more than 3,000 individual log entries across the operational theater. ‡ ‡ Interactive maps guided security personnel who were unfamiliar with the streets of a city that’s notoriously difficult to navigate. ‡ Security was on everyone’s mind. More than 130 public safety agencies were involved, including 30 federal organizations and 26 NGOs. Local law enforcement ballooned from 900 to 4,000 officers. If they were to succeed, they all needed to work together. The system met the federal agencies’ high standards for speed, reliability, security, and situational awareness. ‡ Such people never travel alone. They bring entourages, security personnel, the press corps, and—given the nature of this summit—the looming threat of violent protests and widespread property damage. Knowledge Center’s intuitive Web interface made it easy to learn. A straightforward, twosided sheet of instructions got them up to speed. Field personnel could enter or access critical information from any location. Most important, it gave all users a real-time common operating picture, allowing them to track reports, locations, events, and potential protests. Field personnel knew instantly where to focus their attention, enabling them to address incidents and “I think this type of rumblings before information sharing is they lurched out an example of how it of control. And they did. Much of the credit belongs to a region and city that were well prepared and ready to guard people and property—and to Knowledge Center™, an integrated incident management system that creates a virtual collaborative environment for emergency managers. Protests remained under control, as security and emergency personnel stayed well informed and prepared throughout the summit. should be.” — Lieutenant Zupanc Ohio Fusion Center “Access was given not only to all those in the MACC, but to the street level and field operations,” notes Commander Richard Timme, of the U.S. Coast Guard. “Instant communications were — Commander Timme, US Coast Guard possible via the logging of incidents, which included every aspect of the event including 911 calls. This type of ‘common operating picture’ is something that every response organization should strive for, particularly when faced with so many different agencies.” “The Knowledge Center’s ‘common operating picture’ is something that every response organization should strive for, particularly when faced with so many different agencies.” HISTORY OF SUCCESS The Knowledge Center Incident Management System already was in place long before the dignitaries’ private planes landed. It has served a 13-county region and the city of Pittsburgh for four years, and it had been put to the test with the 2006 All-Star Game, the 2007 U.S. Open Golf Tournament, and severe weather events that regularly occur in the region. The G-20, however, was far bigger than any past events, and once again Knowledge Center absorbed an influx of users. In the end, the city sustained about $50,000 worth of property damage, a mere fraction of the losses suffered by other cities that have hosted similar events. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  3. 3. Experience Knowledge Center in action! Be part of our EOC @ 2010 National UASI Conference Join us June 21–24 in New Orleans—EOC Participants get a Free Shirt or Hat Sign up @ our website —Select “UASI Exercise” on Contact Form 3,000+ LOG ENTRIES /RJ ,G (YHQW ,G 'HVFULSWLRQ $FWLYLW 'DWH * +RPHVWHDG SG FXUUHQWO RQVFHQH 0$ DW ( :DWHUIURQW GU GLFNV VSRUWLQJ JRRGV
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  28. 28. $OOHJKHQ RXQW $OOHJKHQ RXQW (PHUJHQF 6HUYLFHV 3LWWVEXUJK (PHUJHQF 0DQDJHPHQW $JHQF 3LWWVEXUJK (PHUJHQF 0HGLFDO 6HUYLFHV 3LWWVEXUJK )LUH 3LWWVEXUJK 3ROLFH 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 8WLOLWLHV 8WLOLWLHV )XVLRQ HQWHU )XVLRQ HQWHU 6WDWH 6WDWH 6WDWH 6WDWH RXQW RXQW 0XQLFLSDO 0XQLFLSDO 0XQLFLSDO 0XQLFLSDO ZZZNQRZOHGJHFHQWHUFRP ,QFLGHQW 0DQDJHPHQW 6RIWZDUH 6ROXWLRQ 7HVWHG 5HDG 4126353322 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  29. 29. ON THE COVER 16 Contents 911: A National Plight? Since 911 call-takers and technology are the first line of response when citizens have an emergency, it’s surprising how standards vary throughout the nation. Cover Photo by the New York City Police Department Photo Unit FEATURES 28 Working Together Since Katrina, the private sector has joined hands with the public sector during disasters. 44 High-Tech Port Protection Los Angeles port authorities bolster line of defense against terrorists with technology and a specialized canine. DEPARTMENTS 24 MAJOR PLAYER Spirit for Service Jacqueline McBride, disaster assistance employee, FEMA Region II. 54 INTEROPERABILITY Born From Necessity Tight funds and a need for interoperable radio communications inspire nearly 20 years of collaboration on a statewide network that continues to grow. 58 TECHNOLOGY AND TRENDS A Critical Link Amateur radio operators fill communication gaps and provide situational awareness to emergency managers during and after disasters. PHOTO COURTESY OF THE NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT PHOTO UNIT 4 EM05_04.indd 4 4/30/10 9:15 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  30. 30. ALERT THOUSANDS IN MINUTES WHEN IT MATTERS MOST. Whether you need to mobilize constituents, communicate weather-related closures or notify your community in an emergency, Blackboard Connect provides the professional-grade solution to quickly and reliably deliver your message, every time. Backed by our client care team and a worldclass infrastructure proven to deliver over 6 million messages in a 24-hour period, Blackboard Connect is relied upon by over 500 government entities to deliver their message when it matters most. blackboardconnect.com © 2010 Blackboard Inc. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  31. 31. Group Publisher: Founding Publisher: VP Emergency Management/ Homeland Security: Publisher: Executive Editor: Contents EDITORIAL Editor: Associate Editor: Managing Editor: Assistant Editor: Features Editor: Chief Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Staff Writers: Don Pearson dpearson@govtech.com Tim Karney tkarney@govtech.com Martin Pastula mpastula@govtech.com Scott Fackert sfackert@govtech.com Steve Towns stowns@govtech.com Editorial Assistant: Jim McKay jmckay@govtech.com Elaine Pittman epittman@govtech.com Karen Stewartson kstewartson@govtech.com Matt Williams mwilliams@govtech.com Andy Opsahl aopsahl@govtech.com Miriam Jones mjones@govtech.com Sarah Rich srich@govtech.com Hilton Collins hcollins@govtech.com Corey McKenna cmckenna@govtech.com Russell Nichols rnichols@govtech.com Karen Wilkinson kwilkinson@govtech.com Courtney Hardy chardy@govtech.com DESIGN Creative Director: Senior Designer: Graphic Designer: Illustrator: Production Director: Production Manager: Kelly Martinelli kmartinelli@govtech.com Crystal Hopson chopson@govtech.com Michelle Hamm mhamm@govtech.com Tom McKeith tmckeith@govtech.com Stephan Widmaier swidm@govtech.com Joei Heart jheart@govtech.com PUBLISHING VP of Strategic Accounts: VP Bus. Development: Jon Fyffe jfyffe@govtech.com Tim Karney tkarney@govtech.com East Regional Sales Directors: East West, Central Leslie Hunter lhunter@govtech.com Shelley Ballard sballard@govtech.com Account Managers: Melissa Cano mcano@govtech.com Erin Gross egross@govtech.com Business Development Director: Glenn Swenson gswenson@govtech.com Bus. Dev. Managers: Lisa Doughty ldoughty@govtech.com John Enright jenright@govtech.com Pat Hoertling phoertling@govtech.com Kevin May kmay@govtech.com Regional Sales Administrators: Sabrina Shewmake sshewmake@govtech.com Christine Childs cchilds@govtech.com National Sales Administrator: Jennifer Valdez jvaldez@govtech.com Director of Marketing: Andrea Kleinbardt akleinbardt@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Events: Whitney Sweet wsweet@govtech.com Associate Dir. of Custom Events: Lana Herrera lherrera@govtech.com Custom Events Manager: Karin Morgan kmorgan@govtech.com Custom Events Coordinator: Tanya Noujaim tnoujaim@govtech.com Dir. of Custom Publications: Stacey Toles stoles@govtech.com Custom Publications Editor: Emily Montandon emontandon@govtech.com Custom Publications Writer: Jim Meyers jmeyers@govtech.com Director of Web Products and Services: Vikki Palazzari vpalazzari@govtech.com Web Services Manager: Peter Simek psimek@govtech.com Custom Web Products Manager: Michelle Mrotek mmrotek@govtech.com Web Advertising Manager: Julie Dedeaux jdedeaux@govtech.com Web Services/Project Coordinator: Adam Fowler afowler@govtech.com Subscription Coordinator: Gosia Colosimo subscriptions@govtech.com East West, Central PHOTO COURTESY OF THE LOS ANGELES SHERIFF’S DEPARTMENT REST OF THE BOOK 8 62 Letters/Calendar Products 10 64 Point of View Eric’s Corner: Simplifying the Message Selling Emergency Management 12 66 In the News CORPORATE CEO: Executive VP: Executive VP: CAO: CFO: VP of Events: Marketing Director: Chief Content Officer: Last Word Protecting the Public Against H1N1 Dennis McKenna dmckenna@govtech.com Don Pearson dpearson@govtech.com Cathilea Robinett crobinet@centerdigitalgov.com Lisa Bernard lbernard@govtech.com Paul Harney pharney@govtech.com Alan Cox acox@govtech.com Drew Noel dnoel@govtech.com Paul W. Taylor ptaylor@govtech.com Government Technology’s Emergency Management is published by e.Republic Inc. © 2010 by e.Republic Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed by writers are not necessarily those of the publisher or editors. 14 Article submissions should be sent to the attention of the Managing Editor. Reprints of all articles in this issue and past issues are available (500 minimum). Please direct inquiries to the YGS Group: Attn. Mike Shober at (800) 290-5460 ext.129 or governmenttechnology@theygsgroup.com. EM Bulletin Subscription Information: Requests for subscriptions may be directed to subscription coordinator by phone or fax to the numbers below. You can also subscribe online at www.emergencymgmt.com. Canada Post Publication Mail Agreement 40048640, undeliverables 2-7496 Bath Road, Mississauga, Ontario L4T 1L2 100 Blue Ravine Road, Folsom, CA 95630 Phone: (916)932-1300 Fax: (916)932-1470 www.emergencymgmt.com 6 e The inside pages of this publication are printed on 80 percent de-inked recycled fiber. A publication of EM05_04.indd 6 4/28/10 10:31 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  32. 32. For safety administrators, waiting is not an option. When it comes to public safety, getting the right resources to the right spot simply can’t wait. The BlackBerry Curve™ 8350i with Nextel Direct Connect and GPS tracking is here to help. Dispatchers can track resources and route employees to the jobsite, all with just the flick of a thumb or two. It’s getting easier to stay on top of things. All kinds of things. Only on the Now Network.™ 1-800-NEXTEL-9 sprint.com/nextel ® ® BlackBerry® Curve™ 8350i smartphone Direct Connect: Nextel and PowerSource devices operate on the Nextel National Network. Other Terms: “Fastest” claim based on initial call setup time. Coverage not available everywhere. The Nextel National Network reaches over 274 million people. ©2010 Sprint. Sprint and the logo are trademarks of Sprint. Research In Motion, the RIM logo, BlackBerry, the BlackBerry logo and SureType are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and may be pending or registered in other countries—these and other marks of Research In Motion Limited are used with permission. Other marks are the property of their respective owners. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  33. 33. Reader Feedback Enforce the Codes Comments in response to the online article Proposed Addressing Standard Could Boost Emergency Response, which covers how inaccurate addresses cause potentially fatal delays in emergency response, but a proposed standard could improve the situation. Read the article at: www.emergencymgmt.com/publicaddressing All of the computerized gizmos in the world don’t mean a thing until we enforce the existing codes requiring clearly visible address numbers on every structure. — J. Allen Twenty-five years ago the Champaign County, Ill., Fire Chiefs Association started a project that did away with rural route box number addressing. Now all addressing is a locatable address instead of “telling only the postal letter carrier where the mailbox is.” We converted about 10,000 addresses in our county, which is the size of Rhode Island. — Tom Harnsberger Hot Topic Cultivating Emergency Managers sparked many comments online, and here’s what one reader had to say about the impending shortage of emergency managers and how to groom the next generation. Join the conversation at: www.emergencymgmt .com/cultivating It is extremely difficult to break into the [emergency management] field. I have been trying g for almost three years now with no luck. Local l and state offices seem to be full of people who have been there for years and don’t plan to leave for even more years. There are few to no entry-level positions. It has become so concerning that I am thinking about going back to school for something else. I have learned one thing in this field: You cannot look for the job in your local areas, meaning you can’t wait for the job to come to you. You will have to go to the job and that means relocating. I am currently looking all over the country for positions but so far still no luck. — Tiffany Barnes Encouraged Comment in response to the interview with FEMA Administrator Craig Fugate titled Raising the Bar in the March/April issue, in which he discussed ethics, technology and the Haiti earthquake in a rare one-on-one interview. Read the interview at: www.emergencymgmt.com/fugate This interview was very insightful and encouraging! Craig Fugate is moving FEMA in the right direction. I do agree that the largest challenge is teaching, on a local level, key stakeholders and players how to “dance” together before disasters happen! — John Crabtree Your opinions matter to us. Send letters to the editor at editorial@govtech.com. Please list your telephone number for confirmation. Publication is solely at the discretion of the editors. Emergency Management reserves the right to edit submissions for length. Emergency Management Events 5-10 June 6-9 June NATIONAL EMERGENCY NUMBER ASSOCIATION 2010: 9-1-1 CONFERENCE TRADE SHOW Indianapolis Indiana Convention Center Join public safety professionals, telecommunications specialists and government leaders for a week filled with opportunities to develop a keen understanding of the near- and long-term issues facing public safety and plan to leave with the skills necessary to tackle these challenges head on. 7-10 June 20TH WORLD CONFERENCE ONDISASTERMANAGEMENT Toronto, Ontario Metro Toronto Convention Centre The conference is an annual event for disaster management professionals, meeting delegate demand for a global perspective on current industry issues. www.wcdm.org www.nena.org/NENA2010 7-10 June 1-4 August FEMA ANNUAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT HIGHER EDUCATION CONFERENCE Emmitsburg, Md. Emergency Management Institute NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE AND EXPO Las Vegas Mandalay Bay Convention Center The program’s goal is to work with colleges and universities, emergency management professionals and stakeholder organizations to help create an emergency management system of sustained, replicable capability and disaster loss reduction through formal education, experiential learning, practice and experience. Meet executive decision-makers from all building types to get current with new developments in codes and standards, and find suppliers who can help you achieve safetyrelated objectives. www.nfpa.org 23-25 August ASSOCIATION OF PUBLICSAFETY COMMUNICATIONS OFFICIALS INTERNATIONAL ANNUAL CONFERENCE Houston George R. Brown Convention Center Executives, dispatchers and technicians involved in all aspects of public safety communications from law enforcement to public safety answering points to government agencies, gather here each year. 4TH ANNUAL HAZUS CONFERENCE Indianapolis Indiana Government Center South This event will promote HAZUS training and provide quick links to key resources that encourage the use of HAZUS to make our nation safer. www.hazus.net/2010 www.apco2010.org http://training.fema. gov/EMIWeb/edu/ Go to www.emergencymgmt.com/events to add your event to the calendar. 8 EM05_08.indd 8 4/28/10 10:41 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  34. 34. Windows®. Life without Walls™. Dell recommends Windows 7. Where rugged works. Where rugged works. Meet the rugged Dell™ Latitude™ E6400 XFR. T3 magazine called it one of the toughest gadgets on Earth and it’ll work in some of the toughest conditions on the planet. Whether that’s Alaska, Afghanistan, or anywhere in-between. If you need a computer that goes above and beyond the call of duty, visit Dell.com/meetruggedxfr or call 1-888-375-9853. Powered by Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor Intel, the Intel Logo, Intel Inside, Intel Core, and Core Inside are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  35. 35. Point of View Simplifying the Message There are 27 items on Ready.gov’s list of supplies to incorpo- as needed. This is one way of making the task of creating a rate into an emergency kit, divided by recommended supplies preparedness plan simple and interactive. (12) and additional items to consider (15). At the All-Hazards, The state also has a business disaster planning tool, which All-Stakeholders Summit on March 25 in Seattle, former after 10 to 15 minutes of entering information, provides steps FEMA Region VIII Administrator Garry Briese said the cost business owners can take to save time and money on disaster of these items can exceed $375 and many require replenish- preparedness. ment, like water and food. He said although many emergency Florida isn’t the only government that’s providing citi- managers take comfort in telling the public to purchase these zens with online, interactive disaster planning tools. Boston items, a community’s economic realities need to be consid- launched its Family Preparedness Planner online applica- ered when emergency supply lists are developed. tion (http://hubmaps.cityofboston.gov/evacuation_planning) Some emergency management departments are simplifying the process of creating preparedness plans for citizens. “I think we need to continue personal preparedness, abso- in 2009, which was built in-house by IT staff. Residents add lutely, but I want people to work on the top 10 things we want to the planner information like important locations, such as them to have,” Briese said. “I don’t care if they have plastic schools and workplaces, and contact information, and they wrap and duct tape. How do we simplify our message? We’re upload pictures of household members and pets. asking too much and sending mixed messages to the public.” “We really wanted to create something that would be easy to Some emergency management departments are simpli- use, interactive and quick for average citizens to be able to go fying the process of creating preparedness plans for citizens. and develop their own emergency preparedness plan for their Best Public Safety/Trade The Florida Division of Emergency Management’s Web site, family,” said Donald McGough, director of the Boston Mayor’s 2009 Maggie Award www.floridadisaster.org, has an online tool that lays out simple Office of Emergency Preparedness, after the tool went live. steps to create a family preparedness plan. It prompts resi- Residents can download the planner and save it on their dents to enter information about their family, home and pets personal computers or USB thumb drives, which keeps their to create a personalized plan, and then calculates the amount information private and easily accessible. of food and water needed based on the number of household These user-friendly online tools make the process of members. The Web site also has a user name and password creating disaster preparedness plans straightforward and setup so families can return and update their information streamlined — therefore simplifying the message. k Elaine Pittman Associate Editor Questions or comments? Please give us your input by contacting our editorial department at editorial@govtech.com, or visit our Web site at www.emergencymgmt.com. L E A D , F O L L O W O R G E T O U T O F T H E W AY. 10 EM05_10.indd 10 4/28/10 10:49 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  36. 36. For the high-risk areas you need to protect every day, ADT® has proven homeland security solutions. 5 2 4 6 3 1 1. Government Square 2. Water Treatment Plant 3. University Campus 4. Port Authority 5. Mass Transit/Airport 6. High-crime Zone Security requirements at the city and county levels are more complex than ever. Which is why the resources of ADT Security Services can really help. Not because we’re the world’s largest electronic security company. But because ADT is helping regional and municipal governments like yours, every day, all across America with inter-operable solutions scaled and tailored to your needs. Effective security planning, technology and services for the many public decisions you face: homeland security, life safety, crime prevention, emergency preparedness and more. Our dedicated state and local government sales representatives can help you put together a customized plan for your city or county today. Call 1-866-748-9166 or visit ADT.com/gov to see ADT Homeland Security successes at work. Network Video Mass Notification Access Control Critical Condition Monitoring Schedule 84 Homeland Security SAFETY Act Certified and Designated for Electronic Security Services ADT state license numbers are available for review at www.ADT.com or by contacting 1-800-ADT-ASAP.® ©2010 ADT Security Services, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ADT, the ADT logo, ADT Always There and 1-800-ADT-ASAP are registered trademarks of ADT Services, AG, and are used under license. 73566_ADT_AD9-170.indd 1 12/4/09 5:01:04 PM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  37. 37. In the News 6.5 7 .2 7.0 IT MIGHT SEEM as if 2010 is making its mark as the year of the devastating earthquake, but in reality there hasn’t been an increase in the magnitude or the number of temblors — the difference is that they’re occurring in heavily populated areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is trying to set the record straight on its website: “Although it may seem that we are having more earthquakes, earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater have remained fairly constant throughout this century and, according to our records, have actually seemed to decrease in recent years.” The USGS also attributed the perception of increased earthquakes to its ability to detect more earthquakes using new and more expansive technology. In 1931 there were 350 seismograph stations operating in the world, and now there are more than 4,000 stations that report data using computers and satellites. 6.3 8.8 The storm could have been handled better from an emergency management standpoint, according to Peter LaPorte, who headed emergency management for the district under former Mayor Anthony Williams. “I would have run it out of the emergency management agency,” he told The Washington Post. 6.9 7 .2 6.3 Jan. 3, 2010 Jan. 12 Feb. 27 Solomon Islands Magnitude 7.1 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Magnitude 7.0 Chile Magnitude 8.8 Photo courtesy of Chief Mass Commmunication Specialist James G. Pinsky/U.S. Navy Photo courtesy of Walter D. Mooney/ U.S. Geological Survey 12 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  38. 38. 6.0 6 6.6 6.3 After the December 2009 snowstorm that hit Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C., was declared a disaster, Obama made Virginia eligible to recover some of the $49 million it requested for storm-related costs like snow removal. In February, the district’s government oversaw the snow-removal operation that included 700 employees, 265 snowplows and trucks, 82 plow routes and 190 cameras monitoring intersections and roads. The district housed about 500 snowplow drivers in hotels to ensure that they didn’t get snowed in at their homes, according to The Washington Post. 6.4 6.9 6.3 7.1 7 6.5 .7 April 4 April 6 April 11 April 13 Mexico Magnitude 7.2 Sumatra, Indonesia Magnitude 7.7 Spain Magnitude 6.3 China Magnitude 6.9 The snowstorm cut power to at least 300,000 homes as trees fell due to the snow’s weight cutting power lines. Blackouts also affected about 250,000 customers in Virginia, New Jersey and New York, according to The New York Times. Photo courtesy of GeoEye 13 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  39. 39. EM Bulletin High-Definition Cameras Help California Assess Wildfires PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA IN THE LARGEST PROJECT OF ITS KIND in the United States, the U.S. Forest Service and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire) are testing a program to spot and assess fires using high-definition cameras mounted atop sometimes unstaffed communications towers. The goal? “To size up a fire and be more effective in dispatching,” said Bob Patton, the El Dorado National Forest fire chief. Using the El Dorado National Forest as its pilot location, three cameras allow Cal Fire dispatchers in the Camino Interagency Command Center to view forest land, better aiding dispatch communications with firefighters. “We have lookouts with human beings, and a lot of time these lookouts do not have a lot of fire experience,” said Patton, adding the cameras act as a “second eye” in detection efforts. “We can use the tool to save money by not launching the aircraft, or by launching and keeping [destroyed] acreage down.” Read more at: www.emergencymgmt.com/firecamera MORE THAN 300 MILLION U.S. RESIDENTS trust that their addresses are accurate and emergency responders can find their houses when they dial 911. Yet fire chiefs, 911 coordinators and GIS professionals say the addressing system that’s the foundation of their jurisdictions’ call-routing systems contains potentially dangerous errors and the ordinances that define how addresses are displayed are insufficient or not enforced. To help remedy this problem, in late January, a group led by the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association and the National Emergency Number Association submitted a new addressing standard to promote uniformity in how addresses are assigned, stored and shared between city, county, state and federal government agencies as well as the private sector. Over the past five years, the group, formally known as the Address Standards Working Group, collected input for the United States Thoroughfare, Landmark and Postal Address Data Standard from more than 400 stakeholders on a public wiki, and the draft standards were posted and commented on by the community. In March, the Federal Geographic Data Committee Standards Working Group approved public review of the standard’s draft in order “to resolve address data modeling and geoprocessing and to create a comprehensive address data standard, thereby helping to make our national spatial data infrastructure truly national,” according to a statement. The committee is accepting comments through June 16. Read more at: www.emergencymgmt.com/publicaddressing 14 PHOTO COURTESY OF BRYAN DAHLBERG/FEMA Addressing Standard Could Boost Emergency Response EM05_14.indd 14 4/28/10 11:04 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  40. 40. The suite of EDXL standards includes: • Common Alerting Protocol — provides the ability to exchange all-hazards emergency alerts, notifications and public warnings, which can be disseminated simultaneously over multiple devices and warning systems. • Distribution Element — provides a flexible message-distribution framework for data sharing in emergency information systems. Messages may be distributed by specific recipients, a geographic area or other codes such as agency type. • Hospital Availability Exchange — specifies a document format that allows communication of the hospital’s status, its services and resources, including bed capacity and availability, emergency department status and available service coverage. This assists hospital coordination and routing of patients to the right facilities for care during emergencies. • Resource Messaging — describes a suite of standard XML messages for data sharing among emergency and other information systems that deal with requesting and providing emergency equipment, supplies, people and teams. Capabilities include information sharing among emergency responder agencies for purposes such as providing alerts and warnings, requesting and tracking resources, and sharing situational awareness. The demonstration illustrated a method of information sharing with multiple vendor systems sharing information. Working with scenario details provided by the federal agencies, the interoperability demonstrations showcased how standards can be used for hazardous materials dispatch, Emergency Alert System notices, weather radio alerts and transportation of injured firefighters to appropriately equipped hospitals. PHOTO COURTESY OF JOCELYN AUGUSTINO/FEMA THE U.S. DEPARTMENT of Homeland Security (DHS), FEMA and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, teamed with Oasis — a nonprofit international consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of open standards — to demonstrate the interoperability of information-sharing products enabled by the new Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) standards. Oasis members used a simulated emergency situation to showcase the response capabilities of products utilizing these standards and the value to the practitioner and ultimately the public. “The creation of the EDXL suite of standards is a breakthrough in standards development and capability,” said David Boyd, director of the DHS’ Command, Control and Interoperability (CCI) Division. “They will improve the capabilities and success of emergency responders daily, and CCI is proud to have participated on their development.” The demonstrations exhibited the suite of EDXL standards in alignment with the National Information Exchange Model Information Exchange Package Documentation. Open, nonproprietary and available at no cost, EDXL standards create a new approach to standards use and deployment. The standards make use of existing efforts and protocols, creating tools scalable from the local to the federal level. PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA Interoperability Demonstrations Showcase Emergency Data Exchange Language Standards Emergency Management 15 EM05_14.indd 15 4/28/10 11:05 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  41. 41. 911: A 16 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  42. 42. BY ELAINE PITTMAN | ASSOCIATE EDITOR R : ecordings of 911 calls gone awry have been played repeatedly by broadcast media and published verbatim by print media. Sometimes blamed on outdated technology, other times on the call-taker, these phone calls highlight two of the common problems associated with 911. Technology and call-taker standards and training vary by state and locality, where counties and cities, even those next to one another, sometimes have varying requirements. To make matters worse, the current fiscal environment, created the Professional Communications Human Resource Taskforce (PRO-CHRT) to identify human resource issues related to public safety communications professionals. PROCHRT wants to establish consistency nationwide for call-takers and is working to identify how training standards vary at the state level. “The overall goal for the task force is for public safety communicators and dispatchers to be recognized as a profession, to be taken seriously,” said Kimberly Burdick, a PRO-CHRT subchair. “The type of work that dispatchers do the same kind of training to be answering 911 calls,” he said. “It’s scary when you hear 911 calls being played on the news where a call went bad, and you hear fundamental things that if they had received proper training, possibly that call could have gone differently.” This could be implemented all the way down to how 911 calls are answered, Taylor added. If there were a systematic set of questions asked by call-takers nationwide, it would be easier to educate the public about what questions will be asked and why. A NATIONAL PLIGHT? SINCE 911 CALL-TAKERS AND TECHNOLOGY ARE THE FIRST LINE OF RESPONSE WHEN CITIZENS HAVE AN EMERGENCY, IT’S SURPRISING HOW STANDARDS VARY THROUGHOUT THE NATION. where governments at all levels are feeling pain, is forcing some states to raid surcharges collected to pay for new 911 technologies in order to fund other initiatives. Other states are stifled by companies that provide emergency call center equipment that doesn’t connect with other vendors, therefore impeding the move toward next-generation 911. From this two questions arise: Should 911 call-takers and technology be subject to national standards? And how can the nation get states to stop redirecting their 911 funds? Nationwide Recognition There are more than 6,180 public safety answering points (PSAPs) in the United States — the local centers that handle calls to 911. The call-takers and technology working in them are the first level of response when someone dials those crucial three numbers to report an emergency. Because of the varying standards for call-takers across state and local governments, it’s nearly impossible to identify a specific, allencompassing issue or problem, but there is a movement to identify best practices for the field. In April 2009, the Association of PublicSafety Communications Officials (APCO) is every bit as important as a nurse or doctor except that there just isn’t the professional recognition out there for dispatchers like there is for other professions.” Task force members sent a questionnaire to each state requesting information about its training, such as if the state has legislation that requires call-taker certification. “But there are many states that don’t have any requirements, and then there are states that have volunteer certification,” said Burdick, who is also the 911 communications manager for the Chouteau County (Mont.) Sheriff ’s Office. Standards can vary even more. North Carolina has a required certification model for calltakers who work under a sheriff, but those working in the realms of emergency management, fire or police aren’t included. “That’s one of the things that we want to change,” said Richard Taylor, executive director of the North Carolina 911 Board, who also said he’d like to see these issues addressed nationally. “One thing I would like to see is a certification process for all 911 call-takers that trains them, so whether they’re in Los Angeles, New York or Jones County, N.C., everybody has The variance in call-taker standards also has led some organizations, like APCO and the National Emergency Number Association (NENA), to support the creation of national requirements. “If you think about it, would you allow a police officer, firefighter or paramedic to function in the field without at least a minimum set of standardized training? You wouldn’t,” said Craig Whittington, NENA president and the 911 and special projects coordinator for Guilford Metro 911 in Greensboro, N.C. “Then why in the world would you let the first link in the most critical part of the system — the contact directly between the citizen and the field responder — not have the same training?” But it’s unclear who would enforce such standard. Ken Lowden, executive director of the Indiana Wireless Enhanced 911 Advisory Board, thinks that the federal government could identify broad, minimum standards or specify areas that require training, but that it should remain a local issue. “I’ve been in government an awfully long time and the one thing I don’t think government does — and I don’t care where you are in government — we don’t do a very good job in very large projects most of the time,” he said. Implementing Emergency Management 17 Designer Creative Dir. 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  43. 43. Job-Driven Standards a federal requirement in the nation’s 6,000-plus PSAPs would constitute a very large project. Lowden added that sometimes projects must be jump-started at the federal level, but it shouldn’t set the final mandates. Supporting Localities The standards for 911 call-takers and dispatchers vary throughout the nation, and some believe a federal standard should regulate their certification. state Emergency Communications Board’s purview, and it set requirements modeled after APCO’s public safety telecommunicator standards. Because training is a high priority for the board, it recently started a $2 million program to help districts pay for the training, said Lynn Questell, executive director of the board. The training includes at least 40 hours of supervised on-the-job training and 40 hours of public safety communications course work within the first six months of employment. “We feel it’s an extremely high priority and the board does not like to do unfunded mandates,” she said, “so the board dug deep and found some funding for dispatcher training. We’re really proud of that.” Not all states offer monetary support for calltaker training. Montana requires new employees to attend a 40-hour course at the law enforcement academy within the first 12 months of work. However, Burdick said, local agencies must foot the bill. She would like to see that developed into an 80-hour course, but added that training doesn’t usually end with the state-required course. Chouteau County’s training period is PHOTO COURTESY OF JASON PACK DHS/FEMA In 2005, Tennessee’s General Assembly put call-taker and dispatcher training under the The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) created Project 33 (P33) in the ’90s, when the industry lacked training standards for telecommunicators and public safety communications officers. Although many people refer to P33 as the standard for 911 call-takers, it encompasses the minimum training standards for all the positions that can be found in public safety communications, said Amanda Byrd, special projects manager for APCO. And the association is expanding its selection of communications training standards even further with its 2010 revision. “Because there are so many agencies out there that are consolidated or only do law enforcement dispatch or do 911 call taking and dispatch the fire but not law enforcement, the new version that’s coming out actually addresses a section for each of these functions,” Byrd said. “So depending on how the agency is set up, what kind of positions they have and if their officers are cross-trained, then they would need to meet the training requirements for the call-taker and then whatever services they provide. They configure it to their needs.” The deadline to have received P33 training certification for the 2007 standards was April 1, and going forward states and localities must comply with the 2010 standards. 640 hours and includes emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) certification — another aspect of 911 call-taking that varies by agency. EMD training certifies the call-taker or dispatcher to provide medical information and prearrival instructions over the phone before first responders arrive on the scene. “It’s not enough that a communicator knows CPR. Just knowing CPR doesn’t qualify you to give instructions,” Whittington said. “Being an EMD and knowing CPR is like champagne and water — totally different ends of the spectrum.” Taylor also said it should be a national standard for call-takers to receive training to give medical instructions over the phone, for example, to a woman in labor or even someone with a gunshot wound. “We need to have that capability globally across the United States and not just in those 911 centers that have the privilege of having a few extra dollars for that type of service,” he said. Raiding the 911 Coffers As with most government projects, funding is the main barrier to implementing new technologies for 911 call centers and PSAPs. Every state collects a monthly 911 surcharge from wireless and landline phone customers, which ranges from about 20 cents to $2.50, according to a NENA report. The money is collected to enhance 911 technologies at the PSAPs. However, the recession has led some states to raid their 911 coffers to fund other projects. “The unfortunate thing is there is really no firm stick that would ‘disincent’ a state from raiding its 911 funds,” said Brian Josef, director of regulatory affairs for CTIA-The Wireless Association. “While they may lose some federal funding [by raiding the coffers], often what we’ve seen is a state raiding the 911 fund is taking much more out of that fund than they end up losing in federal grants. So in these economic times, we understand the situation that states may be facing, but they’re robbing their constituents of effective 911 service.” When jurisdictions use money from their 911 fund for other initiatives, the federal government can withhold 911 funding. Some are making changes to their funds to try to avoid the penalty. According to Dispatch Magazine, a Wisconsin Legislature joint committee amended a bill to change the name of the surcharge from “911 fee” to the “police and fire protection fee” in June 2009 to avoid conflict with the federal legislation. New York changed the description of its surcharge from “911” to “public safety communications,” The Buffalo News reported, and it was raised from 70 cents to $1.20 in 2002. The surcharge generated about $600 million in 15 years, but only $84 million was distributed to municipalities that operate 911 centers, according to the newspaper. “We have states out there that are diverting tens of millions of dollars from 911 funds to go into other pots, such as buying vehicles, guns, uniforms and equipment for first responders,” said NENA’s Whittington. “The funds were created to fund 911 centers; we have 911 centers out there with woefully outdated equipment and even the ones with the best equipment need to be preparing for next-generation 911.” As of press time, NENA was preparing a letter for Congress asking for congressional intervention to stop states from diverting 911 18 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
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  45. 45. A (Bri History of 911 (Brief) February 1967 January 1968 Feb. 16, 1968 1972 1970s Oct. 26, 1999 President Lyndon Johnson’s Johnson’ Commission Enforcement on Law E Administration of and Adm Justice recommended a nationwide nationw single phone number numbe to reach police. ATT designated 911 as its universal emergency number. Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite made the first 911 call from the Haleyville City Hall to U.S. Rep. Tom Bevill at the city’s police station. The FCC recommended that 911 be implemented nationwide. Alameda County, Calif., tests the first pilot project for selective routing of 911 calls. The service was operational in July 1978. President Bill Clinton signed SB 800 designating 911 as the nationwide emergency telephone number. — Source: Dispatch Magazine Ever-Evolving Technology Workers at the 911 fire dispatch at the Emergency Operations Center in Pensacola, Fla., with former Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge. Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended in 1967 that there should be a single number for people to call to reach police departments and that this number should eventually be used nationwide. In 1968, ATT designated 911 as its universal emergency number, and the FCC recommended in 1972 that the number be used across the U.S. In 1974, the federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration funded a program to test the cost and benefits of an enhanced 911 (E911) program in Alameda County, Calif., PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA The history of 911 is a long one, but to put it in perspective, President Lyndon Johnson’s which used selective routing — the capability to route a call to a specific PSAP. The proliferation of cell phones has created the need for new technologies in 911 centers because people assume that call-takers automatically know their phone number and location, which isn’t always true. As of December 2009, 285.6 million U.S. residents used cell phones and 22.7 percent of U.S. households were wireless only, meaning they lack a landline telephone, which for decades was the main way people called 911, according to the CTIA. PSAPs and wireless network carriers have been implementing E911 technology that will provide call-takers with the wireless caller’s phone number and estimated location. The Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999 required the implementation of E911, to be executed in two phases. Phase I required wireless carriers to provide the PSAP with the telephone number of the 911 caller and the location of the cell site or base station receiving the call. Phase II required the carriers to provide Automatic Location Identification, which identifies the address or geographic location of the calling device within 300 meters; this was to be completed by the end of 2005. Local call centers have upgraded or are in the process of upgrading their technology to use the data provided by E911. However, in February 2010 NENA found that about 10 percent of the nation’s PSAPs hadn’t installed the equipment to use that information. The issue once again comes back to funding: According to a U.S. General Accountability Office report, “Not all states have implemented a funding mechanism for wireless E911, and of those that have, some have redirected E911 funds to unrelated uses.” Consumer technology is pushing the evolution of 911 technology even further. Popular technologies like text messaging, photos and videos and the need to transfer calls and data between PSAPs has led to the need for nextgeneration 911, which will run off statewide 20 public safety IP networks. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Research and Innovative Technology Administration, “The next-generation 911 initiative will establish the foundation for public emergency services in this wireless environment and enable an enhanced 911 system compatible with any communications device.” Many consider Indiana a leader in the nextgeneration 911 initiative. It has a statewide IP network that’s based on a redundant high-speed fiber network. “We have an IP network that is dedicated solely to 911,” Lowden said. “We have all the counties that we can connected to it and the ability to transfer both voice and data.” Indiana’s PSAPs have been connected to the IP network for about three years, except those that are served by ATT. He said the ATT counties aren’t connected because the company does a straight lease of PSAP equipment to the localities, which means it retains full control of the equipment and it refused the Indiana Wireless Enhanced 911 Advisory Board connectivity to its equipment. Counties that work with other vendors buy the equipment or do a lease PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA funds, he said. The CTIA, NENA and APCO come together when they hear that a governor might raid a state’s 911 fees. “In some cases we’ve been successful at getting them to back off, and I know that in Maryland the governor, after announcing intentions to raid, has not taken those funds,” Josef said. “But in other states, they need the money and really there’s nothing to sway them from that.” Designer Creative Dir. 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  46. 46. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  47. 47. 3G coverage to the rescue. Connect with critical data from a smartphone. Police departments, large and small, are coming to us with the same challenge: They need to equip their force with reliable, real-time database connectivity. And they need scalable solutions that comply with real-world budget realities. Verizon Wireless Government specialists are helping these public safety customers leverage America’s Largest and Most Reliable 3G Network to expand existing hand-held device connectivity. Now, with applications like InterActPocketCop,™ officers are accessing department emails and alerts, running license plates and criminal records and sharing evidence photos, right from the incident scene. Put your mission on the map. Let us map out a solution that supports your team. 1.800.779.2068 verizonwireless.com/gov Network details and coverage maps at vzw.com. All company names, trademarks, logos, and copyrights are property of their respective owners. InterActPocketCop services are provided by InterAct Public Safety Systems, a Verizon Wireless Business Solutions Alliance member, which is solely responsible for its products’ functionality, pricing, and service agreements. © 2010 Verizon Wireless. GOVEM3GRESCUE510 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  48. 48. purchase on it, so they control any changes made to it. Lowden said calls can be transferred to the ATT counties, but they must pass through the company’s router, which causes them to lose the digital advantage. “If there’s a Verizon county next door, they can’t transfer the call out of the ATT network into a Verizon territory,” he said. “Once the call is inside the ATT network it has to stay there.” This can impede public safety because additional information, like the caller’s location and phone number, won’t be transferred to a PSAP operating on another vendor’s equipment — just the person’s voice — therefore eliminating the benefits of E911. Indiana isn’t the only state to run into provider-related hurdles. “In North Carolina, we have three major telephone companies that are 911 service providers: CenturyLink, ATT and Verizon,” Taylor said. “And just in the county that I’m sitting in right now, Wake County, all three of those companies operate. We cannot transfer voice and data from the centers in Wake County to another center because one operates under ATT, one under CenturyLink and one under Verizon.” He said the companies lack interconnection agreements to exchange information, which is fundamental in next-generation 911. However, similar to the situation in Indiana, North Carolina has found ATT to be the most challenging to work with, Taylor said. “Companies like ATT will absolutely refuse to allow us to have those interconnections agreements,” he said. “In fact, they have gone through all kinds of lawsuits and not just in our state, but in other states, trying to keep other companies from being able to connect into their system.” “ATT is committed to doing our part to make next-generation 911 available across the country,” said an ATT spokesperson. “We work closely with public safety answering points to ensure that customers are provided with the most advanced and reliable emergency communications services. In addition, we continue to engage in the timely resolution of interconnection negotiations for the provision of competitive 911 service.” Regulations from the FCC would help alleviate this vendor-driven problem for sharing calls and data across PSAPs that operate on different systems. Lowden said national requirements about technology are nice to think about Developing Consistency The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials created the Professional Communications Human Resource Taskforce (PRO-CHRT) to identify human resource issues that affect public safety communicators and dispatchers. Kimberly Burdick, a PRO-CHRT subchair, said states recognize 911 call-takers differently. In Montana they fall under the statute for public safety communications officers, but some states consider them to be first responders. “There’s a lot of deviation across the board and what we’re trying to do is get some consistency for all dispatchers in all states,” Burdick said. In Montana, she is the 911 communications manager for the Chouteau County Sheriff’s Office, and got involved in human resource issues when she and Susan Bomstad tried to get 20-year retirement legislation for dispatchers during the 2009 Legislature. The legislation didn’t pass, but their work will help the task force, which hopes to develop a wealth of information where states can go to find information on different initiatives. “We would like to compile information from all the states to have a clearinghouse where people from other states and agencies can say this is how they did it, this gives me a great idea and these are the steps that we’re going to take to pursue that type of legislation,” Burdick said. but he doesn’t think it would work from a practical standpoint. “I think 911 should be a local, interstate issue,” he said. It will be interesting to see how 911 standards and possibly federally mandated regulations change in the future. Taylor summed up the future of public safety communications this way: “911 is no longer local; even though response is local, the ability to access is no longer local and is very much global. And for everyone working on the 911 issue, whether you’ve been doing it for one year or 25 years, we have to come up with a totally new look at what we’re doing each and every day. … We’ve got to focus on the future and not on the past.” k Equip your team with InterActPocketCop™ and chalk one up for the good guys. InterActPocketCop™ and BlackBerry® are a handheld dynamic duo. InterActPocketCop™ affords first responders secure access to vital databases and dispatch call information so they can make accurate decisions when seconds count. By pairing with the BlackBerry Tour,™ your department can effectively expand connectivity across the board. This field-tested team is backed by the Verizon Wireless dedicated 24x7 Government Support. Look for affordable pricing on your favorite contracts. 1.800.779.2068 verizonwireless.com/gov Emergency Management 23 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  49. 49. SOME PEOPLE FEEL THEY ARE PREDESTINED TO ACCOMPLISH CERTAIN GOALS IN LIFE. JACQUELINE McBRIDE SAYS IT’S HER CALLING TO WORK WITH COMMUNITIES DURING DISASTERS. SPIRIT FOR SERVICE BY EL AINE PIT TMAN | A SSOCIATE EDITOR J acqueline McBride’s life has been defined by disasters. When she was a baby, neck-high waters forced her father to carry her over his head while evacuating during a devastating flash flood. Then in May 1963 as a preteen, McBride lost her father, a commercial fisherman, to the Delaware Bay. 24 EM05_16.indd 24 4/30/10 9:33 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  50. 50. PHOTO COURTE SY OF LARRY LERNER/FEMA PHOTO COU O COURTESY OF LA RRY LERNER/F EMA URTESY URTE S LERNER/F ER/FEMA CE Jacqueline McBride coordinated field personnel during the response to 9/11. Emergency Management 25 EM05_16.indd 25 4/28/10 11:27 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  51. 51. PHOTO COURTESY OF JACQUELINE MCBRIDE Jacqueline McBride is a disaster assistance employee for FEMA Region II. In this photo she is with FEMA Region II Deputy Director Michael Moriarty. Fast-forward to the future: While working for FEMA as a liaison to faith- and community-based organizations during the response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita, McBride came to a realization. “When I was an infant with my father carrying me out and holding me above the water, it was sort of like a dedication to what my life would be,” she said. “Of course, I didn’t realize it at that age, but it wasn’t until then that I was given that epiphany — aha, wow! — to be blessed enough to come here with a purpose.” Her realization in 2005 came after more than 20 years of devotion to emergency management that began professionally in 1983 when she became the deputy director/coordinator of New Jersey’s Atlantic City Office of Emergency Management. That position didn’t exist in civil service at the time, however, so she didn’t get the typical benefits package of a public servant. But McBride urged that the job be elevated into the public sector, even if it meant reassigning the job to another candidate based on test scores. Her supervisor contacted the New Jersey Civil Service Commission, which created a test for the position. She ranked the highest out of the applicants and worked in the office for 15 years. That’s how McBride sees challenges — as opportunities to use her knowledge and skills. Her experience and grit served her well as acting deputy director/coordinator of the Atlantic County Office of Emergency Management and facilitated her selection in 1995 to join FEMA. McBride served in FEMA’s External Affairs and Individual Assistance cadres and is currently a disaster assistance employee (DAE) for FEMA Region II. “Without the women’s movement, the civil rights movement and social justice movement, a lot of us wouldn’t be at the place in time we are now in terms of the roles and positions we hold,” McBride said. “I stand on the shoulders of the people who have gone before me, and having parents who encouraged and demanded that we become educated and serve our community.” Diversifying Emergency Management McBride has been promoting diversity in the emergency management field since the ’80s. In 1984, the White House held a conference on women in fire services and emergency management, and she was in awe of the 100 or so women from across the country who convened to discuss issues related to their roles. The conference was one driver that pushed her to write a position paper to FEMA’s Office of Equal Rights 25 years ago. “My real purpose was to encourage recruitment and representation of women, persons with disabilities and, in particular, people of color as emergency managers,” she said. “And to make recommendations of how we could go about doing that with FEMA serving as the lead agency.” Included in her recommendations were that FEMA build a relationship with the nation’s historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and set up mentoring programs to encourage students to enter the emergency management field. Since submitting the letter, McBride said some of her recommendations have materialized. While responding to four consecutive storms on the Atlantic Coast in 2004, McBride met Vincent Brown, a senior program specialist in FEMA’s Risk Analysis Division and the FEMA liaison to the White House HBCU Initiative. After the storm season was over, Brown developed a project at FEMA headquarters to work with HBCUs and inform them about emergency management and mitigation. McBride joined the planning team and participated in the third workshop, which took place at Southern University. “That was another epiphany moment for me,” she said, “something that I had dreamed of and advocated for, and I was able to see it come to fruition.” In continuing her quest for knowledge, McBride worked toward a doctorate in public administration in 1987 — but she wanted more. There weren’t any degree programs in emergency management at the time, so she got her public administration doctorate with a specialization in emergency management. In 1990, McBride researched (by surveying members of the International Association of Emergency Managers) and completed the first emergency managers and leadership dissertation in the United States. “It focused on the leadership and the use of power that local emergency managers perceive that they have — and their roles in relationship to media, public officials, and administrative and litigation issues,” she said. Of a Mind to Serve Roles • Deputy director/coordinator of the Atlantic City Office of Emergency Management in New Jersey • Acting deputy director/coordinator of the Atlantic County Office of Emergency Management • Disaster assistance employee of FEMA’s Region II • Former president of the International Association of Emergency Managers Region II • Served on the FEMA National Credentialing Committee since 1999 • Instructor at the Center for Domestic Preparedness McBride has been involved in response efforts to large-scale disasters still fresh in the public’s mind. In 1998, she responded to Hurricane Georges in Puerto Rico, which killed 206 people and caused $6 billion in damages. In 2001, she was part of the response to 9/11, which was “an experience no one will ever forget.” Because there was no available transportation, McBride drove with a group to New York City from New Jersey, and as they arrived in the city, they were met by empty streets and highways. “I remember staying in north New Jersey overnight, and then the next day, driving and just saying, ‘Oh my God, oh my God, oh my God.’” She was FEMA’s deputy coordinator and the field communications chief who coordinated field personnel. 26 EM05_16.indd 26 4/28/10 11:35 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  52. 52. H Hurricane Georges, P Puerto Rico 2001 2002 2003 2004 Super Typhoon S P Pongsona, Guam 2005 2006 2007 PHOTO COURTESY OF CALVIN TOLL TOLLESON/FEMA LESON/FEMA 2008 Hurricanes H Katrina and Rita K PHOTO COURTESY OF GREG HENSHALL/FEMA 2000 California Wildfires Ca PHOTO COURT ESY OF ROBERT KAUFMANN/FEMA COURTESY T 1999 9/11 9 PHOTO COURTESY OF ANDREA BOOHER/FEMA 1998 PHOTO COURT ESY OF DAVE GATLEY/FEMA COURTESY T 1997 PHOTO COURTESY OF MICHAEL RA PHAEL/FEMA RAPHAEL/FEMA PHOTO COURTESY OF BRI RODRIGUEZ/FEMA RODRIGUEZ/FEMA PHOTO COURTESY OF MICHAEL RIEGER/FEMA RIE EGER/FEMA M Midwest Floods Midwest Floods ds Hurricanes s ke Gustav and Ike Curriculum Vitae During Katrina in 2005, McBride worked as the lead of community relations at a shelter in Kentucky run by the state and the American Red Cross. “What was rewarding about that experience was helping those people remain calm and giving them a sense of hope that this soon will be over and they will be able to return home.” During the response, she took on any role necessary to help, whether that meant sweeping the floors or wheel chairing someone to the must have a pulse on their community — knowing where the diverse populations are located. Then they must start building relationships with community leaders and look beyond the mainstream organizations that likely have ties to national organizations. “We need to look at the grass-roots organizations because those persons from vulnerable populations do have barriers,” she said. “Some of it could be a disability in terms of preparing for, YOU DON’T HAVE TO BE THE LEAD, YOU DON’T HAVE TO BE SITTING BEHIND A DESK — SOMETIMES THE BEST SERVICE RENDERED IS WHEN YOU CAN WORK ONE-ON-ONE WITH PEOPLE TO GIVE THEM ENCOURAGEMENT AND HOPE. staging area to be transported home. “Just doing whatever needed to be done to make people’s lives comfortable away from home — that is what I call the servant attitude,” she said. “You don’t have to be the lead, you don’t have to be sitting behind a desk — sometimes the best service rendered is when you can work one-on-one with people to give them encouragement and hope.” When representatives from FEMA’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., descend on a disaster, they often work under the reign of DAEs, like McBride. “They’re the ones who make it happen out there,” Brown said, later adding, “She is maybe the most capable DAE I’ve ever come across.” Embrace Your Community McBride’s passion is to include faith- and community-based organizations in emergency management. She said emergency managers responding to, recovering from, and mitigating and preventing disasters.” McBride recommended setting up training programs to inform the organizations how they can work with community volunteers. Adding a state, local or county official who serves as a liaison between the faith- and communitybased organizations is another viable step. “Let’s look at Haiti: Your first responders are faith- and community-based organizations,” she said. “So it’s essential for us to educate, equip and empower these organizations so they can help the survivors in all phases of emergency management.” She’s also worked with United Way in various capacities through the years, most recently to bring the faith-based communities into Atlantic County’s Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD), said Fran Wise, director of community investment and partnerships for United Way of Atlantic County. Jacqueline McBride has held management and leadership positions during the response to the above large-scale disasters. “We have a strong VOAD that brings together a lot of different entities in the community,” Wise said. “Sometimes people would reach out to their church looking for assistance after a disaster, so it’s a really great resource.” Whether it’s in her everyday life or while working in the field, McBride said she wants to help develop the people around her. When working in a key position during disaster response, she tries to have someone else work her role for a day — allowing that person to get training during a disaster. And for people interested in getting involved in emergency management, McBride recommended they find a mentor. Seek out all available training and learn everything about the trade, like enrolling in a qualifying degree program. To work in the field also requires a spirit for service. McBride said there are situations that can cause a person’s heart to break, like loss of life or property, and people will look to the DAE for hope. Disaster response requires someone who is sincere and passionate. “We’re talking about people whose lives have been totally disrupted,” she said. “When you can walk up to someone and you can see and feel the pain from loss, whether it be of a loved one or all their personal possessions, and when you can take a tear or a frown and turn it into a smile, it’s all worth it.” Friends and family members frequently ask why she does this line of work. “It’s because it’s my calling; it is my calling.” k Emergency Management 27 EM05_16.indd 27 4/28/10 11:38 AM Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  53. 53. Since Katrina, the private sector has joined hands with the public sector during disasters. W 28 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  54. 54. Working Together DAVID R ATHS | CON T RIBU TING W RIT E R PHOTO COURTESY OF WAL-MART T he October 2007 Southern California wildfires were a severe test of the state’s emergency management capabilities. While 1,500 homes were destroyed and more than 500,000 acres of land burned, almost half a million people were evacuated from their homes. The devastating fires were also a test of the state’s new emphasis on public-private partnerships in disaster response. As the fires began burning across Southern California on Oct. 20, Peter Ohtaki, executive director of the California Resiliency Alliance, and Jill Rulon, senior vice president of the California Grocers Association, made their way to the State Operations Center (SOC) in Sacramento, Calif., to serve as liaisons between the state emergency management team and their member business organizations. As representatives of the business community, Ohtaki and Rulon were given access to situation reports twice a day and distributed the highlights to partner business organizations and companies via e-mail. They also relayed requests for information from partners. Emergency Management 29 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  55. 55. The California Emergency Management Agency has signed memorandums of understanding with organizations like the California Grocers Association, the California Utilities Emergency Association and Wal-Mart Stores Inc. PHOTO COURTESY OF WAL-MART “There was lots of media attention on Qualcomm Stadium, so many organizations just sent relief aid there, but actually there were many other shelters that needed aid directed to them,” Ohtaki said. “What went wrong during Katrina went right during those wildfires. People generously donating food and supplies were much better directed.” The Change After Katrina “One bank requested the evacuation areas by ZIP code so they could assess the impact on employees and customers to put mortgage payment forgiveness in place,” Ohtaki said. “So we were able to put that information together for them.” There were many questions about the impact on utilities in San Diego County, and representatives of the California Utilities Emergency Association also were in the SOC to share information on the power grid’s status. Rulon worked with suppliers to send food and 300,000 bottles of water to the shelters that needed them most. If 9/11 was a cruel awakening to the fact that the United States needed to beef up its domestic security, Hurricane Katrina was the watershed moment when people realized that emergency management officials couldn’t respond adequately to major disasters without better coordinating efforts with the private sector. And during Katrina, corporations such as Wal-Mart and other large retailers used their sophisticated logistics infrastructure to help communities bounce back. “Katrina was a wake-up call to governments that they couldn’t handle the response themselves,” said Lynne Kidder, senior vice president for public-private partnerships at the Business Executives for National Security (BENS). “There were a lot of ‘Aha!’ moments during Katrina — for nongovernmental organizations, private businesses and civic leadership.” By improving communications with government agencies, private utilities can speed the repair of power, water and other services. An association of grocers can access its network to provide food, water and other supplies to emergency responders and evacuation centers. Since 2002, BENS has been working to help establish partnerships between emergency management teams and businesspeople with an interest in the community’s resilience. It has established organizations in New Jersey, Georgia, Kansas, California, Iowa and Colorado. “Before Katrina, this was really a hard sell,” Kidder said. “The business people would say it wasn’t their job, and the government leaders would say they’ve got this under control. That all really changed after Katrina.” The drive to improve communications with the private sector has been under way in California for several years. Legislation that passed in 2005 directed government agencies to set up a voluntary program to integrate private businesses and nonprofit organizations into governmental disaster planning programs. In 2006, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-04-06, which called on the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) to formally make the private sector part of the PHOTO COURTESY OF WAL-MART During the response to Hurricane Katrina, Wal-Mart provided trucks and drivers to support relief operations. 30 Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  56. 56. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  57. 57. Wal-Mart. With huge truckloads of supplies being sent to Qualcomm Stadium, Wal-Mart volunteered logistical staff to unload and distribute goods. “Wal-Mart is good at supply-chain issues,” said David Henry, the company’s emergency preparedness and planning manager. “We get the right product to the right place at the right time.” The company has an emergency management department with positions that mirror those in public-sector emergency management hierarchies. It also has a 40-seat Emergency Operations Center (EOC). “We have subject-matter experts focused on potential disruptions, such as interstate closures or snowstorms, every day,” Henry explained. “Our emergency management department is good at rallying those experts in transportation, logistics and store operations, and making sure they have up-to-date situational awareness to make decisions.” In 2008, the company played an active role in Texas during Hurricane Ike. In response to the storm, which damaged 79 stores and impacted more than 60,000 Wal-Mart employees, the state’s disaster response system. Cal EMA has signed memorandums of understanding with groups like the California Grocers Association, the California Utilities Emergency Association, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and Target Corp. The effort has two main goals, said Tina Curry, assistant secretary of Cal EMA’s Planning, Protection and Preparedness Division. One is to help businesses that have a statewide presence get more situational awareness; the other is to improve resource sharing. Many statewide businesses have sophisticated infrastructure for dealing with disasters and a lot to offer, she said. “The name of the game is becoming more efficient and prompt at prioritizing which things are needed urgently and which can wait. That’s why we have developed a Business and Utilities Operations Center in our Emergency Operations Center,” Curry said. “Every disaster is different and a dynamic situation. We need that ongoing dialog.” Wal-Mart’s Role One private-sector player that contributed during the wildfire response was retail giant retailer donated $2.5 million in cash and merchandise, and provided trucks and drivers to support relief operations. Just as important, Henry said, was its effort to get stores reopened as quickly as possible to return communities to a sense of normalcy. “We had a map in our EOC of the southern part of Texas,” he said. “In the immediate aftermath of the storm, we gave the state GIS folks the location of all open stores in the state, and they plotted those along with the current points of emergency supply distribution. Anywhere they were within five miles of each other, they realized they could close a point of distribution. That’s the kind of coordination that can really help.” BENS Nurtures Partnerships Ohtaki’s group, the California Resiliency Alliance (CRA), started as the Bay Area BENS chapter and recently became a stand-alone nonprofit organization. A sister organization, the Homeland Security Advisory Council, plays a similar role in Southern California. FEMA/BARRY BAHLER Aidmatrix: A Matchmaking Portal 32 Perhaps one of the best and most successful examples of applying private-sector expertise and agility to disaster response is the Aidmatrix Foundation. Established in 2000 with technology created by supply chain management software company i2 Technologies, Aidmatrix uses a Web portal to conduct matchmaking between donors and relief organizations involving the tracking, warehousing, transportation and distribution of products and services. Aidmatrix, which has already been used in 20 major U.S. disasters, developed partnerships with FEMA and 46 states. For instance, during the Iowa flooding, a carpet manufacturer in California was going to dispose of some remnant material in a landfill, but then he realized he could offer to donate it through Iowa’s Aidmatrix portal. Habitat for Humanity responded online that it could use those remnants in its efforts to help house people. Representatives from UPS could see the donation made online and volunteer to donate the transportation costs. “This all occurs almost instantaneously,” said Scott McCallum, president and CEO of Aidmatrix and former governor of Wisconsin. The matchmaking activity ensures that supplies get to where they are most needed, he said. “One problem is that many of the things people try to offer in the immediate aftermath of a disaster are really secondary,” McCallum said. “The perfect example is that in response to Sept. 11, people sent warehouses’ worth of material that were not needed or used.” And huge numbers of people wanted to go to Haiti to help following the January earthquake, even though they didn’t have an affiliation or needed skill. “So the upside is how generous people can be,” he said, “but the downside is that no matter how well intentioned, they can sometimes be ineffective or get in the way.” Adding private-sector strategies to disaster management can benefit companies and those managing the disaster recovery. “We can apply this supply-chain technology used every day in the private sector,” he said. “We have the expertise and training to reconfigure it to each specific disaster in a short amount of time.” Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE
  58. 58. Designer Creative Dir. Editorial 100 Blue Ravine Road Folsom, CA 95630 Prepress Other OK to go 916-932-1300 ���� ������� ������ ����� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� ������������������������� � PAGE