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Informe sobre la actividad desarrollada en Silicon Valley para incentivar la creatividad en las empresas a traves de la creación artistica participativa, Incluye un modelo de flujos sociales

Informe sobre la actividad desarrollada en Silicon Valley para incentivar la creatividad en las empresas a traves de la creación artistica participativa, Incluye un modelo de flujos sociales

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    Ci creative index Ci creative index Document Transcript

    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEXMeasuring Progress TowardA VIBRANT SILICON VALLEY
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | ADVISORS Board of Directors Dr. Harry Saal, President Ann Gralnek Susan Hammer, Vice President Michael Hackworth Robert Wayman, Treasurer Christine Harris Pat Compton Kim Polese Todd Flynn Kim Walesh Cultural Initiatives Staff John Kreidler, Executive Director Kate Cochran, COO & Director, Leadership Development Brendan Rawson, Director, Community & Neighborhood Arts Program Dana Powell, Ed.D., Director, Creative Education Program Aimée Ipson, Professional Development Coordinator, Creative Education Program Lilia Agüero, School Grants Coordinator, Creative Education Program Jennifer Leclerc, Communications Coordinator Vanessa Shieh, Administrative Coordinator Advisors to this Project Jerry Allen Peter Giles Nancy Ragey Deputy Director for Cultural Executive Director Vice President Affairs The Tech Museum of Innovation Community Foundation City of San José Silicon Valley Nancy Glaze Elisbeth Challener Director, Arts Program Alberto Torres Executive Director The David and Lucile Packard Partner Villa Montalvo Foundation McKinsey & Company William Davidow Susan Hammer Kim Walesh General Partner Member Director Mohr Davidow Ventures State of California Collaborative Economics Board of Education Bruce Davis Barbara Waugh Executive Director Scott Heckes Worldwide Change Manager Arts Council Silicon Valley Assistant Chief of Grant Programs Hewlett-Packard Company California Arts Council Chris Dwyer Vice President Doug Henton RMC Research President Collaborative Economics Todd Flynn Founder Alan Hess SmartCalendar, Inc. Columnist San José Mercury News This project has been a collaborative effort of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Americans for the Arts, the City of San José Office of Cultural Affairs, and Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. In addition, Cultural Initiatives convened a group of leaders from industry, the arts, and government to develop the framework of this document. The group was expertly guided by Doug Henton and Kim Walesh of Collaborative Economics. We greatly appreciate the generosity of our project advisors toward shaping this research. The Knight Foundation has been a leader in the development of community indicators projects throughout the country. In partnership with Americans for the Arts, the Knight Foundation chose three communities—Fort Wayne, Indiana, Charlotte, North Carolina, and San José—for a unique demonstration project. Each local community was asked to develop the quantitative indicators that best measure the health and vitality of its local arts and cultural sector. Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley partnered with the City of San José to perform the local data collection and analysis. Through an open process of information sharing with the Knight Foundation, Americans for the Arts, and the two other pilot communities, we developed indicators that we believe best capture Silicon Valley’s arts and cultural sector.
    • Welcome to Cultural Initiatives Creative Community Index. CulturalInitiatives developed the Index to provide an objective source ofinformation about the artistic, creative and cultural life of Silicon Valley.We hope this document will help promote public dialogue and informdecisions about these issues and serve as a foundation for monitoringour progress toward shared goals for the arts and cultural sector inour region.We would like to thank the Knight Foundation, Americans for the Artsand the City of San José for their generous support in the publication ofthe Index.Our research for this project has been extensive. Through personalinterviews in three different languages with over 350 Silicon Valleyresidents, we have gained a solid understanding of what residents thinkabout arts and culture in the region. Using 125 survey responses fromlocal arts and cultural organizations, we have broadened ourunderstanding of the programming, audiences, finances, and operationsof the nonprofit cultural sector. We also collected information from arange of secondary data sources to achieve a comprehensiveunderstanding of the role of creativity and cultural life in the region.All of this information is summarized in this report.To initiate this project, it was necessary to establish an organizingframework for understanding the arts, culture and creativity of SiliconValley. We convened an Indicators Advisory Group to assist us indeveloping our framework. Through a process of facilitated discussions,the advisors established a basic tenet for us to build upon: in order toinsure the future prosperity, vitality and overall quality of life of ourregion, we must intelligently leverage our most valued assets ofcreativity and cultural participation.The advisors identified four key observations as the basis for this belief:1. Creativity is highly valued in the Silicon Valley economy.2. The Creative Industries sector is becoming an increasingly important part of the regions "Innovation Habitat."3. Cultural participation plays a major role in connecting divergent groups and in connecting individuals to their community.4. New, creative approaches are needed to address the civic and social challenges facing the region.Building from this foundation, we have established an organizingframework for the development of quantitative indicators. Beyond thequantitative data available within this Index, we hope readers will alsoconsider the framework as a useful tool for discussion and developmentof Silicon Valley’s unique cultural milieu.Dr. Harry Saal John KreidlerBoard President Executive Director
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS The Creative Community Framework 3 What You Need to Know About This Report 5 Overview 6 Cultural Indicators: Outcomes 8 Creativity 8 Connectedness 11 Contribution 12 Participation 14 Participation in Arts and Cultural Activities 14 Assets 18 The Creative Sector 18 Venues and Facilities 20 Civic Aesthetics 21 Levers 22 Creative Education 22 Leadership 24 Policies 25 Investment 26 End Notes 28 Methodology 294
    • THE CREATIVE COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK“If we can direct our creativity outward toward a noble end, it would inspire great work and a wonderful community. Great teams are not formed in the absence of great and worthy goals, nor great communities in the absence of great and worthy visions.” Barbara Waugh, Hewlett-Packard CompanyThe Creative Community Index helps illustrate a growing body of evidence With their assistance, we established a simple conceptual frameworkthat the arts produce tangible social and economic benefits. For the past based on a causal theory of the impact of the cultural sector on a com-two decades, a variety of research has documented the positive influence munity. The theory is that various levers are available for influencingof the arts on human development and on robust economies. More the dynamics of the arts and culture in Silicon Valley. As these leversrecently, research has also begun to highlight the impact of the arts on are exercised (e.g., a local city government establishes an ordinance tothe ambient creativity of cities or regions and on the ability of support the acquisition of public works of art), they generate assetscommunities to establish bonds of social trust and understanding. (e.g. sculptures, fountains or murals). These assets, in turn, provide a basis for public participation in the arts and culture (e.g. enjoying aTo measure the health and vitality of the arts and cultural sector in piece of sculpture in the midst of a shopping district). Finally, theSilicon Valley, it was first necessary to establish a model or hypothesis accumulated results of this participation are measurable outcomes,of how the sector works in our region. Josephine Ramirez at the Getty such as increased feelings of connectedness to neighbors or heightenedCenter in Los Angeles describes this issue clearly in her research on sense of community identification as a result of living in an aestheticallyquantitative efforts to measure the arts: “The need to better under- inspiring environment.stand and articulate the broad societal value of arts and culture is atthe heart of a discussion among a growing circle of arts scholars in the Assumptions Underlying the FrameworkU.S. The problem with most arts-related data and the way it is collected The Advisory Group established the following assumptions in the devel-is that it tends not to be anchored in any theories about the societal opment of this framework:impacts of the arts. Instead, the arts community usually gathers data • The vision of Silicon Valley is that of a creative, connected, contributingthat relates narrowly to itself.” region with a prosperous economy and an attractive quality of life. • Cultural life is a key element of Silicon Valley’s general quality of life.Through the Creative Community Index, we hope to establish a working • Participation in cultural life can enhance people’s connections tomodel of the broad dynamics of the arts and cultural sector in Silicon each other and to place.Valley and of the sector’s interactions with our region’s broader • Creativity is important to Silicon Valley’s future. Cultural participationcommunity life. can enhance creativity. • Silicon Valley should aspire to contribute to the world, going beyondA Guiding Framework its contributions in technology. Cultural participation can produceAt the outset of this project, our Advisory Group sought conceptual new ideas and expressions that contribute to global well-being.constructs about how the arts and culture operate in Silicon Valley. • Twenty-first-century Silicon Valley will define “desired outcomes” ofMany of the advisors are active leaders in the region’s arts sector, cultural life differently than will other regions and generations.while others are occasional participants and thoughtful observers. Creativity Contribution Cultural Outcomes Connectedness Participation in Arts & Cultural Activities Cultural Participation Creative Civic Sector Aesthetics Cultural Assets Venues and Facilities Arts Education Investment Cultural Levers Leadership PoliciesDefining Our Desired Outcomes be addressed were creativity, seen as a significant element in theAs described above, we needed to establish a strong understanding of region’s capacity for sustaining technological and business innovation,the sector’s relationship to the broader community in order to successfully and social connectedness, which was found to be weak in Silicon Valleymeasure the arts and cultural sector of the region. As a first step, we in national research conducted by the Social Capital Benchmark Study.defined the desired outcomes for the sector as it impacts that broader The group also found merit in attempting to document Silicon Valley’scommunity. Given the specific character of Silicon Valley, the Index contribution to the advancement of the arts, in parallel with the region’sAdvisory Group determined that two of the most important outcomes to widely acknowledged contribution to the advancement of technology. 5
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | CREATIVE COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK What Do We Know About Creativity? painting or listening to a concert). Putnam writes: We can define creativity as “the ability to bring something new or original into being.” But beyond this simple definition, what do we know about To build bridging social capital requires that we transcend our creativity that is important for thinking about the future of Silicon Valley? social and political and professional identities to connect with people unlike ourselves. This is why team sports provide good Creativity is Fundamental to Innovation venues for social capital creation. Equally important and less Some may think of creativity as an attribute confined to artists or the exploited in this connection are the arts and cultural activities. arts. But here in Silicon Valley, we know that creativity is foundational; Singing together (like bowling together) does not require shared it has complex impacts on our society and economy. Historically, the ideology or shared social or ethnic provenance. For this reason, application of creativity has proved critical across the breadth of human among others, I challenge America’s artists, the leaders and enterprise: commerce, philosophy, science, law, aesthetics, trades, funders of our cultural institutions, as well as ordinary Americans: even athletics. To understand the importance of creativity in Silicon Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 significantly more Valley today, three areas are of particular interest: Americans will participate in (not merely consume or “appreciate”) cultural activities from group dance to songfests to community • Technological and Business Innovation—Creativity in the economy is theatre to rap festivals. Let us discover new ways to use the arts about devising new products, services, technologies, industries, and ways as a vehicle for convening diverse groups of fellow citizens. of doing business. Silicon Valley pioneered a new kind of economy that competes based on innovation—the generation and application of new Art manifestly matters for its own sake, far beyond the favorable ideas. Innovation results from creative people and the creative process. effects it can have on rebuilding American communities. Aesthetic objectives, not merely social ones, are obviously important. That • Artistic and Cultural Innovation—Creativity is about advancing the said, art is especially useful in transcending conventional social fine and performing arts, literature, commercial arts, popular culture, barriers. Moreover, social capital is often a valuable by-product of and amateur arts. creativity has produced entirely new forms of cultural activities whose main purpose is purely artistic. literature, painting, dance, music, architecture, and other aesthetic (Putnam, Bowling Alone, p.411) expressions. For example, Silicon Valley is at the leading edge of the development of new digital media for artistic expression. Participation in arts and culture is a step toward engaging people more broadly in other elements of civic life—life beyond their family and work. • Civic Innovation—Creativity in civic life has produced a range of public innovations in the built environment and in social institutions: the apart- What Do We Know About Contribution? ment block, the aqueduct, the subway, the skyscraper, public education, What do we know about contribution that is important in thinking about social security, and democratic institutions. In Silicon Valley today, the future of Silicon Valley? creativity is also key to improving how we live together as a community and how we solve the civic challenges associated with growth and The notion of contribution can be viewed from at least two perspectives: technological advances, including social cohesion, urban form, trans- 1.) the contribution that Silicon Valley makes to the global advancement portation, educational opportunity, and environmental stewardship. of the arts and culture; and 2.) the local contribution that the arts make to the enrichment of our families, our communities and our personal lives. Thinking broadly about the application of creativity in Silicon Valley leads to a working definition: Creativity is the process by which ideas Artists and arts institutions in Silicon Valley are often pressing the limits are generated, connected and transformed into things that are valued. of performance and the visual arts by using leading technologies that not This broad notion of creativity encompasses innovation, entrepreneurship only define the frontiers of art, but also, through the Internet and other and expression. It connotes both the art of generating new ideas and technologies, have the capacity to reach audiences throughout the world. the discipline of developing, sharing and applying those ideas. Among the local organizations that have actively promoted this global contribution are ZeroOne–the Art and Technology Network, A.D. Gallery, What Do We Know About Connectedness? Xerox PARC, The Djerassi Foundation, The Tech Museum of Innovation, What do we know about connectedness that is important in thinking and Children’s Musical Theater. Local artists are uniquely positioned to about the future of Silicon Valley? wrestle with, and interpret the impacts of, Silicon Valley’s innovations. Living here, we are often on the cusp of how technological advances inte- Arts and cultural activities can play a critical role in connecting people grate with our personal and community lives. It is a prime perch for many across cultures and affinity groups, helping them to identify commonalities artists. This potential cross-fertilizing of the sciences and humanities is a and value differences. As people participate in enjoying an activity tremendous opportunity for Silicon Valley to contribute to the broader together—whether singing in a choral society or attending an ethnic human community. street festival—they can connect with one another and form personal bonds. Cultural participation can include amateur arts, community Creating and sharing art—whether as a spectator, professional artist, celebrations, festivals, vibrant public spaces where people gather, or amateur practitioner— can be both a personal and a social experience. recreational tournaments, and neighborhood block parties. The arts provide value requiring no further justification due to their inherent contribution to the health, inspiration, and fullness of our lives. Cultural Participation Builds Social Capital This potential contribution of the arts to the quality of life in Silicon Cultural participation helps build a more cohesive, connected community. Valley cannot be ignored. Too often, residents consider the Valley an Evidence is growing that the long-term health of communities and uninspiring and sterile place. In a 1999 San José Mercury News poll of economies is tied to a healthy stock of social capital—bonds of trusting, more than 1,000 residents, two out of every five workers would leave knowing, reciprocal relationships. the Valley if they could take their jobs with them. More recently, empirical research has begun to demonstrate some of the more practical As a form of civic engagement, cultural participation is an important contributions of artistically rich regions: public schools that produce way of strengthening social capital. Professor Robert Putnam of motivated, well-rounded students, robust economies that can adapt to Harvard University explains that some civic engagement—voter shifting trends and attract global talent, and communities that can education, neighborhood watch, attending community meetings—can be perceive and solve difficult challenges. like “civic broccoli,” important and purposive, but not necessarily fun or inspiring. In contrast, people tend to participate in the arts and culture In summary, our work at Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley is based on our for personal growth or sheer enjoyment. Opportunities to create social belief that creativity, connectedness and contribution are deeply relevant capital through cultural participation are highest when people are to our community. The Creative Community Index seeks to test our involved as active participants or presenters of an activity; opportunities theories and to examine in detail the importance and impact of these are lowest when the people are primarily spectators (e.g., looking at a outcomes to the residents and arts providers of the Silicon Valley region.6
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THIS REPORTHow To Read This ReportThis report is structured according to a guiding framework that organizes measured indicators into four categories. Outcomes: The desired outcomes of a healthy cultural life; broad-based creativity, social connectedness among diverse people and contribution to the quality of life in Silicon Valley Participation: Residents’ participation in arts and cultural activities, including the extent to which diverse people participate together Assets: The mix of cultural assets present in the community, including talent in the creative sector (nonprofit, public and private), venues and facilities, and the aesthetic quality of our environment Levers: The extent to which we leverage and build our cultural assets and encourage people’s interaction with these assets through arts education, leadership, investment, and policiesSurvey MethodologiesFor the development of this report, Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley contracted the survey research firmCultural Access Group to implement a major in-person “intercept” survey of 361 Silicon Valley residents abouttheir behavior and beliefs regarding arts and culture in their community. Cultural Access Group specializes insurveying across cultural and language barriers. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish andVietnamese at 18 locations throughout Santa Clara County. In addition, Cultural Initiatives developed anexhaustive database of 531 Silicon Valley nonprofit arts and cultural organizations and surveyed them on arange of programming, financial and management issues. We received responses from 125 organizations andconducted in-depth interviews with 22 of them. For an expanded discussion of this research process pleasesee the Methodology section beginning on page 29.Future Research PlansThe Creative Community Index is a quantitative research project seeking to measure creativity and culturalvitality—intangible constructs that are difficult to quantify. Cultural Initiatives believes it is important tocomplement this work with an established qualitative methodology that will shed light on these issues usinga different, yet equally valid, approach. To this end, we are in the process of launching sociological fieldresearch of participatory arts in the region. We will be gathering stories and observations of how SiliconValley residents become engaged in the arts and how the arts impact their lives.Glossary of Terms Arts Education: Includes the spectrum of dance, music, theatre, visual and multi-arts program instruction occurring in Silicon Valley schools and institutions Creativity: The process by which ideas are generated, connected and transformed into things that are valued Creative Sector: The mix of nonprofit arts and for-profit creative industries such as technology develop- ment, arts and entertainment, design, filmmaking, and architecture that exhibit high rates of per employee value-added input to the goods and services they produce Civic Aesthetics: The combination of elements that contribute to an attractive urban design, and the devel- opment of buildings and public spaces that foster community and encourage creativity Connectedness: The extent to which people feel connected to other people and to their neighborhoods, cities or region; the social networks of trust and reciprocity that define social capital Contribution: The opportunities that the arts provide to enrich our lives and to creatively give back to our communitiesCultural Participation: Includes attending the visual and performing arts, as well as a range of arts and cultural activities that bring people together to interact, experience, share, and enjoy creative expression Cultural Policies: The decisions, regulations and incentives put into place by private and public entities that affect the cultural sector of a community 7
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OVERVIEW OVERVIEW OVERVIEW Silicon Valley’s Opportunity Silicon Valley’s reputation for excellence lies in its technological and ELEMENTS OF A CREATIVE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT economic achievement. Building on this base and the incredible milieu Sir Peter Hall’s research aimed to answer the question, “What for business innovation, Silicon Valley can pioneer a next-generation makes for a creative city?” Hall finds a number of common factors metropolitan community where creativity leads not only to continued that historically have worked together to foster a par ticularly technological excellence, but to artistic, cultural and civic innovation. creative cultural environment. Throughout human history, certain cities and regions have emerged as pinnacles of human creativity. Sir Peter Hall, in his landmark book Cities • Rapid accumulation of new wealth in new hands during a time of in Civilization, examines the combination of forces that fostered particular rapid economic transition cities as centers of cultural, technological or civic excellence. Hall finds that cities have historically tended to excel in a single realm. He holds • Attraction of talented and ambitious people, bringing new ideas, open the possibility that a truly creative city of the twenty-first century worldviews and an understanding of the significance of a period, will excel in multiple realms, building on the creative fusion of art and and passion to influence its unfolding technology that began to emerge in twentieth-century America. • Crossroads of culture, where information from different traditions What Have We Learned? was exchanged and synthesized through “interculturalism” and trade Through this Index project we have found that two of the most important issues to be addressed in fostering a vital community are creativity and • Social and values tension, including a clashing of new values with social connectedness. traditional values that led to new lifestyles, roles, relationships, and bases for class distinction Creativity Asked whether they thought of themselves as an artist in any fashion • Reconfiguration of social networks as individuals from different and, if so, how, 51% of 361 Silicon Valley interviewees said, “Yes,” and occupations and positions in society—such as intellectuals, wealth described a myriad of activities such as playing a musical instrument, makers, artists, and aristocrats—commingled in new relationships, knitting, singing, or various other creative pursuits. Many also mentioned leading to cross-fertilization of ideas and perspectives that their work in the technology sector allowed them to be creative— 12% mentioned activities such as computer programming, software • High civic aspirations and collective action as individuals and development or web design. Residents of Silicon Valley recognize that associations (e.g., professional, business and civic associations) creativity directly affects our society and economy. From idea generation expected and demanded that the public aspects of their city be great through experimentation, prototyping, commercialization, positioning, and marketing, creativity is woven throughout the economic life of our • Physical places that fostered interaction and mixing of people region. Graphic designers, creative writers, photographers, animators, with diverse talents and views, such as plazas, salons, meeting and music producers are taking their place in the technology workforce. houses, and cafes. At least 12% of Silicon Valley jobs can be described as creative in nature. On average, these jobs pay more than 40% above the average wages for all other jobs in the region. required for school children. However, compared to national data, we Ar ts education is also fundamental to our community’s creative see that the amount of ar ts instruction offered in our public schools is health, and local residents are adamant about its impor tance. far below the national average (see char t at left). Ninety-two percent of sur vey respondents said that the ar ts should be Connectedness Arts Education, Local vs. National Availability of local arts education falls well below national average. A key factor in the life of any community is the extent to which people feel connected to each other and to their neighborhood, city or region. 100% Sil icon V l aley Developing connection to place is increasingly important in our highly 90% mobile society and can help overcome a sense of isolation that people 80% Nation may feel living far from extended family and their community of origin. This is especially important in Silicon Valley, where the proportion of 70% foreign-born residents is more than three times the national average. 60% Participating in cultural traditions and social interactions in neighborhood 50% settings is a particularly powerful way of creating community. Because 40% cultural participation often provides a neutral meeting ground, it is 30% particularly conducive to bridging differences, be they socioeconomic, ethnic, educational, or generational. 20% 10% Our forms of preferred cultural participation in Silicon Valley vary across 0% demographic factors, providing a rich mix of active engagement. For Music VisualArts Dance Theatre example, 50% of Latinos mention dancing (many different kinds) as Percentage of elementary grade level students receiving arts education, one of their favorite forms of cultural participation with others; among by artistic discipline Asians, 23% mentioned singing in a group as a favorite form of participation. Men were twice as likely as women to mention playing8
    • “Silicon Valley has been the creative hotbed of the innovation economy. It is time to channel that creativity to make the Valley a better place to live.” – Alberto Torres, McKinsey & Company Importance of the arts and rating of the region Looking Forward Many Silicon Valley residents highly value their arts and cultural activities, however, Creativity and cultural participation offer Silicon Valley tremendous the region does not receive as high of marks as a place to pursue such interests. opportunities. The region can evolve a distinctive identity as a place90% that nurtures creative exchange and cultural connections among all our80% residents—a vibrant creative and cultural milieu.70%60% Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley believes that developing Silicon Valley50% as a diverse Creative Community is essential for sustaining the local40% innovation economy and for strengthening fundamental elements of community vitality—social capital, sense of place, civic spirit, community30% innovation. As we look to the not-so-distant future, we see four main20% reasons why Silicon Valley needs to value and nurture creativity and10% cultural participation in a fundamental way: 0% Highly Valued Rating the region Highly Valued Rating the region 1. New economics values creativity. Creativity is essential for the new economics of Silicon Valley, where our competitive advantage relies upon our ability to innovate. Cultural participation helps develop the creative skills that will be required by the Silicon Valley workforce as a whole. Percentage of Silicon Percentage of Silicon Valley Valley residents that “high- residents that “highly” value 2. Creative sector is a key part of an innovation “habitat.” The creative ly” value their personal participating in artistic and cultural sector—including commercial businesses, nonprofit artistic activities and the activites with others and the institutions and independent artists—is becoming a more important percentage that rate the percentage that rate the part of Silicon Valley’s innovation “habitat.” region as a good place to region as a good place to pursue such interests pursue such interests 3. Culture connects people and place. Talented people—the Valley’s most important resource—are increasingly sophisticated consumers of place. Cultural participation can help bond Silicon Valley residents music with others, whereas women more frequently mentioned singing to each other and to this place while providing a unique quality-of-life in a choir. These facts only scratch the surface of our diverse interests asset for all. in cultural activities. Unfortunately, only 56% of Silicon Valley residents gave their community a good rating as a place to participate with 4. Civic and social creativity is vital. Creativity is essential to addressing others in their favorite cultural activities. civic and social concerns in Silicon Valley. Cultural participation opens the door to civic and social creativity and can inspire more Attending performances and visiting exhibitions can also serve to build visionary strategies and novel approaches. connectedness. Indeed, many residents described these as forms of active participation that they enjoy doing with others. Unfortunately, If we enhance Silicon Valley’s creative and cultural life and connect it we do not attend such events on a very consistent basis. Only 46% of more deeply to the economic life of the region, Silicon Valley’s legacy residents attended a live performance more than twice in the past year, to future generations and the world will not only be a new kind of and only 23% visited a museum of any kind more than twice. Further- economy, but a new and better kind of world community. more, when asked to rate Silicon Valley as a place to attend live performances and visit museums, only 53% gave the region a good What Residents Would Like to Learn wsrating. However, the manner in which we attend is interesting—only Residents have many creative interests; one in four 23% of the attended performances were in facilities designed as would like to learn to play a musical instrument. performance venues: concert halls, theatres or opera houses. The remaining 77% were in multi-purpose facilities, both indoor and outdoor, Play musical instrument such as stadiums, school gyms or auditoriums, parks, or places of worship. Cooking Painting Photography/Film Drawing Acting/Theatre Dance (all kinds) Singing QUESTIONS FOR REGIONAL DISCUSSION: Creative writing We hope the Creative Community Index will provide a Gardening foundation for readers to further explore three key questions: Ceramics/Sculpture Carpentry • How important are culture and creativity to Silicon Valley’s Others economic and civic future? Sewing • What should be the desired outcomes of arts and cultural 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% life in twenty-first-century Silicon Valley? Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: If you had the opportunity to learn a new form of • How would you measure progress? creative expression, what would that be? 9
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES OUTCOMES What does a creative community look like? Picturing the ideal vibrant arts and cultural sector for our community is not easy. People have different ideas of how this sector should ultimately benefit both individuals and entire communities. For the purposes of this report, we have sketched out three categories as a basis for understanding the benefits of a vibrant arts and cultural sector—creativity, connectedness and contribution. Each of these categories is closely interwoven with the other supporting elements of our framework. Our objective is to provide a foundation for discussion of what our community values most as the desired outcomes of this sector. CREATIVITY Why Does It Matter? Creativity is found not only in the arts, but in all forms of human enterprise both individual and collective. Creativity is dual in nature as both an end unto itself, such as when we create a painting for our own enjoyment and fulfillment, as well as a practical means to an end, such as when we invent useful products. In this section, we have divided creativity into two categories, Expressive and Innovative. Expressive Creativity Creativity’s intrinsic benefits are in personal fulfillment and community identity. Creative expression helps us, individually and collectively, to understand who are, where we have come from and where we are going. Individual and community creativity are significant assets for a region that is in constant flux and is a pioneer of change in so many arenas. Our capacity to creatively adapt to new challenges can color our attitude to both personal and social opportunities and dilemmas. What Have We Learned About Expressive Creativity? When asked, “Do you consider yourself to be an artist in any way?” 51% of Santa Clara County survey respondents said, “Yes.” When asked, “How do you express yourself artistically?” residents replied with a wide spectrum of answers, with 55% giving multiple answers. The largest portion of all respondents (26%) said they played a musical instrument, followed by 21% who mentioned some form of creative writing. Across the region’s rich mix of ethnic communities, we found an interesting diversity of artistic expression. Many Latinos (28%) mentioned a textile art such as weaving or knitting, while many Asians mentioned singing (32%) as a favorite activity. In addition to these personal artistic pursuits, 44% of residents mentioned that they consider at least one other immediate family member to be artistic in some way. Artistic Expression Silicon Valley ethnic diversity is reflected in varied artistic interests. 50% Latino 45% Asian 40% 35% Caucasian and all other 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Play musical instrument Singing Creative writing Knitting/Weaving Drawing Painting Acting/Theatre Dance (all kinds) Ceramics/Sculpture Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: How do you express yourself artistically?10
    • When asked, “Do you consider yourself to be an artist in any way?”51% of Santa Clara County residents said, “Yes.” Other Creative Outlets Silicon Valley technology development provides creative outlet for many residents. Webdesign, software devt., computer misc. Writing Gardening Collecting Art Music Cooking Ceramics/Sculpture Sports Singing Dance (all kinds) Painting Crafts 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Aside from any artistic activities that you do, what other hobby or work activity allows you to be creative? These artistic pursuits are usually a creative outlet unassociated with Artistic Expression’s Personal Importance an individual’s job. While they may not all be professional artists, residents Residents highly value artistic activities but rate the region still strongly value their opportunities for personal creative expression. weak as a place to pursue these interests . For those who considered themselves to be artists in some way, 77% 90% rated their personal artistic activities as seven or higher on a ten point scale where one meant “unimportant” and ten meant “very important.” 80% However, when asked how they rated their community as a place to pursue their artistic interests, only 54% gave the region a score of 70% seven or higher. Fourteen percent gave the region a low rating 60% between one and three. 50% Defining what might be considered “artistic” or “creative expression” is obviously tricky. For this reason, we used open-ended questions, and 40% residents described their own artistic or creative interests. In addition 30% to asking about artistic self-definition, we also asked residents if they had a hobby or work activity that allows them to be creative. Fifty-five 20% percent said, “Yes.” Of the 49% of respondents who earlier had not identified themselves as artists, 38% said they do have a hobby or work 10% activity that allows them to be creative. Many individuals explained 0% that their work in the technology sector allowed them to be creative— 1-3 4-6 7-10 12% mentioned activities such as computer programming, software development or web design. Responses also included, “I make and modify motorcycles,” “I am a radio disc jockey,” and “I work in my garden.” Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “not important” and 10 meaning “very important,” how important to you are your personal artistic activities? On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “poor” and 10 meaning “excellent,” how do you rate your community as a place to pursue your own artistic interests? 11
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES CREATIVITY “A creative economy is the fuel of magnificence.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson Innovative Creativity As a practical matter, creativity plays an important role in our economy, our education and our addressing of societal concerns. Creativity is key in a chain of activities that make Silicon Valley a strong economic force. Patented Innovation From idea generation through experimentation, prototyping, commercial- Number of new Silicon Valley patents quadrupled since 1992. ization, positioning, and marketing, creativity is woven throughout the 10000 economic life of this region. 9000 What Have We Learned About Innovative Creativity? Patent activity is one measure that helps us gauge our ongoing ability to 8000 innovate and create in these arenas. Patents reflect the initial discovery and registration of innovative ideas. Despite the recent economic 7000 downturn, Silicon Valley continues to innovate and patent. In 2001, 8,646 patents were issued to Santa Clara County companies and 6000 individuals—a growth of more than 100% over the past four years. On a per capita basis, Santa Clara County leads the nation and is granted 300 5000 patents for every 100,000 residents. The closest significant competi- 4000 tors are Boulder, Colorado (167 per 100K), Rochester, New York (162 per 100K), and Austin, Texas (130 per 100K). 3000 Patents Not only do local individuals and companies produce many patents, but 2000 the patents themselves are often highly “creative” and influential. Silicon Valley patents tend to be cited by other patent applications at 1000 a rate of about twice the national average, 11.6 times versus 5.5 times for a five year-old patent. High citation counts are associated with 0 important inventions that are fundamental to future innovation. In 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 addition, the rate of innovation in our region continues to quicken. The median age in years of those patents cited by the latest patent applications has dropped from 6.9 to 6.5 in the past four years. Total number of patents issued to Santa Clara County companies and residents each year, 1992-2001 The fastest growing sectors of patent activity in Silicon Valley are biotechnology, primary metals, and computers and peripherals. Annual patent activity in each of these sectors more than doubled in the last five years. Rate of Innovation Cycle time of patent innovations continues to quicken. 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 Years 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Median age, in years, of past patents cited by newly awarded Silicon Valley patents, 1992-200112
    • CONNECTEDNESS “Artists and entrepreneurs are similar in wanting to create something new – the next big thing.” Todd Flynn, Blue Bridge Corporation Why Does It Matter? Silicon Valley Social Capital A key factor in the life of any community is the extent to which Silicon Valley connectedness is largely defined by income and education. residents feel connected to other people and to their neighborhoods, cities or region. As people develop a connection to others and feel 80% High social trust valued for their contributions, they become more tied to place. Developing connection to place is increasingly important in our highly Diverse network mobile society and can help overcome a sense of isolation and 70% of friends rootlessness that many may feel living far from extended family or their community of origin. These issues are acutely present in Silicon 60% Valley, where the portion of foreign-born residents is more than three times the national average. Nearly two-thirds of Silicon Valley residents are born in another country or are the children of immigrant parents. 50% What Have We Learned About Connectedness? 40% A major study of connectedness in 40 American metropolitan areas, Percentage of Silicon the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, found that Silicon Valley residents with Valley ranks at or near the bottom in many traditional measures of 30% “high social trust” social capital such as informal socializing, sense of community, giving, and “diverse network volunteering, and membership in civic groups or faith-based communities. of friends,” as 20% defined by the Social Of all 40 communities, Silicon Valley ranked the lowest on an indexed measure of participation and membership in associations and similar Capital Community Benchmark Survey, kinds of groups such as sports leagues, neighborhood associations or 10% by educational service clubs. However, Silicon Valley does exhibit higher levels of attainment and social capital associated with less traditional social groups. For exam- household income ple, half of high-tech workers say that their work life is taking the place 0% College educated High School Household income greater than $75,000 Household income less than $20,000 of traditional community for them. Social Capital Regional Comparisons In Silicon Valley, education and income are the two primary factors that Silicon Valley has a relatively high level define individuals’ levels of social capital or connectedness to their of social trust and diversity of friendships. community. College-educated residents and those with higher household incomes are far more likely to experience greater levels of social capital. 200 Social trust For example, 44% of college-educated residents exhibit a high level of 180 “social trust” compared to only 14% for those with a high school education or less. While our friendships are more diverse, and our trust of other 160 Diversity of100=expected value friendships racial groups is stronger than in other parts of the country, Silicon Valley 140 residents are less likely to have friendships that cut across class lines. 120 Associational involvement A result of this divide is that those with lower household incomes and 100 less education are more likely to be cut off from networks that could lead 80 to a better life—the social capital equivalent of a “digital divide.” 60 Cultural participation is one way to build that sense of community. A 40 key benefit of the arts in a community as diverse as Silicon Valley is the 20 connectedness generated among friends, colleagues and neighbors. 0 Better Together, a national report on civic engagement, states that “the arts represent perhaps the most significant underutilized forum for Minneapolis Silicon Valley Charlotte San Diego Houston rebuilding community in America.” The report notes that the arts are effective drivers of connectedness “because they can provide a safe space to shelve political and ideological differences, or at least manage those differences without conflict. We need not be of the same race, generation, gender, political party, religion, or income group to sing, act or create together.” In particular, artistic activities that engage people Indexed measures of social capital factors compared as direct participants, rather than as spectators, are seen as effective to other emerging technology regions means for building social interaction and trust. 13
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES CONTRIBUTION Why Does It Matter? The arts offer tremendous opportunities to enrich our lives and provide personal fulfillment. Creating and sharing art—whether as a spectator, participant, performer, or producer—is an inherently public and social experience. The arts contribute to the quality of life in our region and also offer national and international observers insight into the life of Silicon Valley. This region has made tremendous creative contributions to the global village through innovations in the sciences and in high technology. How are we leveraging our creative talents in the arts to help understand and explain our experiences here in Silicon Valley to ourselves and to the rest of the world? Joan MacIntosh and Holly Hunter in San José Repertory Theatre’s production of By the Bog of Cats Photo by Tom Chargin, courtesy of San José Repertory Theatre THE SAGUARO SEMINAR In its final report, Better Together, Robert Putnam’s Harvard-based Saguaro Seminar identified “five institutional arenas in which the business of rebuilding social capital must take place.” Prominent among these is the arts. The Seminar concluded that “the arts represent the most underutilized forum for rebuilding community in America.” For the arts to play an important role in strengthening social capital, the Based upon these three principles, the Saguaro Seminar makes five Seminar identified three necessary guiding principals: recommendations for rebuilding social capital through the arts. Each recommendation is elaborated upon within the report: • Through the arts, we must look for opportunities to bridge. The arts are exceptionally well situated to enable us to connect and to form trusting ties 1. Increase funding for “community arts” with people unlike ourselves. They uniquely build bridging social capital. 2. Create opportunities for collaboration between arts organizations 3. Make civic dialogue integral to artistic productions • We must revive arts organizations as community institutions. The 4. Incorporate the arts into social problem solving National Endowment for the Arts was created less then 40 years ago. 5. Connect the arts to community service It is still within our recent history when the arts were a far more volunteer- based and participatory endeavor. Too often today the arts have In its conclusion, the Saguaro Seminar attests to the arts as a “powerful become high-priced entertainment venues where people consume force for illuminating civic experience through its ability to create indelible culture rather than connect socially. We need to return to an era in images, to express difficult ideas through metaphor, and to communicate which arts institutions are more akin to public libraries and town beyond the limits of language.” The Seminar asserts that “America needs squares than to sports arenas and multiplexes. to commit itself to creating new and exciting opportunities for shared cultural experiences. Cultural institutions are eagerly reinventing themselves, • Artists and cultural institutions must be included in Community Planning. and all of us need to join them in finding new and innovative roles for the “While policy makers have begun to understand the economic benefits of arts to play in building social capital.” a strong cultural sector, they have not fully understood the civic benefits.” Leaders of the local arts community need to be incorporated fully into the breadth of planning efforts at the local, state and national levels.14
    • “The arts represent perhaps the most significant underutilized forum for rebuilding community in America.” – Saguaro Seminar Creation of New Artistic Works Sixty-five percent of local arts groups have developed new works in the past five years (1996-2001). No new works 35% New works-locally spec New New works-not locally works– locally specific 43% No new works, 35% New works– not locally specific 22% Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations that created originalCreation of New Artistic Works exhibitions or performances between 1996 and 2001, including those newMid-size arts groups lead the way in creating new works. works with specific connection to the local community80%70% What Have We Learned About Contribution? During the last five years, 65% of Silicon Valley arts groups developed60% some form of new work. These activities included original visual art exhibits, commissioning of new music compositions and commissioning50% of new plays, original choreography of new dance pieces, and development of original works for storytelling.40% Forty-three percent of local arts organizations described their new30% works as having a “specific or unique connection to the local Santa Clara County community.” Some of these focused on exhibiting local20% talent of Silicon Valley residents who are visual artists and filmmakers, or commissioning local composers or playwrights. Other projects have10% included the local “Sharkbyte” exhibition in downtown San José or the Tech Museum of Innovation’s production of the film “Spirit of Silicon 0% Valley.” Looking forward, ZeroOne–the Art and Technology Network will host its second major international conference on the nexus of art and $500,000 to <$1m Less than $20,000 $100,000 to <$500,000 $20,000 to <$100,000 $1m and more technology in 2003. Organizations with budgets between $100K and $1 million are the most likely to be developing new works. In addition, new works developed here are highly reflective of our diverse ethnic heritages. Some of these have included visual art exhibitions focused on immigrant and refugee experiences, or the commissioning of new works for cultural festivals. For example, Ballet Afsaneh developed a new dance piece for the Persian Zoroastrian Center’s New Year celebration. Another unique Silicon Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations creating at least one Valley project is MACLA’s oral history and visual art exhibition, Ties new original work between 1996 and 2001, by budget size That Bind, which explored the history of intermarriage between Asians and Latinos in the Santa Clara Valley. 15
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION Cultural participation is at the heart of our framework. It is the nexus where the community’s cultural and creative assets intersect with the lives of actual residents to generate community outcomes. Cultural participation as a form of civic engagement is an important way of generating creativity, strengthening connectedness and inspiring contribution. Above all, arts and cultural participation can play a critical role in connecting people, helping them to identify commonalities and to value differences. PARTICIPATION IN ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES Why Does It Matter? As people participate in enjoying an activity together—whether singing in a choral society or attending an ethnic street festival—they are able to connect with one another and form personal bonds. Because cultural participation often provides a neutral meeting ground, it is particularly conducive to bridging differences, be they socioeconomic, ethnic, educational, or generational. Forms of Participation Rating the Region Silicon Valley’s ethnic mix gives rise to many forms Fifty-three percent of residents give the region a of participation and diverse interests. good rating as a place to attend live performances and visit museums. Latino Asian Caucasian and all other 90% 70% 60% 80% 50% 70% 40% 60% 30% 50% 20% 40% 10% 0% 30% Attending concerts, performances, fairs Dancing Going to museums, galleries, exhibitions Singing Going to theatres Music Attending a Book Club 20% 10% 0% 1-3 4-6 7-10 Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: What are your favorite arts and cultural activities that On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “poor” and 10 you enjoy participating in with others? meaning “excellent,” how do you rate your community as a place to attend live performances or visit museums?16
    • Because cultural participation often provides a neutral meeting ground, it isparticularly conducive to bridging differences, be they socioeconomic, ethnic,educational, or generational.What Have We Learned About Cultural Participation?Residents participate in a wide range of cultural activities. We asked,“What are your favorite arts and cultural activities that you enjoyparticipating in with other people?” Ninety-two percent were able todescribe some form of participatory activity. Almost half, 48%, mentionedmultiple activities. Forms of cultural participation in the region varyacross ethnic communities. For example, 50% of Latinos mentionedvarious forms of dance, and 23% of Asians mentioned singing with agroup. Caucasians and all others largely described attending performancesand events with others as a form of active cultural participation.Attending events was also more frequently mentioned by technologyindustry workers and by those who have lived in the region for morethan ten years.Interestingly, men more frequently mentioned playing music with othersas their favorite form of cultural participation—eight percent compared Attendance at Cultural Eventsto women at three percent—whereas women more frequently mentioned Eighty percent of residents attended a live artssigning in a choir—fourteen percent compared to six percent for men. performance in the last year.Those born in a foreign country also mentioned singing with others morefrequently—22% versus five percent for those born in the United States. 45%After asking residents to name their favorite participatory cultural 40%activities, we asked them to rate their community as a place to dosuch activities. Fifty-six percent of residents gave the region a good rating. 35% 30%As previously mentioned, attending cultural performances and visiting 25%museums is often considered by residents as an active form of culturalparticipation. Eighty percent of Silicon Valley residents attended at least 20%some form of live performance during the past year. Additionally, 60% 15%visited a museum of any kind. However, the frequency of attendance 10%drops off very quickly. Only 46% of residents attended a performancemore than twice in the past year, and only 23% visited a museum more 5%than twice. Only 35% of parents attended a cultural performance more 0% 0 1-2 3-5 6-12 13-30 30+than twice in the past year compared to 52% for those without children. Silicon Valley Opinion Survey:An underlying belief in the structure of our framework is that active How many times did you attend liveparticipation and familiarity with the arts nurtures long term audience performances of music, dance ordevelopment. Interestingly, of those survey respondents that considered theatre in the past 12 months?themselves to be an artist in some way, 67% attended more than twoperformances in the past year compared to 34% for those who did not How many times did you visit anidentify themselves as an artist. When asked to rate the region as a place art, science or history museum?to attend performances and visit museums, 53% gave the region agood rating. 17
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION IN ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES What Residents Would Like to Learn Silicon Valley has many creative interests; one in four would like to learn to play a musical instrument. Interest in cultural participation in the region appears to be significantly Play musical instrument driven by residents’ interest in learning. When asked, “If you had the Cooking opportunity to learn a new form of creative expression, what would that Painting be?” virtually everyone had something to say. Less than one percent of Photography/Film respondents did not mention any activity, and 43% offered multiple Drawing responses. One in four residents said they would like to learn to play a Acting/Theatre musical instrument. Cooking was a common response among Latino Dance (all kinds) and Asian respondents, 22% and 24% respectively. For Latinos, other Singing popular responses were photography/film and drawing. For Asians, Creative writing popular responses included gardening, acting/theatre and creative Gardening writing. Among Caucasians and all others, learning to play a musical Ceramics/Sculpture instrument was the most common response, followed by painting and Carpentry photography/film. Parents often mentioned utilitarian forms of creative Others expression such as carpentry, cooking and sewing. Technology industry Sewing workers frequently mentioned wanting to learn dance, photography/film and gardening compared to those outside the technology industry. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Between men and women, the two most significant differences were that 25% of women wished to learn some form of creative cooking versus Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: 13% of men, and that 30% of men wished to learn to play a musical If you had the opportunity to learn a new form of creative instrument compared with 18% of women. expression, what would that be?18
    • Music In The Park photo by Mark Leet, courtesy of the San José Downtown AssociationTHE INFORMAL ARTS It is often inconvenient to secure a small theatre for a community production.“If we think of communities as groups of people who make culture together, Or a space for choir practice. Or a teacher who can advance one’s skills in which is not a bad working definition, the informal arts are activities that the Irish fiddle tradition. And it takes time, precious time, to practice and give people the chance to actively build community in a society that is develop the discipline, skill and expressive nuances for which artists— frequently divided and atomized.” whether informal or professional—strive. The value people get back from participation in the informal arts makes it worth the effort, though.Some years ago, sociologist Paul DiMaggio noted that the historic thrustof arts policy in the United States has been directed toward the building The value of the informal arts is largely derived from the generative act ofof arts institutions. But this focus has tended to obscure the breadth and creating culture oneself. This is a society that mass produces culture anddepth of the informal arts in American life. The informal arts are a mass markets it globally. The informal arts are activities that give people thephenomenon, without a doubt. In a nation of 200 million adults, over 25 opportunity to exercise and develop their own creative powers. If wemillion of them play classical music or jazz. Over 35 million sing in choirs, think of communities as groups of people who make culture together,operas or musicals. Over 30 million paint or draw, and over 23 million which is not a bad working definition, the informal arts are activities thatwrite creatively. Over 7 million compose music. Millions more undoubtedly give people the chance to actively build community in a society that isparticipate in other artistic activities such as dance, ceramics and varied frequently divided and atomized.forms of popular culture. While there is no doubt the arts are of enormous importance to individualsThese are numbers that would please any mass marketer, but the informal and society, most research has focused on audience consumption of artarts have never advertised. People make art informally because it gives produced by professionals and presented by cultural institutions. Itsthem pleasure, they learn from it, it satisfies their need to communicate, purposes have conformed to the historic priority of arts policy—to supportto create beauty, tell stories, or make something with friends and neighbors. arts institutions. The Informal Arts broadens the scope of inquiry aboutThey don’t need to be sold a bill of goods. They know the arts have value the ar ts to include the creative enterprises of “regular folks” in lessand are a good thing in their lives. They deepen their connections to each institutional settings. This approach is emblematic of the roles the artsother and their understanding of themselves and the world they inhabit. play in enriching community life and democratic society.They remind them of why it is good to be alive. Nick Rabkin is the Executive Director of the Chicago Center for ArtsThe Informal Arts tells us that people will go to great lengths to make art. Policy at Columbia College. 19
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | ASSETS ASSETS Fundamental to a vibrant arts and cultural sector is the presence of a strong asset base. Key assets treated in this section include a healthy creative industries sector, appropriate stock of facilities and venues, and broad community support that values good design. These assets provide the opportunities for cultural participation and, in turn, are shaped by the levers of education, policies, and investments. CREATIVE SECTOR Why Does It Matter? In recent years, sociologists and urban planners have charted the rise of a new segment of a community’s commercial and community health—the creative sector. Including a mix of nonprofit arts and for-profit creative industries such as design, filmmaking and architecture, this newly-defined segment is highly desirable for its often high-paying jobs. More and more, the development, production, marketing, and sales of technology products involve people trained in artistic skills. Graphic designers, creative writers, photographers, animators, and music producers are taking their place in the technology workforce. People trained in the applied arts, visual arts, literary arts, and media are in demand as technology companies race to make products engaging, exciting and aesthetically pleasing. What Have We Learned About The Creative Sector? According to Carnegie Mellon’s Richard Florida, the percent of our total work force that could be described as generally “creative” is 34.8%, which ranks the Bay Area/Silicon Valley fifth in a survey of Creativity on the Job major metropolitan areas, behind Washington, DC, More than 40% of workers describe their jobs as requiring a lot of creativity. Raleigh-Durham, Boston, and Austin. It is important to note, however, that on the basis of a combination 50% of all the factors considered in his book, Florida ranks this region first overall as a place for creative people to live and work. An analysis of census data using a 40% more narrowly-defined interpretation shows that of the more than one million jobs in Santa Clara County, at least 12% are “super-creative,” and those jobs 30% pay, on average, 42% higher than the average for all other jobs in the county. When asked about jobs, 81% of residents described their own jobs as requir- 20% ing at least some level of creativity. Forty-two percent said that their jobs required “a lot of creativity.” Among high tech workers, 77% of respondents said 10% their jobs require “a lot of creativity.” Interestingly, only 46% of high tech workers said that their bosses were supportive of their being creative on the job. 0% A lot of creativity A little creativity No creativity at all Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: How much creativity does your job require in order for you to do your work well? Silicon Valley’s nonprofit cultural sector is made up of about 400 active arts and cultural organizations. The 125 that we surveyed represent a fairly even mix of disciplines with relatively small budgets, with more than half (53%) showing annual expenditures under $100,000. The 125 organizations reported total attendance figures of 3.9 million. Of that figure, 66% of the regional audience attends events produced by organizations with budgets of $1 million or greater–16% of surveyed organizations.20
    • Of the more than one million jobs in Santa Clara County, 12% are “super-creative,” and those jobs pay, on average, 42% higher than the average for all other jobs in the county.Using Richard Floridas definition of the “super-creative core,” we identified 98 THE CULTURAL MILIEUjob types prevalent in Silicon Valley. The total employment for these “super-creative” jobs equals 12% of the countys work force. Listed below is a sample There are creative jobs that we typically view asof these jobs, in categories defined by Richard Florida. fueling Silicon Valley’s culture of innovation— scientists, technologists, product designers, and 2000 Employment Estimates even forward-thinking venture capitalists. RichardComputer and Mathematical Florida also points out, however, that all forms ofSoftware Engineers 22,400 creativity should be supported to maximize theComputer Programmers 16,050 community’s creative potential.Computer Scientists 840 “The final element of the social structure of creativity,Architecture and Engineering and the one that has received the least attention,Electrical Engineers 9,170 is a supportive social milieu that is open to allMechanical Engineers 5,760 forms of creativity—artistic and cultural as wellArchitects, except Landscape and Naval 70 as technological and economic. This milieu provides the underlying ecosystem of habitat in which theLife, Physical and Social SciencePsychologists 870 multidimensional forms of creativity take root andBiochemists and Biophysicists 550 flourish. By supporting lifestyle and culturalAtmospheric and Space Scientists 130 institutions, like a cutting-edge music scene or vibrant artistic community for instance, it helpsEducation and Learning to attract and stimulate those who create inElementary School Teachers 8,650 business and technology. It also facilitates cross-Self-Enrichment Education Teachers 1,520 fertilization between and among these forms, asLibrarians 510 is evident throughout history in the rise of creative- content industries, from publishing and music toArt, Design, Entertainment and Media film and video games. The social and culturalGraphic Designers 1,040 milieu also provides a mechanism for attractingMulti-media Artists and Animators 740 new and different kinds of people and facilitatingMusicians and Singers 460 the rapid transmission of knowledge and ideas.” Richard Florida, from the book, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How Its Transforming Work, Mix of Silicon Valley Arts Organizations Leisure, Community and Everyday Life Local arts groups are evenly distributed across artistic disciplines Other Arts Services & Support 15% 16% Theatre/Opera Heritage/Folk Arts 14% 11% Dance Music 14% 17% Museums/Arts Centers 13% Photo courtesy of The Tech Museum of Innovation The Tech Museum of Innovation Distribution of Santa Clara County arts organizations by artistic discipline categories, 2001 21
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | ASSETS VENUES & FACILITIES Why Does It Matter? A robust cultural environment requires a blend of elements, including professional artists, knowledgeable audiences and well-managed, well-funded cultural institutions. One key element is conveniently located and technically appropriate performance and exhibition facilities. The 1997 Regional Cultural Plan found that Santa Clara County was deficient in the availability of performance facilities in comparison to 15 similar-sized metropolitan areas. The Plan also found that audience demand for the performing arts could be enhanced by increased availability of conveniently located facilities. For example, 30% of survey respondents with interests in popular music and musical theatre indicated that they would attend “a lot more often” if a theatre facility were located close to their home. Festival Attendance Sixty-eight percent of residents attended What Have We Learned About Venues and Facilities? in the past twelve months, and of these attendees, a free outdoor festival this past year Eighty percent of all survey respondents attended a 70% had attended two or more times. San José and live performance in the past year. However, only Mountain View were prominently cited as venues for 6-10 10+ 23% of the attended performances were in facilities these outdoor festivals, which included the Afribbean 3% 1% expressly designed as performance venues: concert and Art & Wine festivals in Mountain View, and the 0 halls, theatres or opera houses. The remaining 77% Cinco de Mayo, Vietnamese New Year, and jazz festivals 3-5 21% 32% were in multi-purpose facilities, both indoor and out- in San José. door, such as stadiums, school gyms or auditoriums, parks, or places of worship. Similarly, exhibiting Most would agree that Silicon Valley has been organizations made substantial use of non-art venues: blessed with a stunning natural environment—from 60% of the region’s museums and galleries employed the open foothills and tree-covered ridges to the non-art facilities for some portion of their annual dramatic cliffs and beaches of the Pacific Ocean. exhibition programs. But what of the built environment? As the population grows and industry expands, how is Silicon Valley 2 23% Residents responding to our survey also revealed that balancing the need for more development with a 1 outdoor venues are a major component of the cultural desire to create and maintain attractive, accessible 20% life of Silicon Valley. Fully two-thirds of respondents buildings and public spaces that foster community indicated that they had attended an outdoor festival and encourage creativity? Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: How many free outdoor festivals did you attend in the past 12 months? Venues Venues for Cultural Performances Silicon Valleys ratio of seats to population ranks low compared to similar Silicon Valley residents attend performances in a sized regions. broad mix of settings. Metropolitan Area Number of seats* Seats per 1,000 residents Concer hal, theatr etc. t l e, San Francisco 20,226 12.23 Outdoor park or San Antonio 14,998 10.62 amphitheatre Oakland 11,400 8.91 Restaur bar nightcl ant, , ub Denver 14,918 8.25 Seattle 16,842 7.71 Lar ar ge ena, stadium Ft. Lauderdale 9,559 7.03 School Auditorium, gym Sacramento 10,274 6.92 Cincinnati 9,972 6.33 Chur orSynagogue ch Milwaukee 8,988 6.10 Private home Silicon Valley 8,964 5.99 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Indianapolis 6,981 4.83 Kansas City 7,798 4.73 Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Forth Worth-Arlington 6,828 4.63 In the past year, have you attended a live arts performance at any of the following venues? Tampa Bay 10,074 4.57 Orlando 5,542 4.05 Respondents that said " es" Y *Includes performance venues larger than 750 seats only22
    • CIVIC AESTHETICS“Our culture is where our shared meanings are created and where we create our identity as a people. In a world of cyberspace the local will have to be brought back. You’ll have to have intimacy, rootedness, a sense of place.” –Jeremy Rifkin, Wharton School of Business FellowWhy Does It Matter?If creativity is, among other things, a social process, then the qualities of a particular environment or placeare bound to matter. Surroundings—both the immediate environment and the macroenvironment—can affectthe creative capacity of individuals and the likelihood of realizing that potential. University of Chicago creativityexpert Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi writes that “certain environments have greater density of interaction and providemore excitement and an effervescence of ideas” that prompt a person to break away from conventions andexperiment with novelty.What Have We Learned About Civic Aesthetics? Rating of Local Public Art ProgramsOne indicator of interest in civic aesthetics in the region is support for Less than half of all residents give public artpublic art. Of 15 municipalities surveyed, three (Mountain View, San efforts a good rating.José and Sunnyvale) have policies in place that require a percentage ofbuilding costs to be set aside for public art. Two other municipalities 90%hope to establish a “percent-for-art” policy in the near future. Nationally, 80%these types of policies are most prevalent within California, but of the 50largest cities in the country, 88% have percent-for-art policies. 70%Fifty-one percent of survey respondents were able to identify a work of 60%public art in their neighborhood or city. However, survey results show 50%that the community is generally appreciative of the public art that theydo see—88% of those respondents who were able to identify a work of 40%public art indicated that they were appreciative of that work. There isroom for improvement in our cities’ efforts at enhancing public spaces 30%with art. Fifty-three percent of respondents rated their city with a sixor lower on a ten-point scale in terms of civic aesthetics. 20% 10%Public art is, of course, only one small element of our public landscape.A major part of a successful built environment is the design and quality 0% 1-3 4-6 7-10of building projects in our cities. While measuring the quality of designis difficult, we do know that 14 out of 15 municipalities employ archi- Silicon Valley Opinion Survey:tectural design reviews at some level and at least five have specific or On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “poor” andprecise urban design plans in place to target the development of 10 meaning “excellent,” how do you rate yourcertain neighborhoods. city’s efforts at enhancing public spaces such as parks and community centers with public art?Awareness of Public Art CREATIVE PLACE area with a concentration ofHalf of residents surveyed identified a work Creativity is influenced by place. creative people, businesses andof public art in their neighborhood or city. In art and culture, as in science organizations. Sometimes this area and business, information and appears also as a “creative Identified a public art piece ideas grow much faster in “hot milieu.” This creative milieu fosters that they do not like 6% spots” where concentrations of constant cross-fertilization of ideas people—including perceived “out- across disciplines, ethnicities and siders”—interact in close physical professions. proximity. “At Xerox PARC the artists revital- John Seely Brown writes in The ize the atmosphere by bringing in Could not identify Social Life of Information that new ideas, new ways of thinking, any public art these “clusters of dense cross- new modes of seeing, and new 51% hatched relationships of practices contexts for doing. All of these and processes act as ecologies of innovations mulch the soil and Identified a knowledge.” The information and plant new unexpected seeds.” public art piece that they like ideas born of this ecology realize 43% value in the context of these social John Seely Brown networks. A creative place, or Former Director, Xerox PARC creative community, is a geographicSilicon Valley Opinion Survey:Can you think of a work of pubic art in your neighborhood or city?Do you like or dislike this work of public art? 23
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | LEVERS LEVERS At the foundation of our framework is the concept of cultural sector policy levers: those important “policy leverage” points where strategic initiatives can significantly affect systemic change—building or depleting our cultural assets. To this end, we have identified four critical policy lever categories: Creative Education, Leadership, Policies, and Investment. CREATIVE EDUCATION Why Does It Matter? Fundamental to our community’s creativity is the education our students receive both in and out of school. This section examines the state of arts instruction that our children receive today and its importance to their parents and our community. Arts Education, Local vs. National Availability of local arts education falls well below the national average. 100% Silicon Valley 90% 80% Nation 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% What Have We Learned About Creative Education? 10% Compared to national data, we see that the amount of arts instruction offered in our public schools is far below the national average. And yet, 0% we know that in-school arts education is a priority for the residents of Music Visual Arts Dance Theatre this community. Ninety-two percent of survey respondents said that Percentage of elementary grade level students receiving the arts should be required for school children. arts education, by artistic discipline Another discrepancy was found between the amount of arts education that residents believe students should receive on a weekly basis and the actual amount received by most students. Ninety-five percent responded that students should receive at least one hour per week, Local Demand for Arts Education with 26% responding that all students should receive at least five hours Ninety-five percent of residents believe students should receive at per week. Data collected from two-thirds of the county’s public least one hour of arts education each week; less than 36% of elementary and unified school districts indicates that only 36% of these elementary students receive this amount. elementary students receive one or more hours of arts instruction per week throughout the school year. >5 hours no hours 12% 5% Beyond school, there are other arts education opportunities for youth. When parents were asked if any of their children had taken art, dance, theatre, or music lessons of any sort in the past twelve months, 62% said, “Yes.” Thirty-eight percent responded that none of their children 1-2 hours received any instruction in the arts at all in the last year. 29% 5 hours As our schools struggle to provide arts instruction to their students, the 26% nonprofit arts sector is trying to fill the gap. Our survey of 125 organiza- tions showed that 52% report working with K-12 schools on an ongoing basis. Of the 17 largest organizations with budgets of $1 million or more, 85% reported having programs aimed at serving K-12 schools. These programs can be either at the school site or in the form of field 3-4 hours trips that students take to a performing arts venue or museum. Sixty- 28% seven percent of parents reported that their children had visited a museum in the past twelve months. Of those who had, they were Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: almost twice as likely to have gone with a school group than with a How many hours per week of classroom time do you think should family member. Further, while 63% of parents reported that their children be devoted to arts education? had been to a live performance, they were as likely to have seen that performance with a school group as with a family member.24
    • “I would teach children music, physics, and philosophy; but most importantly music, for in the patterns of music and all the arts are the keys of learning.” - Plato Youth Exposure to the Arts Local children are exposed to the arts primarily through school and family trips. Live performaces Museums 70% Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Who brings your children to live 60% performances and museums? 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% School Family member organization Church or otherMusic programPalo Alto Unified School DistrictArts Groups Partnering with Local SchoolsFifty-seven percent of arts groups partner with local schools toprovide arts education programming. THE ROLE OF ARTS ORGANIZATIONS IN K-12 ARTS INSTRUCTION In the past 20 years, schools have increasingly created partnerships90% with visual and performing arts organizations in the community to fill the gap in arts instruction.80%70% Outreach programs are currently provided to schools by a wide range of arts groups including ArtPath, Children’s Musical Theater, Community60% School of Music and Arts, Mexican Heritage Plaza, Opera San José, San José Museum of Art, San José Museum of Quilts and Textiles, San José50% Repertory Theatre, Triton Museum of Art, Villa Montalvo, and Young40% Audiences. These programs range in duration from one-time assemblies to weekly, year-round artist residencies.30% In the 2001/2002 academic year, 267,858* students participated in20% outreach programs. However, of that number, only 15% are included in10% programs that involve more than one contact with the student. Assemblies provide students with valuable exposure to a variety of arts 0% and cultures; however, they do not achieve the developmental outcomes of a consistent, sequential, standards-based arts program. Multi-visit Average-all organizations Less than $20,000 $20,000 to <$100,000 $100,000 to <$500,000 $500,000 to <$1m $1m and more artist residency programs serve approximately 40,956 students, which represents 16% of the K-12 public school students in the county. These extended experiences provide increased educational benefits to stu- dents, but many outreach programs have had to reduce services and increase fees in recent years, creating economic barriers to school participation. The three largest artist residency providers have seen school participation drop more than 50% during the past five years. * Figure exceeds the actual number of students in the county (248,777) due to “double-counted” students at schools receiving more than one outreach program.Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations working withK-12 schools in long-term partnerships, by budget size, 2001 25
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | LEVERS LEADERSHIP “Most civic leaders have failed to understand that what is true for corporations is also true for cities and regions: Places that succeed in attracting and retaining creative people prosper; those that fail don’t.”– Richard Florida Why Does It Matter? Richard Florida writes that “most civic leaders have failed to understand that what is true for corporations is also true for cities and regions: places that succeed in attracting and retaining creative people prosper; those that fail don’t.” Local leadership is key in defining goals and strategies, rallying community support and channeling resources. Leadership in the arts and cultural sector crosses many realms including government officials, nonprofit directors and board members, for-profit arts and entertainment entrepreneurs, corporate leaders, and grassroots cultural activists. Leadership Donations What Have We Learned About Leadership? cultural sector is a significant community leadership to the Arts When asked, “Can you name any community leader that is directly committed to local organizations. Less than 10% of arts groups have who you would consider to be a strong advocate for Among local cultural organizations, just under ten received a “Leadership Level” gift of advancing arts and culture in Santa Clara County?” percent have received a gift of $100,000 or more more than $100,000. only 16% of respondents said, “Yes.” Given Silicon from an individual or a corporation. The most significant Yes Valley’s significant rate of population turnover, this recipient of such “Leadership Level” giving has been 9.6% may not seem surprising. However, the survey data The Tech Museum of Innovation. showed something interesting—residents who were foreign-born immigrants to the region were about 2.5 Another critical form of leadership necessary for a times more likely to be able to name a community healthy arts and cultural sector is the presence of leader. Within the Vietnamese community, almost professional directors at the helm of local organizations. all survey respondents were able to name someone These professionals are often on the front lines of they considered a strong advocate for advancing cultural policy making and are most adept at arts and culture in their community. addressing the role of the arts to interpret, critique and celebrate how we live as a community. Fifty- Leadership is critical in channeling resources to nine percent of responding local arts groups had a support the arts and cultural sector. A fundamental paid senior-level director within their organization; basis for encouraging broad support of the arts and 40% had a paid full-time director. No 90.4% Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations that received an individual or corporate gift of $100,000 or more in 2001 Arts Management Leadership Awareness of Cultural Leaders Only 40% of local arts groups have full-time paid directors. Arts leaders are largely unknown to the community. 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% 60% % with full-time compensation 60% 50% 50% % with less than full-time compensation 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% Average Less than $20,000 $20,000 to <$100,000 $100,000 to <$500,000 $500,000 to <$1m $1m and more All Organizations 0% Yes No Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Can you name any community leader who you would consider to be a strong advocate for advancing the arts and culture of Santa Clara County? Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations with a paid full-time or part-time senior director position by budget size, 200126
    • POLICIES“The innovative cities of the coming age will develop a creative union of technology, arts and civics.”– Sir Peter HallWhy Does It Matter?The United States has never been a nation of centralized cultural policies, and the national government’sinfluence on culture has been narrow—copyrights and patents, tax regulation and relatively small, but oftencontroversial, funding programs. Cultural policies tend to be more significant at the local level, wheredecisions are made about arts education in schools, public art, ordinances affecting artists’ live/work spaces,the operation of municipal museums and performance halls, and support for nonprofit arts organizations. Thesepolicies have a major bearing on the advancement of Silicon Valley as a rich cultural environment.What Have We Learned About Policies? Collaborations with Social ServicesOf the 15 municipalities in Santa Clara County, ten operate councils, A diverse mix of arts groups partner with local socialcommissions or divisions expressly related to arts and culture. In service agencies.addition, a nonprofit organization, Arts Council Silicon Valley, is designated 60%and partially funded by Santa Clara County to serve as the County’sarts agency. Given that the preponderance of the County’s artsorganizations reside in the City of San José, it is especially noteworthy 50%that the city contains a fully staffed arts agency, the Office of CulturalAffairs. In 2001, the Office dispensed grants amounting to $4.5 40%million to 88 arts organizations, parades and festivals, far eclipsingall other federal, state or local governmental sources of artsfunding in this region. 30%For some municipalities, the issue of public aesthetics is addressedthrough zoning, building ordinances or public art works. Of the 15 20%cities, four (Mountain View, Palo Alto, San José, and Sunnyvale) havepolicies that require development projects to include public art, or 10%provide public funds for the regular acquisition of public art. San Joséhas by far the largest and most developed public art acquisitionprogram in the County. A fifth city, Cupertino, is currently considering 0% Dance Theatre/Opera Music Museums/Arts Centers Heritage/Folk Artsa proposal to require the allocation of one percent of commercialbuilding projects over $500,000 to public art projects.As arts groups have become increasingly sophisticated at generatingand diversifying their revenue sources as a means for ensuring survival,they have often sought to expand their traditional audience basesthrough collaborations with governmental and nonprofit social serviceagencies. These agencies can often include housing authorities, substanceabuse programs, immigrant service groups, and prisons. ThroughoutCalifornia, anti-smoking funds have become a significant source of Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations collaboratingincome, especially for theatre companies performing in schools. In with social service providers by artistic discipline, 2001Silicon Valley, 48% of arts organizations engaged in collaborative activitieswith social service agencies in 2001. THE GREAT CITIES SIMULATOR Would you like to try your hand as the Cultural Policy Czar of Silicon Valley? The Great Cities simulator game can be your laboratory for experimenting with policies aimed at transforming Silicon Valley into a region as distinguished in its cultural life as it is in technology and business. In Great Cities, you become President of the Largecap Renaissance Foundation, with an endowment of $500 million. You have total discretion over a span of 40 years to spend the income from the endowment on improving arts education, increasing artistic programming, developing consumer demand for the arts, upgrading the management and financial capabilities of arts organizations, or building cultural facilities. The Great Cities CD-ROM operates on both Windows and Macintosh operating systems and is available free of charge from Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley at 408.283.7000. 27
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | LEVERS INVESTMENT Why Does It Matter? Silicon Valley’s financial investment in cultural organizations is an important indicator of the value of the arts in our community. Since the technology boom of the last decade, corporations have gone to great lengths to attract and retain employees, investing in such ‘perks’ as elaborately stocked kitchens, foosball tables and after hours social mixers. It would stand to reason that a city or community could benefit from the same level of investment commitment to attract and retain residents. Richard Florida describes a general strategy to attract people by “remaining open to diversity and actively working to cultivate it, and investing in the lifestyle amenities that people really want and use often.” What Have We Learned About Investment? earned income, compared to a national average of 50%. An interesting The 125 nonprofit arts organizations surveyed reported nearly $47 example of a local group’s attention to earned income is American million in annual contributed income, which represents 2.7% of all giving Musical Theatre’s partnership with the New York-based Nederlander to nonprofits across Santa Clara County. That compares to a national Organization to bring more Broadway shows to Silicon Valley. How this figure of 6.3% of all giving to nonprofits in the country directed to arts will impact the cultural and creative ecosystem locally is yet to be and cultural organizations. Recent research by Community Foundation seen. Silicon Valley confirms that arts giving is not a top priority among Silicon Valley residents, with only 18% of donors identifying the arts as Contributions to endowments signal a commitment to the long-term a beneficiary of their charitable giving within the last 12 months, behind health of an organization and tend to be garnered by more mature religious causes, education, the environment, health-related causes, and organizations with well-developed relationships with donors. Of the giving to programs outside the United States. responding organizations, 19% reported an endowment of any kind and only one organization met the National Arts Stabilization standard of an The funds that are contributed to these organizations are then leveraged endowment that is twice an organization’s operating budget. The to generate operating income through ticket sales, admissions fees, recent establishment of an endowment fund campaign by the San José rentals, etc. Organizations in Silicon Valley tend to do slightly better Repertory Theatre illustrates how some local organizations are maturing than the national average by earning 60% of their budgets through and establishing their roles as important community assets. Contributions to the Arts Earned Revenue Local giving to the arts is less than half the national average. Local arts groups earned income surpasses the national average. 7% 80% 70% 6% 60% 5% 50% 4% 40% 3% 30% 2% 20% 1% 10% 0% 0% Silicon Valley Nation Nation Silicon Valley Annual contributed income to nonprofit arts Arts organizations average earned income as a percentage of organizations as a portion of all giving to annual operating budget, Silicon Valley and national average, 2000 nonprofits, Santa Clara County and nationwide28
    • “The quality of life in Silicon Valley must be consistent with the technology innovation that is going on here. There’s a risk that we may have hit a plateau and will not be able to attract new employees and their families anymore.”– Mike Hackworth, Cirrus LogicContributions to the ArtsIn Silicon Valley, individual contributions are much less significantthan the national average.NATION Corporations 12% Government 13% Individuals 61%Foundations 14%SILICON VALLEY Corporate 21% Individual 35% Sources of contributed funds for arts groups in Silicon Valley demonstrateGovernment strong support from institutional and public sources—far more than 21% national averages. With two of the largest foundations in the country located in this area, it is not surprising that foundation support for our arts organizations is higher as a percentage of total giving than in other areas. The percentages of funding from corporate and public sources, Foundation however, are also higher than the national average. 23% Surveyed organizations reported that 53% had received contributionsDistribution of contributed income by source, national average and from corporations in 2001. The median amount of support was $12,000.Silicon Valley, 2001 When asked how they feel about local corporate support of the arts, residents were less than enthusiastic. Only 40% gave local corporations a good rating. When asked whether they or a family member had personally given money to a cultural organization or an arts fund in the past year, 39% of residents responded that they had. The very small and the very large budget organizations surveyed have been most successful at identifying individual donor contributions relative to their total budget size. The very small organizations (budgets <$20,000) received 44% of their contributions from individuals, while the very large (>$1 million) receive 38% of their contributions from individuals. The remaining organizations receive 21% to 28% of their donations from individuals. The San José Repertory Theatre Photo courtesy of the San José Repertory Theatre 29
    • CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX END NOTES Creativity–Creative Expression Venues and Facilities Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of 361 Santa Clara County residents in January and February of 2002. Santa Clara County residents and from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Surveys were conducted in person in English, Spanish and Vietnamese local arts organizations. at 18 locations throughout Santa Clara County. Please see Methodology for a full discussion of this survey. Civic Aesthetics Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Creativity–Creative Innovation Santa Clara County residents. Data is provided by CHI Research of Haddon Heights, New Jersey. Data for regional per capita comparisons is from the United States Patent Creative Education and Trademark Office. Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Santa Clara County residents and from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Connectedness local arts organizations. National comparison data is from the National Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Center for Education Statistics and the 20/21 Silicon Valley Regional Santa Clara County residents and from The Social Capital Benchmark Cultural Plan, 1997. Arts organization outreach program data was Study. Data from the Social Capital Benchmark Study is available on collected via phone and email survey in June, 2002. the web site of Community Foundation Silicon Valley, www.cfsv.org. Leadership Contribution Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Santa Clara County residents and from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Santa Clara County arts and cultural organizations. local arts organizations. Participation in Arts and Cultural Activities Investment Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Data on total charitable giving, both national and local, is provided by 361 Santa Clara County residents in January and February of 2002. the Urban Institute’s National Center for Charitable Statistics. Data on local giving by individuals is provided by the Community Foundation Creative Sector Silicon Valley report, Giving Back - the Silicon Valley Way, 2002. Public Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of revenue data is provided by Americans for the Arts and the National Santa Clara County residents and from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Assembly of State Arts Agencies. Foundation data is provided by the local arts organizations. Data from Richard Florida can be found in his Foundation Center, 2000. Corporate data is provided by the Business book, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How Its Transforming Work, Council on the Arts, 2000. Individual giving data is derived through Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. Copyright © 2002. Reprinted American Association of Fundraising Executives, Giving USA 2000. by arrangement with Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Books Group. All rights reserved. Florida bases his research on a more inclusive Policies regional definition of the “Bay Area.” Data for this indicator is derived from the Cultural Initiatives survey of Santa Clara County residents and from the Cultural Initiatives survey of local arts organizations.30
    • METHODOLOGYSurvey of Silicon Valley Residents Survey of Cultural Organizations we can derive a correlation coeffi- arts organizations. A value ofCultural Initiatives Silicon Valley Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley cient between the survey respon- plus or minus one represents acontracted with Audience Insight constructed an exhaustive data- dents and the database of arts perfect correlation, either positiveof Fairfield, Connecticut, to devel- base of 857 organizations organizations. Establishing a or negative respectively, betweenop an in-person interview survey throughout Santa Clara County strong correlation coefficient the two groups. If there is littleprotocol about residents’ behavior using information provided by the between these datasets enhances or no relationship, r will approxi-and beliefs regarding arts and cul- City of San José, Arts Council our confidence in inferring from mate zero.tural programming in Santa Clara Silicon Valley, tax filing informa- the survey the current state ofCounty. For field implementation tion from the IRS, and incorpora- the nonprofit arts community in Examining the distribution ofof the survey, Cultural Initiatives tion filings from the California the region. NTEE classifications for bothcontracted with Cultural Access Secretary of State. These organi- datasets returns a correlationGroup (CAG) of Los Angeles to zations were considered to be the By comparing data derived from coefficient of .90 (p<.05), andimplement the in-person inter- entire universe of potential non- both our survey respondents and examining the distribution of ZIPviews with 361 Santa Clara profit arts and culture-related our database of arts organiza- codes for both datasets returns aCounty residents. CAG special- organizations in Santa Clara tions, we can measure the coefficient of .73 (p<.05). Theizes in surveying across cultural County. After a thorough process degrees of association between pattern of distribution acrossand language barriers. Interviews of refining this database and these two groups. We are fortu- these two variables exhibits con-were conducted in English, assigning National Taxonomy of nate to have comprehensive data siderable correlation between theSpanish and Vietnamese at 18 Exempt Entities (NTEE) code for two variables for both groups: two datasets. Based upon thelocations throughout Santa Clara classifications, we arrived at a correlation between these twoCounty. CAG conducted 12- to universe of 531 organizations and 1. Distribution according to the datasets and the exhaustiveness15-minute interviews via a mobile associations that we considered National Taxonomy of Exempt of the database developed for thisintercept methodology. All inter- to be potential providers of arts Entities project, we believe the responsesviews were conducted on a con- and cultural programming and 2. Distribution according to to this survey are a good repre-tinuous basis, seven days a week, services in the region. We esti- geography sentation of the community ofdaytime and evening hours, to mated that between 350 and 400 nonprofit arts organizations inensure proportional representation organizations are active providers These two variables are good fac- Silicon Valley.of the total Santa Clara County of cultural programming to the tors for using the statistical func-region. Interviews were conduct- public, or service providers to a tion of a correlation coefficient to The 125 survey respondent organ-ed in January and February, 2002. membership base. compare the datasets. These izations are estimated to repre-Of the 361 interviews, 80 were variables allow us to compare fac- sent more than 30% of all current-conducted in Spanish, and 80 Representativeness of the tors that are core to our ly operating organizations present-were conducted in Vietnamese. Arts Organization Survey research–NTEE classification ing or performing works for theThe margin of error as derived by One hundred twenty-five organiza- allows us to compare the diversity public or for members, and respon-CAG, for this survey of Santa tions out of 531 responded to the of artistic activity of both sible for more than 80% of allClara County residents was ± two Survey of Santa Clara County Arts datasets, and geographic distribu- attendance at nonprofit artspercent to ± five percent for top Organizations. Thirty-five surveys tion is a useful proxy for ethnic events in Silicon Valley throughoutlevel responses at the 95% were returned as undeliverable. and socio-economic distribution. the 2001 year.Confidence Level. Weighting ofsurvey responses according to the In order to establish how repre- The correlation coefficient r indi-2000 Census demographics of sentative the survey respondents cates the strength of the relation-Santa Clara County was conducted are of the entire population of ship between the survey respon-by Audience Insight. arts organizations in the region, dents dataset and the database of Creative Community Index Brendan Rawson, Research Director and Primary Author. Brendan Rawson is the Director of the Community & Neighborhood Arts Program at Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. Prior to his work with Cultural Initiatives, Brendan worked as an Associate with Collaborative Economics. He also worked with the original Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network team to develop and pub- lish the 1996 Index of Silicon Valley. Creative Community Index editorial and design team: John Kreidler, Executive Director Kate Cochran, COO & Director, Leadership Development Jennifer Leclerc, Communications Coordinator Vanessa Shieh, Administrative Coordinator Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley is a nonprofit organization whose goal is to advance the vitality of Silicon Valley through broad cultural participation, quality arts education in our public schools, and development of an informed and committed leadership in the community. For more information about Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley or the Creative Community Index study, please contact Brendan Rawson at brendan@ci-sv.org or 408.283.7000. 31
    • Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley1153 Lincoln Avenue, Suite I San José CA 95125 408.283.7000 www.ci-sv.org