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Informe estadistic realitzat per un Comité patrocinat pel Govern dels USA. Fa una evalació estadistica comparativa d'escoles que apliquen o no un projecte artistic als seus alumnes. ...

Informe estadistic realitzat per un Comité patrocinat pel Govern dels USA. Fa una evalació estadistica comparativa d'escoles que apliquen o no un projecte artistic als seus alumnes.
Descobreix un resultat molt positiu pel que fa a l'aprenentatge de matematiques i escriptura, pel treball en grup, per la socució de problemes
Un "projecte artistic" es una activitat liderada per un artista

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Arts Education And Creativity.Pcah Reinvesting 4web Arts Education And Creativity.Pcah Reinvesting 4web Document Transcript

  • President’s Committee on the Arts And the humAnitiesReinvestingin Arts EducationWinning America’s Future Through Creative Schools
  • C reated in 1982 under President Reagan, the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH) isan advisory committee to the White House on cultural issues.The PCAH works directly with the Administration and thethree primary cultural agencies –– National Endowment forthe Arts (NEA), National Endowment for the Humanities(NEH) and the Institute of Museum and Library Services(IMLS) –– as well as other federal partners and the privatesector, to address policy questions in the arts and humanities,to initiate and support key programs in those disciplinesand to recognize excellence in the field. Its core areas offocus are arts and humanities education, cultural exchange,and community revitalization. The First Lady serves as theHonorary Chairman of the Committee, which is composed ofboth private and public members.Through the efforts of its federal and private members, thePCAH has compiled an impressive legacy over its almost30-year tenure, conducting major research and policyanalysis, and catalyzing important federal cultural programs,both domestic and international. These achievements relyon the PCAH’s unique role in bringing together the WhiteHouse, federal agencies, civic organizations, corporations,foundations and individuals to strengthen the United States’national investment in its cultural life. Central to the PCAH’smission is using the power of the arts and humanities tocontribute to the vibrancy of our society, the education of ourchildren, the creativity of our citizens and the strength ofour democracy.Michelle Obama, Honorary ChairCo-CHairGeorge Stevens, Jr.Co-CHairMargo LionViCe CHairDr. Mary Schmidt CampbellexeCutiVe direCtorRachel Goslins
  • President’s Committee on the Arts And the humAnities Reinvesting in Arts Education Winning America’s Future Through Creative SchoolsWith major support from the John S. and James L. Knight FoundationAdditional support provided by:Members of the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities; andthe Stephen and Myrna Greenberg Philanthropic Fund of the Jewish Communal Fund View slide
  • May 2011President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities1100 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Suite 526Washington, DC 20506Telephone: 202-682-5409Prepared by M. Christine Dwyer, RMC Research Corporation,Portsmouth, NHProduced by the President’s Committee on the Artsand the HumanitiesDesigned by Fletcher Design, Inc./ Washington, DCFront Cover Photo: Michele KrausPrinted in the United States of AmericaThis publication is available free of charge at www.pcah.gov, thewebsite of the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities.Individuals are encouraged to cite this report and its contents. Indoing so, please include the following attribution: President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America’s Future Through Creative Schools, Washington, DC, May 2011 View slide
  • TabLe Of COnTenTSExecutive Summary ....................................................................................................................vForeword by Arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of Education.............................................1Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 7The Case: Arts Education Outcomes ............................................................................... 15The Need: Education System in Crisis ............................................................................27The Opportunity: Point of Inflection ...............................................................................37Conclusion and Recommendations: A Vision of Arts-Rich Schools..................47Appendices...................................................................................................................................57Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................74Members of the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities ........76
  • eXeCUTIVe SUMMaRYI N OCTObER OF 2008, THEN-SENATOR ObAMA released a powerful Plat- form in Support of the Arts. In it he argued for reinvesting in American arts education, and reinvigorating the creativity and innovation that has made this country great. Taking up this charge, over the past eighteen months the Presi-dent’s Committee on Arts and the Humanities (PCAH) has conducted an in-depth reviewof the current condition of arts education, surveying recent research about its documentedbenefits and identifying potential opportunities for advancing arts education. While wefound a growing body of research to support positive educational outcomes associated witharts-rich schools, and many schools and programs engaged in such work, we also foundenormous variety in the delivery of arts education, resulting in a complex patchwork withpockets of visionary activity flourishing in some locations and inequities in access to artseducation increasing in others. At this moment in our nation’s history, there is great urgency around major trans-formation in America’s schools. Persistently high dropout rates (reaching 50% or more insome areas) are evidence that many schools are no longer able to engage and motivate theirstudents. Students who do graduate from high school are increasingly the products of nar-rowed curricula, lacking the creative and critical thinking skills needed for success in post- reinvesting in arts education v
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY secondary education and the workforce. In such a climate, the outcomes associated with arts education –– which include increased academic achievement, school engagement, and creative thinking –– have become increasingly important. Decades of research show strong and consistent links between high-quality arts education and a wide range of impressive educational outcomes. This is true even though, as in most areas where learning is complex, the research base does not yet establish causal proof. Arts integration models, the practice of teaching across classroom subjects in tandem with the arts, have been yielding some par- ticularly promising results in school reform and closing the achievement gap. Most recent- ly, cutting-edge studies in neuroscience have been further developing our understanding of how arts strategies support crucial brain development in learning. At the same time, due to budget constraints and emphasis on the subjects of high stakes testing, arts instruction in schools is on a downward trend. Just when they need it most, the classroom tasks and tools that could best reach and inspire these students –– art, music, movement and performing –– are less available to them. Sadly, this is especially true for students from lower-income schools, where analyses show that access to the arts in schools is disproportionately absent. One promising development is that, nationally, arts education is finding new allies. Policymakers and civic and business leaders, as reflected in several recent high level task force reports, are increasingly recognizing the potential role of the arts in spurring inno- vation, providing teachers with more effective classroom strategies, engaging students in learning, and creating a climate of high performance in schools. Another development is the enthusiasm among educators and members of the arts community for expanding arts integration and the use of well-trained teaching artists in schools. Arts integration has been used in a number of very successful long term programs to expand arts opportunities, en- gage students more deeply in learning content, and as an effective school reform strategy. Teaching artists also represent an underutilized resource pool, many of whom are both ea- ger and well qualified to serve in long- term assignments in schools. The PCAH recognized at the outset of this research that many diverse stakeholders have an interest in arts education. Any significant advancement in the field will require un- precedented unity of purpose and the coordinated actions of local, state, and federal gov- ernment agencies, educators and professional associations, and the arts community. Thevi reinvesting in arts education
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARYcommon purpose is expansion of access to arts education so that more students in Ameri-can schools, especially those in underserved schools, have the benefits of a comprehensiveeducation. based on what we learned over the past year about needs and opportunities, thePCAH is making five recommendations for actions to be undertaken by different stakehold-ers to advance arts education. Those actions are designed to clarify the position of the artsin a comprehensive, well-rounded K-12 education that is appropriate for all students; unifyand focus efforts to expand arts education offerings to underserved students and communi-ties; and strengthen the evidence base for high quality arts education.1. Build collaborations among different approaches. The PCAH urges leaders of professional associations to work with federal and state agencies to build and dem- onstrate connections among different educators in the arts: art specialists work- ing on standards-based approaches; classroom teachers trained in arts integration; and project-based teaching artists. The PCAH believes that collaborations among national leadership organizations should move beyond internal debates in the arts education field about modes of delivery of arts instruction in order to address the more pressing issues of equitable access and infusing more schools with a creativity-rich environment.2. Develop the field of arts integration. The second recommendation focuses on an expansion of arts integration. The PCAH encourages further development of the field of arts integration through strengthening teacher preparation and professional devel- opment, targeting available arts funding, and setting up mechanisms for sharing ideas about arts integration through communities of practice. In this recommendation we identify roles for regional and state arts and education agencies as well as private funders.3. Expand in-school opportunities for teaching artists. We strongly believe that working artists in this country represent an underutilized and underdeveloped re- source in increasing the quality and vitality of arts education in our public schools. The PCAH recommends expanding the role of teaching artists, in partnership with arts specialists and classroom teachers, through sustained engagements in schools. This should include supporting high quality professional development in pedagogy reinvesting in arts education vii
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY and curriculum. We see an opportunity for leadership in this from the regional and state arts agencies, as well as a national service program similar to the “Artists Corps” idea articulated in President Obama’s Arts Policy Campaign platform. 4. Utilize federal and state policies to reinforce the place of arts in K-12 education. This recommendation focuses on the need for federal and state education leaders to provide policy guidance for employing the arts to increase the rigor of curriculum, strengthen teacher quality, and improve low-performing schools. building capacity to create and innovate in our students is central to guaranteeing the nation’s competi- tiveness. To do this it is necessary for federal and state governments to move beyond merely “allowing” the arts as an expenditure of a comprehensive education. 5. Widen the focus of evidence gathering about arts education. Finally, while the evidence base for the benefits of the arts is compelling, there is room to expand sys- tematic data gathering about the arts, specifically in developing creativity and enhanc- ing engagement in school. Educators need practical tools to measure the progress of student learning in the arts — an investment that dovetails with the federal education agency’s investments in more authentic assessments of complex learning. From a fed- eral perspective, policymakers should help stakeholders make informed arguments and decisions regarding impact and equitable access. This requires policies that sup- port ongoing data gathering about available opportunities, including teacher quality, resources, and facilities at the local and state level. The PCAH envisions schools in cities and towns across our nation that are alive with the energy of creative thinking and fresh ideas, full of art, music and movement. All of our re- search points to the success of schools that are “arts-rich,” in which students who may have fallen by the wayside find themselves re-engaged in learning when their enthusiasm for film, design, theater or even hip-hop is tapped into by their teachers. More advanced stu- dents also reap rewards in this environment, demonstrating accelerated learning and sus- tained levels of motivation. PCAH stands ready to partner with public agencies and the private sector to further develop and implement these recommendations.viii reinvesting in arts education
  • fOReWORD arne Duncan, U.S. Secretary of educationE DUCATION IN THE ARTS is more important than ever. In the global economy, creativity is essential. Today’s work- ers need more than just skills and knowedge to be productive and innovative participants in the workforce. Just look at the inven-tors of the iPhone and the developers of Google: they are innovative as well as intelligent.Through their combination of knowledge and creativity, they have transformed the way wecommunicate, socialize, and do business. Creative experiences are part of the daily work lifeof engineers, business managers, and hundreds of other professionals. To succeed today andin the future, America’s children will need to be inventive, resourceful, and imaginative. Thebest way to foster that creativity is through arts education. Reinvesting in Arts Education makes a compelling case for arts education and the es-sential role it will play in preparing students for success in the knowledge and innovationeconomy. This report shows us the link between arts education and achievement in othersubjects. It documents that the process of making art –– whether is it written, performed,sculpted, photographed, filmed, danced, or painted –– prepares children for success in theworkforce not simply as artists, but all professions. Most importantly, it makes a compelling reinvesting in arts education 1
  • FOREWORD argument for creating arts-rich schools and engaging artists in ways that complement the study of other subjects such as literature, history, science, and mathematics. I believe that all students should have the opportunity to experience the arts in deep and meaningful ways. The opportunity to learn about the arts and to perform as artists is an essential part of a well-rounded curriculum and complete education. The study of drama, dance, music, and the visual arts helps students explore realities, relationships, and ideas that cannot be conveyed simply in words or numbers. The ability to perform and create in the fine arts engenders innovative problem-solving skills that students can apply to other academic disciplines and provides experiences working as a team. Equally important, arts instruction supports success in other subjects. Visual arts instruction improves reading readiness, and learning to play a musical instrument or to master musical notation helps students to succeed in math. Reading, math, and writing require students to understand and use symbols –– and so does assembling shapes and colors in a portrait or using musi- cal notes to learn fractions. Experiences in the arts are valuable on their own, but they also enliven learning of other subjects, making them indispensable for a complete education in the 21st Century. As a parent, I have witnessed the ability of one arts educator to enrich the learning of my daughter and son, who attend a public elementary school that weaves science through- out the curriculum. The school’s music teacher writes and teaches songs to the kids about science. In his music room, children sing about gravity, sedimentation, rocks, and the plan- ets. Students sing, clap, and dance about solids, liquids, and gases. On holidays celebrating American heroes, Mr. Puzzo writes songs for the students about them. Years later, when students sit down to take their SATs, they report humming Mr. Puzzo’s songs to recall his- torical and scientific content. These musical experiences provide more than a memori- zation tool to master facts. They provide opportunities to experience learning in creative ways. They engage students in musical experiences that introduce them to the power and beauty of the creative process for its own enjoyment and enrichment. I’ve also seen the power of arts education as an education leader. When I was the CEO of Chicago Public Schools, I became convinced that arts education is an integral part of school reform. Working with the Chicago Arts Partnership in Education (CAPE), we brought local artists and teachers into the schools to integrate arts curriculum with other2 reinvesting in arts education
  • FOREWORDacademic subjects. Studies showed that students at the CAPE schools performed better onstandardized assessments than students who attended schools that did not integrate artsand sciences. Perhaps as important, researchers found that schools working with CAPE’sartists made positive changes in the school’s culture, creating environments where stu-dents thrive academically, socially, and artistically. It’s an unfortunate truth that many schools today are falling far short of providing stu-dents with a full experience of the arts that helps them engage and succeed in other academ-ic areas and build skills that would serve them well in the innovation economy. Too often,students are saddled with boring textbooks, dummied-down to the lowest common denom-inator. Today’s curriculum fails to spark student curiosity or stimulate a love of learning. Asthis report documents, the arts significantly boost student achievement, reduce disciplineproblems and increase the odds that students will go on to graduate from college. It dem-onstrates that arts education can play an important role in narrowing the achievement gapbetween minorities and whites. And it offers examples of arts-rich schools where teachersand visiting artists use the magic of the arts to illuminate literature, social studies, math,science, and other subjects. President Obama has made a convincing case that innovation and education are go-ing to help America win the future. He firmly believes that arts education builds innovativethinkers who will become our nation’s leaders in government, business, and the nonprofitsectors. For today’s students to be the innovators and economic leaders of the future, theywill need to have experiences as musicians and dancers, painters and sculptors, poets andplaywrights –– in short, they will need to be creative innovators who will build our nation’seconomy for the future. They also will sustain a rich and vibrant culture to nourish the heartand soul of the American people, and to communicate with our neighbors around the globe. In Reinvesting in Arts Education, the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Hu-manities explains why American schools are falling short in providing students the oppor-tunity for a well-rounded curriculum and a rich arts education that will prepare them forsuccess in the future. I encourage educators, school board members, business, and philan-thropic leaders and artists to read this report and to see it as a call to action. reinvesting in arts education 3
  • INTRODUCTION “When young people are involved with the arts, something changes in their lives.” — Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning, 1999, arts education Partnership and the President’s Committee on the arts and the Humanities Photo by alexa rubinstein4 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTIONreinvesting in arts education 5
  • INTRODUCTION6 reinvesting in arts education
  • InTRODUCTIOnT HE PRESIDENT’S COMMITTEE on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH), founded in 1982 by Executive Order, advises the White House on cultural policy and collaborates with the three primary cultural agencies, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), theNational Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), and the Institute for Museum and LibraryServices (IMLS). PCAH also works with other federal agencies and the private sector toinitiate and support projects in the arts and humanities. The First Lady serves as HonoraryChair of the Committee, which is composed of both private and public members. Privatemembers appointed by the President include prominent artists, philanthropists, entrepre-neurs, and state public officials who have a demonstrated commitment to the arts and hu-manities. Its federal public members include the Chairman of NEA, the Chairman of NEH,the Director of the IMLS, the Librarian of Congress, the Secretaries of the U.S. Departmentsof Interior, State, and Education, and the heads of other federal cultural institutions, suchas the National Gallery of Art, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, and theSmithsonian Institution. PCAH has compiled an impressive legacy over its lifespan, from major policy reportsand convenings in the field to initiating or creating successful federal programs, such as Save reinvesting in arts education 7
  • INTRODUCTION America’s Treasures, The National Arts and Humanities Youth Program Awards (formerly Coming Up Taller) and Film Forward. Each of these initiatives is a partnership involving two or more federal agencies and both public and private support. The effectiveness of the Presi- dent’s Committee is due to its unique position as a nexus of federal cultural agencies, the arts and humanities communities, and the private sector. The leadership of successive First La- dies has been instrumental in focusing the nation’s attention on critical cultural issues. The PCAH believes that the arts and humanities are essential to our public school curriculum, both in and of themselves and as a way to engage students more fully in their education. PCAH has joined with diverse partners in arts and education to research these areas.1 Under the current Administration, the Committee continues to support arts and hu- manities education, both during the school day and in after-school and out-of-school time, as a means to connect with at-risk students, create a culture of excellence and collaboration, and encourage creativity and innovative thinking in young minds. It is with this approach that the present members of the President’s Committee addressed the issues in this Report. The President’s Charge President barack Obama created an Arts Policy Council during his 2008 campaign made up of artists, cultural leaders, educators and advocates, to advise on policy matters related to the arts. The group was co-chaired by George Stevens, Jr. and Margo Lion, current Co- Chairs of the President’s Committee and included many present members of the Commit- tee. The Platform in Support of the Arts stated: Reinvest in Arts Education: To remain competitive in the global economy, America needs to reinvigorate the kind of creativity and innovation that has made this country great. To do so, we must nourish our children’s creative skills. In ad- dition to giving our children the science and math skills they need to compete in the new global context, we should also encourage the ability to think creatively that comes from a meaningful arts education. Unfortunately, many school dis- tricts are cutting instructional time for art and music education. 1 For example, in 1999, the Department of Education provided publication support for two PCAH/Arts Education Part- nership research reports: Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons from School Districts that Value Arts Education and Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. These reports confirmed the value of arts in education, espe- cially for at-risk students, who have limited access to cultural resources in their lives. Other PCAH publications regard- ing arts education can be found at www.pcah.gov.8 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTIONA subsection of the Platform specifically recommended creating an “Artists Corps” de-signed to bring artists into low-income schools and their communities. It is essential to understand both the challenges and the opportunities present in thecurrent state of the field if we are to reinvest effectively in arts education, and yet it has beenwell over a decade since the PCAH or any federal entity examined these issues in depth.2Therefore, the PCAH undertook an examination of the benefits of arts education and theneeds of underserved public schools across the country. This analysis is followed by a setof general recommendations for federal policymakers and other stakeholders to further thebenefits and reach of arts education in our nation’s schools that are consistent with Presi-dent Obama’s Arts Policy Platform and with Mrs. Obama’s determination to give all Ameri-can children access to the advantages that lead to success in life.Research and Deliberation ProcessThe PCAH has sought information over the past eighteen months from a variety of sourcesabout the best ways to expand arts opportunities for underserved schools. An independentconsultant and researcher was retained to guide the PCAH through this process, and also toreview existing studies and data in the field. The PCAH reviewed past federal efforts supporting employment of artists in schoolsand communities, from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to the ComprehensiveEmployment and Training Act (CETA) and evaluated seminal and recent research findingsabout arts education results and best practices.3 Simultaneously, working groups, focusgroups, and information-sharing conversations were held across the country, along withinterviews with stakeholders and experts from numerous fields. These included federalagencies, regional and state arts organizations, professional associations, advocacy groups,and local programs with innovative approaches to education, service, and the arts. The2 Although not wide-ranging in scope, studies from several federal agencies have looked at discrete aspects of arts educa-tion during this time, e.g. the National Assessment of Educational Progress’ study of 8th grade arts performance, the U.S.Government Accountability Office report on access to arts education, and most recently, the National Endowment forthe Arts analysis of the relationship between arts education and arts participation.3 Examples of past efforts are included in Appendix C, summaries of key studies in Appendix A, and descriptions of sam-ple model programs in Appendix b. reinvesting in arts education 9
  • INTRODUCTION PCAH has also conducted site visits to model arts programs around the country. While it was impossible to speak with everyone who had expertise in the field, the knowledge accu- mulated by the Committee was impressive, and represented a diverse range of viewpoints, perspectives, and experiences. Perspectives about the best way to meet the President’s charge evolved over the months of consultations and many of the PCAH’s initial assumptions were reinforced. Re- spondents repeatedly emphasized the value of a national platform for bringing visibility to the central role that arts can play in transforming teaching and learning. They agreed that this time of educational crisis and transformation is the optimal moment for the federal government to make a major statement about the value of bringing high quality arts teach- ing to more schools. Two themes emerged that the Committee found compelling. First was the diver- sity and dynamism of the different approaches to providing arts education flour- ishing in pockets of the country, often through the combined support and leadership from nonprofit community arts organizations, visionary school principals, private phi- lanthropy, and parent groups. Almost every community –– indeed, almost every school –– that tries to address the vexing challenge of how to get more arts into schools does so differently. A complex patchwork of arts education services across the country is the result,4 representing a mix of delivery models that includes standards-based sequen- tial arts curricula taught by arts specialists5; formal and informal arts integration strate- gies6; and short and long term teaching residencies for artists.7 It also involves a wide ar- ray of organizations, school and state officials whose roles and initiative vary from place to 4 Some even argue that the very complexity of arts education works against broad understanding of its value (Driver, 2010). 5 Art specialists (sometimes called arts education specialists) are professionals certified and qualified to teach in the various arts disciplines in the K-12 setting. Their preparation includes child development, pedagogy, and classroom management in addition to training in their art form. 6 Arts integration is the practice of using arts strategies to build skills and teach classroom subjects across different dis- ciplines, including reading, math, science, and social studies. In recent years, it has formed the basis for several success- ful school reform initiatives, and has generated a lot of enthusiasm from classroom teachers, school administrators and policy researchers for its ability to increase student engagement and overall learning. 7 Teaching artists are professional working artists who also teach in schools. They serve to both supplement uneven arts offerings and to provide short or long term instruction, bringing with them real world experiences and often project- based learning.10 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTIONplace. There is no one model that works best for every community, and no single solution forthe host of economic, pedagogic and logistical challenges faced by arts education advocates.However, in many cases, even in this difficult economy, some communities and schoolshave crafted arts education models that are working well for their students and deliveringimpressive results. We certainly learned that while national leadership and more federal re-sources for arts education are critically important, a singular new national program wouldnot necessarily be the most effective way to advance arts education. Many advised PCAHto bring visibility to and build on existing efforts to strengthen the quality of arts educationand extend their reach to serve more students. We were also cautioned not to unintention-ally undermine ongoing efforts designed to hire more arts specialists and implement se-quential arts curricula. The second theme was the need to address the persistent inequities in the distri-bution of arts education so that more students experience the benefits of arts-rich schoolenvironments. Recent analyses revealed that the schools with students who could mostbenefit from the documented advantages of arts strategies are often those that either donot recognize the benefits of arts education or do not have the resources to provide it to theirstudents. Current budgetary crises as well as the narrowing of curricula have forced someschools to curtail arts programs when they are most needed. This situation highlights thegrowing disparity between those who are able to take advantage of the benefits of arts edu-cation, and those who are not. The Committee has endeavored to bring into focus highlights from arts education re-search and approaches of the last decade, and to illustrate how schools and communitiesare successfully bringing arts into public schools in today’s economic and pedagogical cli-mate. This report includes a description of key findings about current critical educationneeds, the factors that are converging to create opportunities for bringing more arts intoschools, and the potential measurable benefits of arts initiatives. We also provide specificrecommendations for action. PCAH members have added their own formative educationalexperiences to the mix of ideas. Public school experiences with the arts changed the courseof the lives of many PCAH members, business people and government leaders as well aspracticing artists. We all share a passionate commitment to bringing the arts to under-served students and schools. reinvesting in arts education 11
  • INTRODUCTION12 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTION “The first step in winning the future is encouraging American innovation. None of us can predict with certainty what the next big industry will be or where the new jobs will come from. Thirty years ago, we couldn’t know that something called the Internet would lead to an economic revolution. What we can do –– what America does better than anyone else –– is spark the creativity and imagination of our people. But if we want to win the future then we also have to win the race to educate our kids… And so the question is whether all of us –– as citizens, and as parents ––are willing to do what’s necessary to give everyPhoto by don usner child a chance to succeed.” —President obama, State of the union address, January 25, 2011 reinvesting in arts education 13
  • 14 reinvesting in arts education
  • THe CaSe arts education OutcomesA REMARKAbLY CONSISTENT PICTURE of the value of the arts in a comprehensive PreK – grade 12 education emerges from a review of two decades of theory and policy recommendations about arts education. Over the past decade, the National Gover-nors Association, the Education Commission of the States, the National Association of Stateboards of Education, the SCANS Commission (Department of Labor), and the Council ofChief State School Officers8 ––professional groups with a broad education interest –– havebegun promoting the value of arts eduction using the same arguments as traditional artsadvocates such as the National Endowment for the Arts, the Arts Education Partnership, theNational Assembly of State Arts Agencies, and Americans for the Arts. Last year’s U.S.Conference of Mayors, which represents the mayors of over 1200 cities nationwide, urgedschool districts to use federal and state resources to provide direct instruction in the artsand integrate the arts with other core subjects.9 While there is support for the intrinsic value of developing cultural literacy and teach-8 See Appendix D, the bibliography, for references to reports from major task forces and national groups. Perhaps thestrongest evidence of broad education policy support for the place of arts education in the K-12 public education systemis represented in standards for the arts adopted by 48 states and arts requirements for high school graduation in place in40 states (Education Commission of the States; NASAA).9 USCM 2010 Resolutions section on Arts Education. reinvesting in arts education 15
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMES ing artistic skills and techniques, leadership groups typically emphasize instrumental out- comes derived from high quality arts education in one or more of the following categories: • Student achievement, typically as represented by reading and mathematics performance on high stakes tests, including transfer of skills learning from the arts to learning in other academic areas—for example, the spatial-temporal rea- soning skills developed by music instruction; • Student motivation and engagement, including improved attendance, persis- tence, focused attention, heightened educational aspirations, and intellectual risk taking; • Development of habits of mind including problem solving, critical and creative thinking, dealing with ambiguity and complexity, integration of multiple skill sets, and working with others; and • Development of social competencies, including collaboration and team work skills, social tolerance, and self-confidence. Each category of outcomes is composed of many distinct behaviors that have been described with a variety of labels and supported by findings from research studies and evaluations. below we highlight examples of landmark research findings and more recent evaluations related to the outcomes associated with arts education; refer to Appendix A for examples of the well-known studies and compilations of research that have been frequently cited as support for arts education. foundational Studies The Arts Education Partnership (AEP) has been instrumental in compiling research studies related to academic outcomes. Its initial research synthesis, Champions of Change (Fiske, 1999) reported seven correlative studies that show the pattern of linkage between high lev- els of arts participation and higher grades and test scores in math and reading. Included was the well-regarded Catterall study that first examined data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS)10 about the relationships between involvement in the arts and 10 The NELS data base included national data from 25,000 students over a ten year span.16 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMESacademic performance. The quantitative results (e.g., standardized test scores, academicgrades, and dropout rates) showed that the probability of having more arts experiences inschool was greater for economically advantaged students than for low-socioeconomic sta-tus students. However, students with high involvement in the arts, including minority andlow-income students, performed better in school and stayed in school longer than studentswith low involvement, the relative advantage increasing over the school years. Low-incomestudents involved in band and orchestra outscored others on the NELS math assessment;low-income students involved in drama showed greater reading proficiency and more posi-tive self-concept compared to those with little or no involvement. AEP followed up its original compilation of research with Critical Links: Learning inthe Arts and Student Academic and Social Development (Deasy, 2002) that reported on 62separate research studies, including several meta-analyses, many of which found transferof skills from the arts (visual arts, dance, drama, music, multi-arts) to learning in other sub-ject areas.11 Other studies report positive outcomes such as habits of mind, self-motivation,and social skills, including tolerance and empathy and positive peer interaction, from artsengagement. Two highly regarded studies are especially relevant to consider in light of the poten-tial of the arts to reduce dropout rates by increasing motivation and engagement in learn-ing. Long before afterschool programs became a national initiative, anthropologist Shirleybrice Heath studied non-school youth organizations in low-income neighborhoods. Herresearch showed that those students who were involved in arts education for at least ninehours a week were four times more likely to have high academic achievement and threetimes more likely to have high attendance (Heath, 1998). Heath’s findings are especiallycredible because she was not specifically studying arts education; the findings were an un-expected outcome of another investigation. Along the same lines, education researcherMilbrey McLaughlin, while conducting a longitudinal study of the lives of youth in low-in-come neighborhoods found that those who participated in arts programs were more likelyto be high academic achievers, be elected to class office, and participate in a math or sciencefair (McLaughlin, 2000).11 The document includes studies connecting arts to basic reading skills, literacy and language development, writing,mathematics, and science. reinvesting in arts education 17
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMES Recent evaluation findings The studies cited above have long formed the core arguments used by advocates to make the case for arts education. Some of the foundational research about the outcomes of arts edu- cation was later questioned as merely descriptive in nature and lacking in adequate analy- sis of the features of the arts education treatment responsible for outcomes.12 However, recently there have been a number of developments, including updates of earlier studies, application of techniques used in brain research to understand more about how learning in the arts affects the brain, and mounting evidence about the school-wide effects of arts integration. Longitudinal follow-up. In 2009, James Catterall was able to follow the original co- hort of NELS students into their mid-twenties and found the persistence of strong connec- tions between arts learning in earlier years and overall academic success (“doing well”) and pro-social outcomes (“doing good”). The advantages in performance of the arts-involved students relative to other students have increased over time. Most strikingly, arts-engaged low-income students are more likely than their non-arts-engaged peers to have attended and done well in college, obtained employment with a future, volunteered in their commu- nities and participated in the political process by voting. In the many types of comparisons that Catterall tracks, arts-engaged low-income students tend to perform more like average higher-income students. Catterall’s research continues to suggest that the role of arts in de- veloping competency may be especially important for students who otherwise feel isolated or excluded, e.g., English learners. The findings are compelling because it is rare in educa- tion research to encounter the longitudinal comparisons with such sizeable differences across groups (Catterall, 2009). Several studies have associated student engagement in school and motivation for learning with arts participation. A U. S. Department of Justice study reported participation in arts programming led to decreased delinquency and drug use, increased self-esteem, and 12 In the year 2000, an article in The Journal of Aesthetic Education generated controversy among arts education advo- cates when it urged caution about making instrumental claims based on correlational rather than causal links between arts education and learning outcomes. The article set the stage for more clarity in reporting arts outcomes and sparked interest in more in-depth research. In 2004, the Arts Education Partnership developed a research agenda to invite re- searchers from a variety of disciplines to study the complex cognitive developments involved in the arts and their impli- cations for education.18 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMESmore positive interactions with peers and adults. Students who experience success in artsappreciate the results of effort and persistence, and are more motivated to apply themselvesto other learning tasks (Israel, D., 2009). In a study released last year, Dallas’ Big Thoughtprogram found that sustained engagement in a fine arts discipline gave high school stu-dents a substantial advantage in reading achievement when compared to students who tookfewer arts courses, and that all students who participated in clubs or groups that focusedon creative activities had an advantage in reading and math achievement (bransom etal., 2010). Evidence for arts integration. The documented benefits of arts integration have alsobeen accumulating over the past decade, although only recently have researchers begun tounderstand why arts integration may hold unique potential as an educational reform model.While the term arts integration takes on different meanings to different people, it can beloosely defined as teaching “through” and “with” the arts, creating relationships betweendifferent arts disciplines and other classroom skills and subjects (burnaford, 2007). In re-cent years, it has formed the basis for several successful school reform initiatives, and hasgenerated a lot of enthusiasm from classroom teachers, school administrators and policyresearchers for its ability to produce results. Studies have now documented significantlinks between arts integration models and academic and social outcomes for students, ef-ficacy for teachers, and school-wide improvements in culture and climate. Arts integrationis efficient, addressing a number of outcomes at the same time. Most important, the great-est gains in schools with arts integration are often seen school-wide and also with the mosthard-to-reach and economically disadvantaged students. Earlier studies about the benefits of arts integration (Fiske, 1999) reported that artsintegration approaches were successful in producing better attendance and fewer disci-pline problems, increased graduation rates, and improved test scores; motivating studentswho were difficult to reach otherwise; and providing challenges to more academically suc-cessful students. Studies from Minnesota (Ingram and Reidel, 2003; DeMoss and Morris,2006) demonstrated particular benefits from arts integration for economically disadvan-taged students and English learners in the form of reading achievement gains—not surpris-ing given the similarities between effective language instruction techniques and visual artsand theater skills. reinvesting in arts education 19
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMES School-wide achievement gains have been observed when arts integration has been applied as a school reform and improvement strategy. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has noted his positive experience with arts in the Chicago Public Schools, a centerpiece of which is the Chicago Arts Partnership in Education (CAPE).13 The 19 Chicago elementary schools operating the CAPE arts integration model showed consistently higher average scores on the district’s reading and mathematics assessments over a six year period when compared to all district elementary schools (Catterall and Waldorf, 1999). Moreover, in the CAPE schools there were associated positive changes in school climate, e.g., leadership, fo- cus on instruction, teacher colleagueship, and participation in decision making. CAPE researchers also began tackling questions about how arts integration supports student engagement in learning (DeMoss and Morris, 2002). Compared to traditional in- structional experiences, arts-integrated units consistently engaged students in complex an- alytical cognitive activity, including those students who struggle with academic tasks. Stu- dents who were learning through arts-integrated units expressed no feelings of boredom or discouragement with the learning methods and showed interest in independent learning. After working through the non-arts units, students often self-described as dis- couraged; after arts-integrated units students demonstrated increased interest in the sub- ject matter. Probably the most extensive and systematic study of the benefits of arts integration is associated with North Carolina’s network of A+ Schools (which now have been established also in Oklahoma and Arkansas). A+ Schools are a comprehensive education reform model that is based on using arts-integrated instruction, incorporating Gardner’s theory of mul- tiple intelligences, recent brain research findings, and dance, drama, music, visual art, and creative writing. More than twelve years of research about the A+ Schools in North Caroli- na tracked consistent gains in student achievement, the schools’ engagement of parents and community, and other measures of learning and success. Most notably, the A+ Schools with higher proportions of disadvantaged and minority students performed as well on statewide 13 While we highlight here CAPE because of its associated research, there are other notable programs in Chicago that bring arts into the public schools. One good example is Project AIM, the Center for Community Arts Partnership’s arts integration project which brings teaching artists into classrooms to work with students and teachers. Another major provider is the 50 year old Urban Gateways program, which has focused a number of its programs on arts integration with promising results.20 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMESreading and mathematics assessments as students from more advantaged schools. This isdoubly impressive considering that while other schools have focused on basic skills in re-sponse to high stakes testing, the A+ Schools have been able to achieve reading and math-ematics gains on statewide accountability tests without narrowing the curriculum (Corbitt,McKenney, Noblit, and Wilson, 2001). An evaluation of Oklahoma’s A+ Schools underscores the school-wide value of artsintegration. The study found significant differences in students’ attitudes (more likely tofind school challenging, interesting, and enjoyable) in schools where the A+ model was em-bedded in school policy and daily instructional practice—in contrast to schools where artsintegration was treated as an add-on. The Oklahoma state report card’s Academic Perfor-mance Index data show statistically significant advantages for A+ students compared to stateand district averages; this is true even though, as in North Carolina, the Oklahoma A+ schoolstypically serve higher percentages of minority and economically disadvantaged students(barry, 2010). Last year, a Montgomery County, Maryland study with a rigorous evaluation designprovided a more fine-grained look at the results of arts integration; the study comparedthree arts integration-focused schools (AIMS) to three control schools over a three year pe-riod. During that time AIMS schools substantially reduced the achievement gap betweenhigh-poverty minority students and other students. The AIMS school with the highestpercentage of minority and low-income students reduced the reading gap by 14 percent-age points and the math gap by 26 percentage points over a three year period. In thecomparison schools, the number of proficient students actually decreased by 4.5% over thesame time period (RealVisions, 2007). The AIMS schools with the lowest number of pro-ficient students in reading and mathematics at the outset of the study experienced a 23%increase in the number scoring proficient over a three year period. The Montgomery County evaluation also closely tracked the experiences of classroomteachers as they learned how to integrate the arts. Almost all teachers (79%) agreed thatthey had “totally changed their teaching” and (94%) that they had gained “additional waysof teaching critical thinking skills.” Montgomery County’s arts integration results prompt-ed the Maryland State Department of Education to invest in tracking arts integration and reinvesting in arts education 21
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMES developing assessments of arts learning (ExCLAIMS, 2010).14 Brain research. In just the last five years, researchers have begun to tackle the ques- tion of arts education’s benefits with a scientific approach, probing the ways in which spe- cific practices within arts disciplines influence learning and skill transfer. The field of neu- roscience in particular is beginning to unpack the complex ways that certain types of arts experiences affect cognitive development—research that will have major implications for the field of education, including helping to shape arts experiences for maximum benefit to students. Through the leadership of the Dana Foundation, which supports brain research, cog- nitive neuroscientists in seven universities have undertaken formal studies of the connec- tions between arts training and academic performance using advanced techniques includ- ing brain imaging (Asbury & Rich, 2008). Increasingly, researchers are finding evidence that early arts education is a building block of developing brain function. Examples of find- ings, some of which corroborate earlier findings, include: • Music training is closely correlated with development of phonological aware- ness ––one of the most important predictors of early reading skills.15 • Children who were motivated to practice a specific art form developed improved attention and also improved general intelligence. Training of attention and focus leads to improvement in other cognitive domains. • Links have been found between high levels of music training and the ability to manipulate information in both working memory and long-term memory. Outcomes from arts integration in particular have intrigued neuro-scientists in address- ing the question of transfer of learning in other subjects. Neuro-Ed Initiative researchers at Johns Hopkins hypothesize that arts integration, which emphasizes repetition of infor- 14 While delivering impressive outcomes for students, arts integration also shows great promise as a method to involve and engage a community in arts education. In Dallas, Big Thought has demonstrated how arts integration can be the catalyst for linking schools, community partners, families, and funders around a learning system coordinated in and out of school. As a result, the Dallas school district has been able to provide visual art and music for every elementary stu- dent in the district every week while also increasing out-of-school arts opportunities for thousands of students. 15 Phonological awareness is correlated with music training and the development of a specific brain pathway. Phonologi- cal awareness, the ability to hear and produce separate sounds, has been found to be important in helping children learn to read words and to spell (National Reading Panel, 2000).22 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE CASE: ARTS EDUCATION OUTCOMESmation in multiple ways, provides the advantage of embedding knowledge in long-termmemory. The brain prioritizes emotionally-tinged information (again, a possible additionaladvantage for learning through music or theater, for example) for conversion to long-termmemory. The rehearsal and repetition of information embedded in multiple domains maycause an actual change in the physical structure of neurons (Rudacliffe, 2010). The ini-tiative is one of several research projects that are looking more systematically at how artsinstruction supports learning transfer. Such scientific research may also help to uncoverthe reasons for the observations that many teachers have made about how students learndifferently—some seem to learn best kinesthetically, others respond best to visual or auralapproaches. beyond arts-specific research, education researchers have produced rigorous studiesand meta-analyses that have begun to illuminate the workings of complex learning process-es in other content areas. Studies that are not specifically about arts education have identi-fied types of learning experiences that have implications for arts education. For example,reading researchers have found that visualization can produce significant gains in readingcomprehension (Shanahan, et al., 2010). Visualization means that children can create men-tal images as they read—clearly a skill that could be supported by helping students draw orpaint pictures or demonstrate with movement or acting what they imagine from a story. reinvesting in arts education 23
  • INTRODUCTION “ Nothing –– nothing –– is more important in the long- run to American prosperity than boosting the skills and attainment of the nation’s students. . . Closing the achievement gap and closing the opportunity gap is the civil rights issue of our generation. One quarter of U.S. high school students drop out or fail to graduate on time. Almost one million students leave our schools for the streets each year. That is economically unsustainable and morally unacceptable.” —u. S. Secretary of education arne duncan Photo by don usner24 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTIONreinvesting in arts education 25
  • INTRODUCTION26 reinvesting in arts education
  • THe neeD education System in CrisisT HE URGENCY FOR MAJOR education reform expressed by Sec- retary of Education Duncan has been echoed by President barack Obama and leaders in all sectors. It is widely agreed that the U.S. public education system is not adequately serving a significantportion of our nation’s children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically toachieve the Administration’s goal that the United States become a global leader in post-secondary attainment by 2020. School leaders and teachers will need to step up to the chal-lenge of finding new ways to engage many more students in meaningful learning to meet thegoal at a time when schools are grappling to reach a broadly culturally diverse student bodyand figure out how to harness information technologies to reshape learning.Dropout RatesThe most obvious expression of education failure is the alarming national high schooldropout rate, which continues in the face of evidence about the severe detrimental conse-quences in earning power associated with leaving school before graduation.16 The national16 In 2007, the median income of persons who had not completed high school was $24,000 compared to $40,000 for thosewho completed high school, including those with GED certificates (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). reinvesting in arts education 27
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISIS dropout rate has fluctuated between 25-30% since 2001, and for some demographic groups and geographic areas, the statistics are far worse. by some estimates, approximately 50% of male students from disadvantaged minority groups leave school before graduation (EPE Research Center, 2010; Swanson, 2009). An estimated 2 million students attend a high school in which fewer than 50% of students graduate—schools that have come to be known as “dropout factories” (balfanz, 2010). In recognition of the seriousness of the current situ- ation in education, the National Conference of State Legislators has included improvement in dropout rates and student achievement as one of its top issues for 2011. The recent small up-turn in graduation rate (to 75% in 2008 after several straight years of decline) provides a glimmer of hope that policy changes can reverse a negative trend.17 Studies about the reasons for these trends provide a remarkably consistent picture: students report being bored, almost half saying that classes are not interesting (this is true even of those with high grades who drop out), and over two-thirds say they are not inspired to work hard and that too little was expected of them (bridgeland et al., 2006). Students show the signs of risk for dropping out as early as sixth grade in the form of high rates of ab- senteeism, low levels of student engagement, failing grades, and disruptive behaviors (Child Trends Databank, 2010; Pytel, 2008). need for new Skill Sets The dropout statistics are distressing, but policymakers and business leaders are also very concerned about the skills level of students who do graduate from high school. The nar- row focus on only teaching the basics clearly has not been the answer. Many high school graduates lack the skills to make them successful in post-secondary education and later in the workforce. These are sometimes referred to as 21st Century Skills, or habits of mind, and include problem solving, critical and creative thinking, dealing with ambiguity and complexity, integration of multiple skill sets, and the ability to perform cross-disciplinary work. 17 The year 2008 is the most recent year for which national data are available. The projection is for approximately 1.3 million dropouts from the class of 2010 (EPE Research Center, 2010). America’s Promise Alliance calculates that the nation will need a fivefold increase in graduation rates from those achieved in the past six years to achieve the President’s 90% goal by 2020.28 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISIS Leaders worry that the United States is losing its competitive edge in creativity andinnovation, and that the call for ever more rigorous academic standards is insufficient with-out a concomitant focus on developing creativity and imagination. The recent financialcrisis has focused an unprecedented amount of attention to the changing demands on theworkforce to maintain global competitiveness. Numerous and varied national task forceshave produced reports about the need to reform schooling to develop those critical skills: • In Are They Really Ready to Work, the Conference board, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and others noted that employers are placing value not just on ba- sic but also applied skills, such as problem solving, collaboration and creativity, as critical for success in the workplace (Conference board, 2006). • A July 2010 Newsweek cover story titled “The Creativity Crisis” drew attention to a growing creativity gap based on the significant decline in tested creativity scores of American students over the past twenty years. The report looked at al- most 300,000 Torrance test scores in children and adults, and noted that down- ward scores are more pronounced in younger children in America, from kinder- garten through eighth grade.18 • In Tough Choices or Tough Times, the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce calls for rethinking schooling so that America does not lose its place in the global economy (New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce, 2006).The implications for educators are daunting. They must find ways to reach and motivatemore students and, at the same time, teach more challenging content and 21st CenturySkills. The expectation is that they must create an exciting climate of relevant learningtasks for students who are increasingly turning to digital devices and not teachers, texts, oreach other for learning new information and expressing ideas. For teachers and principalswho continue to be constrained by rigid curricula, the pressures of standardized testing andever-increasing budget cuts, the demands seem overwhelming.18 The report also drew attention to the lack of nurturing of creativity in the U.S. as compared to other countries (e.g.,Great britain, members of the European Union, and China), which are now making efforts to infuse curriculum andteaching practice with idea generation, problem-based learning, real world inquiry, and innovation (bronson & Merry-man, 2010). reinvesting in arts education 29
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISIS The nation’s governors, school boards, and even professional teacher unions have be- gun to re-think the structure and governance of schools, the content students should learn, and how best to prepare and support teachers for accelerated demands.19 This reform ef- fort is qualitatively different from the school improvements of recent decades. Reformers are calling now for transformation of learning, that is, fundamental change in what and how students learn. The magnitude of the changes envisioned will require commitment and participation from all sectors of American life. Decline of arts in Schools As detailed in the preceding section, there is growing consensus, and increasing data, about the potential for arts in schools to be a force for positive change in this transformation.20 Yet, paradoxically, the nation’s public schools are on a downward trend in terms of provid- ing students meaningful access to the arts. Some statistics suggest that fewer than half of adults report having participated in arts lessons or classes in school—a decline from about 65% in the 1980s. The decline follows years of steady increases in reported participation between the 1930s and the 1980s.21 The declines pose concern for the health of the nation’s arts economy since arts education is the strongest predictor of almost all types of arts par- ticipation. (Rabkin and Hedberg, 2011). There is great stress now on arts programs as school boards around the country wres- tle with budget woes, faced with the question of whether they can afford to preserve arts offerings—let alone expand what they have traditionally provided. Tight school budgets are a major problem but some also blame the narrowing of the curriculum as a result of emphasis on accountability for basic skills. A study by the Center on Education Policy re- ported decreased arts education instruction time in 30% of school districts with at least one 19 The U. S. Department of Education’s eagerly sought-after Race to the Top state grants required applicants to give as- surances of state-level actions toward higher content standards for K-12 learning, preparation and professional devel- opment to assure quality teachers, an increased number of charter schools and other alternative governance models. 20 The section on Case: Arts Education Outcomes describes the evidence for the effects of arts education and arts inte- gration on valued outcomes such as student motivation, academic performance, and teacher efficacy. Appendix A details specific studies. 21 Rabkin reached this conclusion after reviewing the data from the Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts between 1982 and 2008.30 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISISunderperforming elementary school22 (McMurrer, 2007). It is difficult to get an accurate current picture of arts offerings because there is noconsistent required data collection about what schools offer or how students are achievingin the arts. 23 During the research phase, almost all of the state arts agencies representativeswhom we convened reported cutbacks in their arts education budgets and the arts educa-tion residencies they offer in schools as a result of overall budget reductions. Such residen-cies may have been the students’ only contacts with working artists; most states have eitherdrastically reduced the number of schools that can host residencies, eliminated them en-tirely, or reduced the scope of residencies.24 A few states have conducted surveys to determine local arts offerings. Recent resultsfrom a survey in Washington State show that 33% of elementary students receive less thanone hour a week on the average of arts instruction, and almost 10% offer no formal arts in-struction at all. Sixty-three percent of principals are dissatisfied with the amount of artseducation in their schools (Arts Education Research Initiative, 2009). Other states’ surveysadd to this picture of constraints. Ohio reported an increase in the percent of districts inwhich students receive less than an hour per week of visual arts and music instruction and adecrease in every form of support for professional development for arts education teachers(Ohio Alliance for Arts Education).25 Moreover, in this climate of heightened accountabil-ity, some believe that schools will give instructional time only to subjects that are includedin high stakes testing. While almost all states have arts standards, fewer than a third haverequired arts assessments—so there is scant opportunity to demonstrate student learningin the arts.22Districts participating had at least one elementary school that had been identified as not meeting adequate yearlyprogress under the No Child Left behind Act.23 A forthcoming report from the Department of Education’s National Center on Education Statistics (NCES) willprovide a snapshot of the availability of arts instruction in elementary and secondary schools and the availability of artsspecialists to teach arts classes. Future reports from NCES will provide findings on additional indicators about the sta-tus of arts education and changes over the past decade.24 Many state arts agencies have experienced dramatic budget reductions. The Florida state agency, for example, hasless than $1 million for all state arts activities, including arts education, down from a high of $39 million. The Michiganstate arts agency had a $29 million budget for grants in 2002 and now has $2 million for the entire state.25 Ohio has recently conducted a new survey; preliminary results show that the majority of high schools and almost allmiddle schools do not offer theater and that only a few schools offer dance. Over 80% of classroom teachers report re-ceiving no professional development in the arts. Arts-related field trips have declined and over one-third of schools havenot had an arts related assembly in three years. reinvesting in arts education 31
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISIS Inequity in arts Opportunities Even in places where arts education funding continues at some level, the opportunities are not equitably distributed among schools and the students they serve. There is increasing evidence that the students in schools that are most challenged and serving the highest need student populations often have the fewest arts opportunities. While this pattern is similar to the pattern of inequities associated with other education resources, in practice it means that the students who could benefit most from the increased motivation and life/workforce skills fostered by engagement with the arts in school are the least likely to have the oppor- tunity. In response to Congressional request, the U.S. Government Accountability Office conducted a survey of access to arts education and found that there was a significant dif- ference among the percent of teachers reporting decreased time spent on arts education. In schools identified as needing improvement and/or with higher percentages of minority students, teachers were much more likely to report a reduction in time spent in arts instruc- tion (GAO, 2009). Of great concern, respondents to a survey of arts participation from some minority groups (African American and Latino) are only half as likely to report having had arts lessons or classes in school as others.26 The declines in childhood arts education since the 1980s for those groups are substantial—49 percent for African American and 40 percent for Latino children (Rabkin and Hedberg, 2011). When arts achievement has been measured, the results bear out system inequities. In the 2008 National Assessment of Educational Progress in the Arts, focusing on music and visual arts, students from lower income families, African America and Hispanic students, and students in urban schools scored significantly lower than their counterparts in the skills assessment (Keiper et.al., 2009). Very telling is a recent study of New York City high schools, which compared arts re- sources in schools grouped by graduation rate. Schools in the bottom third in graduation rates (less than 50% graduation rate) offered the least access to arts education—fewer certi- fied arts teachers per student, fewer dedicated arts spaces, fewer arts and culture partner- ships, and so forth. The report concludes that “in New York City, the cultural capital of the 26Rabkin reached this conclusion after reviewing the data from the Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts between 1982 and 2008.32 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE NEED: EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CRISISworld, public school students do not enjoy equal access to an arts education. . . Where thearts could have the greatest impact, students have the least opportunity to participate inarts learning” (Center for Arts Education, 2009). In California, a study by SRI International of the statewide arts education picturefound a similar pattern. While California’s Education Code calls for all schools to offercourses for students in four arts disciplines, almost one-third offered no courses in any artsdiscipline. When arts education was offered, there were significant differences by socio-economic status; only 25% of students in high poverty settings had music compared to 45%in low poverty. Similar patterns were found in other disciplines. The most frequently citedreason for the lack of arts education opportunity was inadequate funding followed by a fo-cus on improving test scores (Center for Education Policy, SRI International, n.d.). The results of the New York City and California studies are especially distressing butthey were completed before the most recent waves of funding cutbacks that schools faced in2010. The situation is undoubtedly bleaker now. reinvesting in arts education 33
  • INTRODUCTION34 reinvesting in arts education
  • “ ...the nation’s leadership in technology and innovation depends on a ‘deep vein of creativity’ and people who can …write books, build furniture, make movies, and imagine new kinds of software that will capture people’s imagination...” —Tough Choices or Tough Times, National Center on the education and the economyPhoto by Keelan Wackman reinvesting in arts education 35
  • 36 reinvesting in arts education
  • THe OPPORTUnITY Point of InflectionW HILE THE OVERALL PICTURE can appear bleak, in recent years several factors have converged to build a strong case for scaling up arts education opportuni- ties to reach more students—one that is supported byeducators, business leaders, parents, artists, and members of the general public, and whichwould be successful in meeting important educational outcomes. These factors include: • new allies interested in developing students’ creativity and problem solving skills—skills that are directly supported by arts education; • increased interest in the potential of arts integration as a way to bring arts to more young people and achieve other benefits as well; • a developing community of teaching artists who are eager to serve in education in a systematic and dynamic way; and • a critical mass of successful arts education approaches and models, includ- ing arts integration models, that can serve as the foundation for reaching more schools.Understanding more about these factors is critical for appreciating the timeliness of astepped up national effort to bring more arts into public schools. reinvesting in arts education 37
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTION new allies in Creativity National task force reports increasingly link the benefits of arts education to the changing demands on the workforce in the knowledge economy (National Governors Association, 2001; National Center on Education and the Economy, 2006; Conference board, 2006). Last year’s IBM 2010 Global CEO survey found that CEOs in 60 countries believe creativity is the most important leadership quality and that creativity helps employees capitalize on complexity (IbM, 2010). A recent study by the Conference board reports that employers rate creativity and innovation among the top five important skills for workers and believe that the most essential skills for demonstrating creativity are the ability to identify new pat- terns of behavior or new combinations of actions and integrate knowledge across different disciplines. The same employers rank arts study as the second most important indicator of a potential creative worker, second only to a track record in entrepreneurship (Lichtenberg et al., 2008). Professional graduate school programs are increasingly recognizing the role of the arts in developing advanced workforce skills. At least 40 MbA programs now fea- ture design courses. Design courses develop a competitive advantage in the marketplace; innovative design combines aesthetics with environmental sensitivity, skill in creating and manipulating symbols and sounds, ergonomics and an understanding of consumer prefer- ence (NASAA, n.d.). The European Union (EU) has recognized the critical importance of creativity in edu- cation. As part of the European Year of Creativity in 2009, teachers in the 27 member coun- tries were surveyed about their perspectives. Over 95% of teacher respondents believe that creativity is a fundamental competence to be developed in school and is applicable to all subject areas. Sixty percent of EU teachers indicated they had received training in innova- tive pedagogies and 40% directly in creativity (Quintin, 2009).27 While the arts certainly do not have a monopoly on development of creativity, the ap- proaches used in teaching the arts are very compatible with the development of balance among the three types of abilities associated with creativity as described in a well-known theory of creativity development: 27 Writing in the New York Times, Thomas Freidman recently described the U.S. Education Department as the “epicen- ter of national security,” noting that we have been “out-educated” now for years. He goes on to quote the author of The Global Achievement Gap about the new basic skills that students need for the knowledge economy: the ability to do criti- cal thinking and problem-solving; the ability to communicate effectively; and the ability to collaborate (Wagner, 2008).38 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTION • synthetic ability or generating new and novel ideas; • analytic ability or critical thinking which involves choosing which ideas to pur- sue; and • practical ability or translating ideas into action (Sternberg & Williams, 1996). In Sternberg & Williams’ theory of creativity, it is easy to see the place for arts skill develop-ment, the value of practice, and the importance of models of excellence. It is also evidentthat many different types of arts education approaches—standards-based, arts integration,teaching artists, arts specialists—could develop those creative abilities. Other popular pro-ponents of enhancing creativity in learners such as Sir Ken Robinson and Daniel Pink iden-tify similar concepts using labels even more akin to arts learning, i.e., Pink’s terminology ofsymphony, story, design, play, meaning, and empathy.The Promise of arts IntegrationDuring the research phase, we encountered great enthusiasm for supporting and expandingarts integration. Arts integration is the practice of using arts strategies to build skills andteach classroom subjects across different disciplines. When implemented effectively andwith rigor, students receive both high quality arts instruction and subject matter instruc-tion in reading, math, science and other subjects within an integrated lesson plan. As we’vediscovered in the field and in the news lately, the possibilities for learning other subjectsthrough the arts are limitless: young English learners practice English adverbs by followingthe directions of a dance instructor; algebra teachers help students create digital designsthat demonstrate their understanding of mathematical relationships; and middle schoolstudents create and play musical instruments in the process of learning about sound andwave forms. The excitement about arts integration has several roots: • the mounting evidence from well-known arts integration models, e.g., A+ Schools, of gains in achievement as well as positive changes in school climate and teacher collaboration (as detailed in a previous section of this report); • the potential contribution to the overall improvement of teaching, including augmenting teachers’ skills in problem-centered, project-based and inquiry-ori- reinvesting in arts education 39
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTION ented learning; performance assessment; and cross-disciplinary work with real world application; • the compatibility of arts integration methods with newer research findings about learning, including personalization; repetition and reinforcement through mul- tiple modalities; fluency with symbol systems; and the continuum of stages from concrete to representational to abstract; and • the possibility of augmenting curricular offerings in an efficient and cost-effec- tive manner. There are many existing arts integration efforts around the country that could be strength- ened and expanded to serve as models for other communities. Since 2002, the federal gov- ernment has invested in arts integration programs through the Department of Education’s Arts in Education – Model Development and Dissemination grants program. The program has always required formal documentation and evaluation of the strategies programs used to integrate the arts into elementary and middle school curricula. This year, the results of what has been learned about effective strategies in arts integration from the grants will be made public. The field has eagerly awaited the results of the evaluation synthesis, and its release will likely stimulate even greater interest in the techniques and outcomes of arts in- tegration. Professional development for classroom teachers, arts specialists and teaching artists is crucial to an effective arts integration program. There are a number of model programs that have developed highly regarded training programs in arts integration for teaching art- ists, classroom teachers, and school administrators over the past decade. During the re- search phase, staff from the Arts Education in Maryland Schools Alliance (AMES) shared information from the arts integration training sequences they use to meet the growing de- mand from classroom teachers and teaching artists for more training. STUDIO in a School, the A+ Schools, and many organizations across the country have also been refining profes- sional development in this area, in different disciplines, for a number of years. At a recent philanthropy forum on arts education, panelists discussed the value of arts integration as “the most significant innovation in the field over the last two decades…” and noted the potential openness of school administrators to arts integration as the most40 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTIONfeasible way to increase the arts opportunities available to students. However, they alsorecognized the need for further development of arts integration: more clarity about the di-mensions of quality, attention to developing systematic approaches to implementation, andsharing of best practices (McCann, 2010).Teaching artists as an Underutilized ResourceOver the course of our research, we also came to appreciate the potential and desire of work-ing artists to serve their communities as teaching artists. Many leaders in the field of artseducation pointed to the value of teaching artists, especially as part of long-term residencies,and we found that teaching artists are essential to many model arts education programs.28Teaching artists are “hybrid professionals,” working artists who are experts in their fieldsand who also teach arts skills and lead arts integration projects. They have long had an im-portant place in the arts education delivery system, but have been limited by insufficientresources to work long term and systemically, a lack of information and structure in theprofession, and inconsistent training and certification. However, they have the potential toplay a much stronger role in the future in expanding arts opportunities for more students. Teaching artists perform a function different from art specialists. Typically, art spe-cialists are charged with delivering a systematic curriculum geared to state standards,usually through a sequence of prescribed courses. Teaching artists are usually focused onproject-based learning activities that engage students, e.g., creating a student ensemble orproducing a play, and they work as partners with classroom teachers to plan and deliverlessons that integrate the arts, e.g., bringing visual arts and music into the study of worldcultures. They may supplement uneven arts offerings, especially in specialty areas suchas dance and theater. Most importantly, teaching artists introduce students to the life of aworking artist, often serving as role models for aspiring young artists, and connect studentsand schools to community resources. New evidence suggests that there is a large national pool of professional artists who areeager to serve as teaching artists. Education programs such as Music National Service thathave recruited teaching artists for new programs have attracted as many as one hundred28 See Appendix b for descriptions of model programs that rely on teaching artists. reinvesting in arts education 41
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTION candidates for any available position.29 Established programs such as STUDIO in a School and Urban Gateways also report that they are able to be highly selective because there are many more professional artists interested in teaching than the amount of available fund- ing. For years, state arts agencies have recruited professional artists to maintain rosters of artists interested in teaching. Unfortunately, with state budgetary crises affecting both arts and education, support for school artist residencies has been reduced in many states. The results of a recent national survey of teaching artists30 show that professional art- ists are drawn to teaching as a way to pass on the enthusiasm for their art form to young students. Teaching artists see their roles as providing positive role models for students, partnering and team teaching with classroom teachers, and reaching hard-to-engage stu- dents. As a bonus, almost all indicate that their teaching has had a positive effect on their own art. Most (71%) reported teaching part-time, averaging one full day of teaching per week while almost all (96%) continue working as professional artists. Almost all (84%) said they would take on more teaching if work was available. Teaching artists are clearly a critical part of the solution for meeting the goal of ex- panding high quality arts experiences in underserved schools through extended placements. Long engagements allow teaching artists to fully integrate in schools and work in a systemic way. They have the time to develop curriculum, build relationships with students, and part- ner with art specialists and classroom teachers. To be effective in these complex and de- manding roles, they can’t just “parachute in and then leave,” in the words of one stakeholder. Expanding opportunities for teaching artists would require attention to preparation and ongoing support since teaching artists have not necessarily been trained in education methods. Some model programs have already developed extensive professional develop- ment programs for teaching artists that include mentoring and coaching along with formal course work and workshops. Interest has emerged in formal certification of teaching artists from some arts managers and universities, and there are currently certification programs in a few regions. For example, The Philadelphia Arts in Education Partnership, in collabora- tion with the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, has designed a research-based certificate 29 Information provided to PCAH by Kiff Gallagher, Founder of Music National Service at 4/1/10 meeting. 30Preliminary analyses from national survey of teaching artists and interviews with arts managers in study being con- ducted by Nick Rabkin of NORC, University of Chicago.42 reinvesting in arts education
  • THE OPPORTUNITY: POINT OF INFLECTIONprogram for teaching artists who work with classroom teachers and arts specialists in resi-dency programs.building on best PracticesAt this point in time when the need for transformation of education is great, we are fortu-nate that a critical mass of research evidence about arts outcomes and the effects of artsintegration has accumulated; exemplary arts programs exist around the country as sourcesof best practices and practical advice; and experts are ready to support the scaling up of artsintegration and other approaches. In 2009, Harvard’s Project Zero researchers concluded a study documenting the ele-ments necessary to ensure that arts experiences in and out of school are vital and excellent,ensuring that investments in arts education pay off for students and teachers. The resultis a set of tools for examining quality, reflecting on critical decisions that affect quality, andanalyzing the alignment among decision makers needed to sustain high quality programs(Seidel et al., 2009). Programs that can serve as partners and models have emerged from many disparateforces, including the efforts of forward-looking parents, nonprofit arts organizations, teach-ing artists, and school leaders. See Appendix b for a listing and description of examples ofmodels. During the research phase, several organizations offered tools they had found help-ful. Examples are the criteria that the National Guild for Community Arts Education usesto judge the strength of school-community partnerships and the performance criteria andprocesses used by Young Audiences to evaluate teaching artists. The time is ripe, the building blocks are in place in the form of model programs, and thelessons have been learned in the areas necessary to scale up arts education. With a broadarray of arts education models to build on, and the lessons from successful endeavors likeTeach For America that have activated America’s best and brightest to dedicate themselvesto educational service, we can see that now there is truly an opportunity to take advantage ofthe arts to achieve significant and lasting benefits for students, teachers, and schools. reinvesting in arts education 43
  • INTRODUCTION “ Our future as an innovative country depends on ensuring that everyone has access to the arts and to cultural opportunity . . . But the intersection of creativity and commerce is about more than economic stimulus, it’s also about who we are as people. The President and I want to ensure that all children have access to great works of art at museums. We want them to have access to great poets and musicians in theaters around the country, to arts education in their schools and community workshops.” —Michelle obama Photo by ecole de Musique dessaix-Baptiste44 reinvesting in arts education
  • INTRODUCTIONreinvesting in arts education 45
  • INTRODUCTION46 reinvesting in arts education
  • COnCLUSIOn anD ReCOMMenDaTIOnS a Vision of arts-Rich SchoolsT HE PCAH HAS bEEN CONTINUALLY IMPRESSED and inspired over the past year by the impact that arts education is having on stu- dents all over this country, and by the near-heroic efforts of many principals, school superintendents, community arts organizations,arts specialists, classroom teachers and teaching artists to enrich their schools with thearts, even in the face of tremendous challenges. As President Obama said in his campaignplatform, now is the time to reinvest in arts education. Now more than ever we need solu-tions that keep students excited, motivated and in school, and we must provide them withthe tools to succeed in the workforce after they graduate. PCAH members reviewed a range of arts education programs, consulted with policy-makers and expert practitioners, and deliberated about the best ways to bring coherence andadd value to the national patchwork of current arts education activities. PCAH recognizedearly on that advancing arts education would entail engaging many stakeholders who areinvested in their own missions and priorities. business, government, educators, and the artscommunity all have a role to place in expanding students’ access to quality arts education.based on what we learned, the PCAH offers recommendations for actions targeted to differ-ent stakeholders. The five recommendations are intended to clarify the position of the arts reinvesting in arts education 47
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS in education, focus efforts to expand arts education offerings, especially to under-served students and communities, and strengthen the evidence base for high quality arts education. The PCAH works from two baseline principles in making these recommendations. First, the arts are a vital part of the culture and life of this country, and all students deserve access to the arts in school as part of a complete education. Just as science and social stud- ies are deemed essential subjects independent of their value to other learning outcomes, the arts merit a similar unambiguous place in the curriculum.31 Second, decades of research and experience show that high quality arts education can play an important part in achieving a range of educational objectives. The arts can moti- vate and engage students; stimulate curiosity and foster creativity; teach 21st Century Skills such as problem solving and team work; and facilitate school-wide collaborations. While there is certainly room for additional information in these areas, there is no doubt that re- search about the value of arts education is positive and consistent. PCAH believes these recommendations are practical responses to the needs ex- pressed by both arts and education leaders. While most don’t involve substantial new re- sources, or a drastic course correction from current approaches, they do require a high level of cooperation among leaders at federal and state and local levels towards a unified vision. Thus, specific recommendations support action from leaders in different roles, but acting with common purpose to ensure that more students, teachers, and schools have access to the benefits of arts education. Recommendations 1. Build collaborations among different approaches. There are several widely used approaches for providing arts education in the school curric- ulum, and each has its strong supporters in professional associations and advocacy groups. • The standards-based approach (i.e., certified arts specialists teach a sequen- tial arts curriculum in the subjects of visual arts, music, dance, and theater) is familiar to most educators. This approach is the cornerstone of traditional arts 31A major stride in this direction was made with the inclusion of arts as a core education subject in Goals 2000, Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994, and again in the reauthorization of the act in 2002 known as the No Child Left behind Act.48 reinvesting in arts education
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS education, and continues to be considered ideal by many. We acknowledge the work underway in many school systems to sustain comprehensive arts educa- tion programs staffed by highly qualified arts specialists. However, many school systems struggle to implement the approach with quality in the four arts disci- plines given budget and time constraints as well as the lack of certified special- ists in some fields. • Arts integration is a complementary approach that relies more on classroom teachers (often working in concert with teaching artists and/or arts specialists) who teach arts knowledge and skills in conjunction with the teaching of other subjects, such as math, science and reading. Some advocates fear that arts in- tegration may be taken up by some school administrators as an inexpensive solution for providing arts education. Understandably, in those circumstances they are concerned that a focus on arts integration could diminish the sequential teaching of arts skills, erode the quality of arts instruction, and reduce the place of art specialists. • Teaching artists programs typically involve working artists from different dis- ciplines who teach part-time in schools, often on a short-term or project basis. Teaching artists can bring real world experience and community connections to their instruction, serve as role models for students, and fill a need for schools that don’t have the resources for full-time arts specialists in all disciplines. However, short term status and uneven preparation for working with students and teach- ers can hamper their effectiveness.We urge the leaders of professional associations to work with federal and state agenciesto support connections among the different approaches to arts education. The PCAH be-lieves that collaborations among national leadership organizations should focus on the goalof expanding the number of creative, arts-rich schools that use different arts delivery ap-proaches in tandem, moving beyond internal debates about preferred modes of delivery inorder to place more emphasis on issues of equitable access.32 In practice, of course, schools32 We reached this conclusion at about the same time as a forum co-hosted by Grantmakers in the Arts and Grantmak-ers for Education raised similar issues including a discussion about “creating a new level of common cause beyond theinternal fractures in the arts education community” (McCann, 2010). reinvesting in arts education 49
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS employ different combinations of arts specialists, arts integration, and teaching artists to create hybrid approaches, which have emerged through compromises based on funding op- portunities and available resources and personnel. However, too often advocates focus on the method of delivery of arts instruction, rather than the quality of that instruction and the flexibility to adapt to the needs of the community. This hinders the effectiveness of those advocates, and the overarching cause of getting more arts into schools. We recommend ef- forts that demonstrate how teams of classroom teachers, arts specialists and teaching art- ists can work together on building curricula, delivering instruction, and learning from each other. This could include national and state leadership activities for dissemination of in- formation, team training opportunities, and funding of demonstration models. We believe that collaborative efforts will increase the quality of arts instruction across the board, and elevate the position of the arts in the eyes of education stakeholders, policy makers and local school officials. 2. Develop the field of arts integration. Many individuals cited the promise of the arts integration approach; we learned about model arts integration programs and efforts to train arts specialists and classroom teachers in arts integration methods. As arts integration has not received as much concerted atten- tion as standards-based approaches, the field needs development and support to realize its full promise. We agree that the arts will have a more secure place in the curriculum when teachers experience firsthand the deepening of learning in their subjects that comes from incorporating arts teaching strategies, and working in collaboration with arts specialists and teaching artists. No one agency or professional association “owns” arts integration, so the potential for development, including evaluation and codification of quality practices, is wide open. Further development of the field of arts integration will depend on initiatives undertaken by institutions of higher education (for both pre-service and in-service education), profes- sional development providers (including state arts and education agencies, nonprofit arts organizations), and state agencies and private funders providing targeted support. Most programs are largely focused on serving their own communities; the programs vary in many ways, including the roles taken by specialists and artists, the options for and50 reinvesting in arts education
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSintensity of student involvement, and the availability of evidence of effectiveness. PCAHsees a role for a national organization to facilitate one or more communities of practiceamong model arts integration programs to identify best practices in arts integration, orga-nize curriculum units, bring together training approaches, and create a common frame forcollecting evaluation results. Model programs might also become test sites for developmentand piloting of innovations, e.g., for arts integration training, teaching artist certification,or development of integrated curriculum units. Finally, for purposes of dissemination andreplication, it would be useful for a national organization to assume responsibility for creat-ing and maintaining a centralized source of independent information about arts integrationprograms and their features, including evidence of effectiveness. PCAH sees great value in expanding both pre-service training in the arts and profes-sional development opportunities in arts integration for arts specialists, and classroomteachers, including via distance learning. Since arts integration is intellectually and peda-gogically demanding, arts specialists would benefit by ongoing support, including easy ac-cess to lessons, tools, expert advice, and networking with colleagues as well as specializedtraining. An important role for professional advocacy groups is the strengthening of certi-fication requirements to include training in arts integration during pre-service education.3. Expand in-school opportunities for teaching artists.During the research phase, we learned about effective approaches for bringing the special-ized skills and the career experiences of working artists into schools to motivate students’interests. We were impressed by working artists’ interest in service opportunities that en-able them to use their talents to improve education and engage young people. by employ-ing teaching artists, schools can expand access and involve more students, but that involve-ment must be sustained and supported (in contrast to short term residencies or events).The PCAH sees great opportunity in increasing support and professional development toallow more schools to employ more teaching artists for a multi-year service commitment,similar to the “Artist Corps” concept articulated in President Obama’s campaign platform.We encourage national stakeholders and federal, state and local funders to explore this pos-sibility further. If they are to take on longer term and more substantive roles, teaching artists will be reinvesting in arts education 51
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS expected to meet standards of effectiveness similar to other teachers. They will require ad- ditional training, including training in pedagogy, arts integration, curriculum standards, child development, planning and assessment, classroom management techniques, and col- laboration with classroom teachers. As indicated above, the PCAH recognizes the value of teaching artists working collaboratively with art specialists and classroom teachers to maximize students’ in-depth engagement with the arts. While many state arts agencies currently offer some form of orientation for teaching artists who are engaged in short term residencies, there may be value and efficiency in creating a more centralized and stream- lined training approach, using distance learning mechanisms for providing training in par- ticular arts fields. Schools and teaching artists may be interested in a form of certification appropriate to their roles. Regional and state arts agencies are valuable leadership groups to partner in the expansion and refinement of training for teaching artists. 4. Utilize federal and state policies to reinforce the place of arts in K-12 education. PCAH believes that local school decision makers need to hear clear, direct and focused statements from the leaders of federal and state education agencies about how the arts fit within current priorities (and states need similar guidance from federal education leaders). Educators look to federal and state governments to communicate expectations, set stan- dards and policies, showcase excellence, and demonstrate how the arts can be used to ad- dress federal and state education requirements for a complete education appropriate for all children. They need policy guidance and more explicit examples of the place of the arts in the initiatives designed to increase the rigor of curriculum, strengthen teacher quality, and improve low-performing schools. The achievements and outcomes of arts-rich schools, both those incorporating the arts and those focusing on the arts through a magnet or other emphasis, should be folded into the larger dialogue of successful school reform strategies. It is necessary for federal and state governments to move beyond merely “allowing” the arts to be included as expenditures in a comprehensive education. Teachers need information about how to address the new Common Core standards through the arts, similar to the way that the Partnership for 21st Century Skills Arts Map illustrates how to use the arts to develop critical thinking and problem solving, communica-52 reinvesting in arts education
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONStion, collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Federal and state programs that recog-nize excellence and improvement, such as the blue Ribbon Schools program, could high-light award-winning schools that incorporate the arts. The U.S. Department of Education’sInstitute for Education Sciences might create a panel to recommend specific practices inarts teaching based on research syntheses as it has done in mathematics, literacy, behavior,and other areas.5. Widen the focus of evidence gathering about arts education.There has been increasing emphasis and rigor applied to establishing linkages between artseducation and student achievement in the last decade, primarily filtered through the lens ofreading and math test scores. We are pleased that this research has yielded promising edu-cational outcomes, and we support additional resources and effort in this area. However,we see a tremendous opportunity for measuring other significant educational outcomes inconnection with arts education. For example, it is especially important to have credible evi-dence about the relationship between participation in arts education and creativity. Giventhe importance of 21st Century Skills to educators and policymakers, we believe it is criticalto know more about how and under what circumstances arts education can develop stu-dents’ divergent thinking skills. It is generally accepted that arts education has the potentialto develop students’ creativity, but more definitive information is needed along with mea-surement methods that can be replicated by local school districts. There is also a need for more solid information about the impact of arts education onincreasing student engagement in school and persistence in learning. This effect can bereflected in indicators such as student attendance, attrition, behavioral problem reportingand other data points. There is evidence that participation in arts education has a positiveeffect on engagement, typically gathered through teacher reports and student self-reports.Objective information about the motivational effects of arts education is necessary in orderto illuminate theories about why participation in the arts seems to be positively associatedwith overall higher student achievement. Furthermore, teachers and administrators need tools to support improvement in artsprograms and track related outcomes. State and regional agencies can help schools identifyand document the benefits of arts experiences in a realistic and appropriate manner, includ- reinvesting in arts education 53
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ing identifying which benefits (e.g., student engagement and motivation, content learning, teacher efficacy, teacher collaboration, and so forth) are of greatest interest for a particular arts education intervention. Arts learning assessments are also important tools here. Pro- ficiency in arts competencies is difficult to measure accurately and consistently on a large scale, but without measurement it is difficult for teachers to gauge students’ progress and for researchers to substantiate the learning benefits of the arts. With support from the fed- eral government, test developers are designing a new generation of assessment tools. We urge attention to measuring arts competencies at the school and classroom level along with other types of performance. Finally, policymakers are often surprised that it is currently very difficult to get a na- tional picture of student access to and participation in arts education. The existing data about the availability of arts education in schools, states or districts largely comes through voluntary efforts on the part of states or individual researchers. The federal government should help the arts education field and policymakers make informed arguments and deci- sions regarding impact and equitable access. This requires policies that support ongoing data gathering about available opportunities, including teacher quality, resources, and fa- cilities at the local and state level. Accountability for arts education opportunities by states and districts, even without major policy or funding changes, would be game-changing in the ability of stakeholders to advocate for the arts and to assess their effectiveness. PCAH recommends that federal and private funders support the gathering of this kind of evidence, as well as development of tools and templates for measuring these metrics. Even though data gathering can be resource intensive and complicated, improvements in the ability to verify and track these outcomes would be very helpful in both understanding and advancing the potential of the arts to address many of today’s educational challenges. Summary The PCAH envisions schools in cities and towns across our nation that are alive with the energy of creative thinking and fresh ideas, full of art, music and movement. All of the re- search points to the success of schools that are “arts-rich” –– in which students who may have fallen by the wayside find themselves re-engaged in learning when their enthusiasm for film, design, theater or even hip-hop is tapped into by their teachers. More advanced54 reinvesting in arts education
  • CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSstudents also reap rewards in this environment, demonstrating accelerated learning andsustained levels of motivation. The PCAH’s goal is to support a climate in American schools where all students areengaged, where they come to school and to class eager to learn, where they speak and writeand solve problems with self-confidence and discipline, and where their innate gifts ofcreativity and innovation are nurtured and encouraged. We would like to see classroomswhere teachers develop new ways of working with students and collaborating with theircolleagues to motivate the best performance from their classes. We want to create schoolswhere every student feels he or she is good at something and where all teachers feel theyhave the tools they need to reach their students. As we have seen in our travels across thecountry, schools like these generate productive students, strong teachers, and an engagedcommunity. PCAH stands ready to partner with public agencies and the private sector tofurther develop and implement the recommendations above and to increase access for allstudents to these types of high quality educational experiences. reinvesting in arts education 55
  • 56 reinvesting in arts education
  • aPPenDIX a SeLeCTeD STUDIeS abOUT THe benefITS Of aRTS eDUCaTIOn During the research phase, PCAH identified a number of evaluations and research studies that describe the outcomes of arts training and arts integration initiatives. below are examples of studies and compilations of studies (which are listed first) that are frequently cited as support for the value of arts education. This is by no means intended as a complete or exhaustive list but illustrates the range of information available and the types of outcomes that studies track. Source Summary Fiske, E. (Ed.). (1999). A compilation of seven studies that show correlations between high Champions of change: the levels of arts participation and higher grades and test scores in math impact of the arts on learning. and reading. Studies also show engagement of students who are not Washington, DC: The Arts otherwise interested in school and how the arts forge connections Education Partnership and the among students through project-based learning and collaborations. President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities Deasy, R.J. (Ed.). (2002). A compendium of 62 studies representative of the best current Critical links: Learning in the examples. The collection focuses on the cognitive capacities that are arts and student achievement developed by learning in the arts such as thinking skills and problem and social development. solving as well as transfer of arts skills to reading and mathematics. Washington, DC: The Arts Studies also tracked changes in motivation to attend school and Education Partnership growth in student self-confidence. Taken together the studies demonstrate 65 core relationships between arts and other outcomes of interest to educators. McCarthy, K.F. et al. (2004). This RAND report examines the evidence for the full range of Gifts of the muse: Reframing arts’ private and public benefits and concludes that the national the debate about the benefits discussion of these benefits should place far more emphasis on the of the arts. Santa Monica, CA: “intrinsic” pleasures of the arts that benefit not only individuals, RAND but the public good as well. benefits of interest to educators include focused attention, capacity for empathy, cognitive growth, social bonds, and expression of communal meaning. Stevenson, L.M. & Deasy, R.J. Findings from case studies of schools that serve at-risk students (2005). Third space: When and use arts-integrated instruction describe how schools motivate learning matters. Washington, improvements in reading, writing, and speaking and describe DC: Arts Education the positive inclusive environment created in the school by artsPhoto by Keelan Wackman Partnership integration. reinvesting in arts education 57
  • APPENDICES Source Summary Ruppert, S. (2006). Critical A summary of evidence related to the links between arts and subject evidence: How the arts benefit area skills along with information about the place of arts within the student achievement. No Child Left behind legislation. Focuses on outcomes of academic Washington, DC: National performance and social skills. Assembly of State Arts Agencies and the Arts Education Partnership burnaford, G. et al. (2007). A description of the research literature related to arts integration Arts integration frameworks, written between 1995 and 2007. The book covers all aspects of arts research, and practice: A integration and includes a chapter on research findings. Helpful literature review. Washington, appendices provide an inventory of arts-related academic and social DC: Arts Education outcomes in subcategories from Critical Links and an inventory of Partnership studies by discipline (e.g., visual arts, dance) within the categories of cognition and motivation. Seidel, S. et al. (2009). Harvard Project Zero researchers explore the challenges of The qualities of quality: achieving and sustaining quality arts learning. The report includes Understanding excellence in a discussion of seven purposes of arts education, including arts education. Cambridge, development of habits of mind and dispositions, aesthetic MA: Harvard Graduate School awareness, engagement with civic issues, and self-development of Education and expression. The report includes a set of tools that can assist in making decisions about achieving and sustaining quality arts education. Asbury, C. & Rich, b. (Eds.) The Dana Foundation supported neuroscientists from seven (2008). Learning, arts and the universities to conduct studies to unpack the connections between brain: The Dana Consortium arts training and learning. The cognitive neuroscientists who report on arts and cognition. participated in the study found a “tight correlation” between New York: Dana Press exposure to the arts and improved skills in several areas of cognition and attention for learning. Winner, E. & Hetland, L. A review of fifty years of studies connecting arts to academic (2000). The arts and academic improvement, including many unpublished papers. The authors achievement: What the calculated effect sizes and conducted a number of meta-analyses. evidence shows. Journal of The review identified a small number of studies that found reliable Aesthetic Education, 34 causal relationships between arts study and specific learning outcomes. Many studies were correlational, of course, and the researchers advocated for additional research and theory building to strengthen the field.58 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESSource SummaryCatterall, J.S., Chapleau, Using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey databaseR. & Iwanaga, J. (1999). of 25,000 students, UCLA researchers found a correlationInvolvement in the arts and between students with high arts involvement and performance onsuccess in secondary school. standardized tests. Students who were more involved than others inIncluded in Champions of the arts watched less TV, were less likely to be bored in school andChange (see above) more likely to participate in community service. Students with high involvement in the arts across the socio-economic strata performed better in school and stayed in school longer than students with low involvement.Catterall, J.S., & Waldorf, Researchers studied the impact of CAPE (Chicago ArtsL. (1999). Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education) over a six year period, reviewing testPartnerships in Education: scores as well as using surveys of students and teachers. StudentSummary evaluation. Included achievement data over the years favored the CAPE schoolsin Champions of Change (see compared to other Chicago public schools. CAPE schools outscoredabove) the other schools on over fifty comparisons.Noblit et al. (2009). Creating There are many studies that have been conducted about the A+and sustaining arts-based school experience, most of them by the team of Noblit, Wilsonschool reform: The A+ schools and Corbett. Descriptive studies of implementation, partnership,program. New York: Routledge networking, and professional development have been conducted along with studies of student, teacher, school, and communityNelson, C.A. (2001). The arts effects. Studies have identified the essential ingredients of A+and education reform: Lessons schools that produce outcomes and documented the effectivenessfrom a 4-year pilot of the A+ of A+ as a school reform model, especially in schools where there areschools program. Greensboro, substantial numbers of economically disadvantaged students.NC: Thomas S. KenanInstitute for the ArtsHeath, S. b, Soep, E., & Roach, Anthropologist Heath conducted a ten-year study in 120A. (1998). Living the arts community-based organizations to find out what students werethrough language-learning: A doing in their non-school hours and determine what differencereport on community-based that time might make in student outcomes. by year seven of theorganizations. Washington, study, Heath had discovered that children engaged in the arts wereDC: Americans for the Arts showing positive outcomes and she took a deeper look, finding2(7) that students in arts programs significantly benefitted in terms of motivation, persistence, critical analysis, and planning. reinvesting in arts education 59
  • APPENDICES aPPenDIX b PROGRaMS THaT COnneCT aRTISTS TO SCHOOLS In our research we discovered many examples of initiatives designed to bring arts into the schools; those programs are often based in state arts agencies and community organizations and often the product of alliances among many partners. We are acutely aware that there are many strong programs across the country, including many we spoke with, that are not included in the list below. We have not attempted to develop an exhaustive list but provide representative examples of the variety of configurations and services currently in use. Program Summary of Features Alliance for Arts The Alliance is a collaborative network of the County Office of Education, Learning Leadership the Alameda County Arts Commission, eighteen Alameda County school alameda County, Ca districts, their administrators, teachers and arts specialists, community arts (Berkeley area) partners, representatives from higher education, and parents. The Alliance provides professional development in the form of certification courses that enable teachers and teaching artists to become arts integration specialists and provides mentoring and coaching to schools as well as organizing them into networks to support implementation. A+ Schools Program The A+ Schools Program is a whole school reform model that views the arts North Carolina (based as fundamental to how teachers teach and students learn in all subjects. at SerVe and state arts A+ schools combine interdisciplinary teaching, experiential learning, agency), oklahoma (at and daily arts instruction. Students have regular opportunities to learn university of Central and apply the arts and technology as part of instruction and assessment. oklahoma), arkansas The arts are taught daily to every child: drama, dance, music and visual arts at least once each week. A major aspect of the program is training for teachers and teaching artists and participation in collaborative networks where administrators and teachers are mentored by a statewide network of peer professionals. Recent A+ conferences have focused on math, multiple intelligences, and art, and inspiring students to write through arts experiences. Artist Corps Artist Corps Tennessee is a training program for teaching artists that Tennessee integrates arts learning objectives with service learning objectives. Artist tennessee (based at state residency projects focus on identifiable needs within the community, arts agency) including social justice issues. The Tennessee Arts Commission has developed guidance for integrating the arts with service learning so that projects focus on developing citizenship, problem-solving, creativity, and leadership skills.60 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESProgram Summary of FeaturesArts Corps Arts Corps is an arts education organization offering classes in diverse artKing County, Wa forms to young people in grades K-12, placing professional teaching artists in(Seattle area) school and after-school sites providing instruction in art courses, including digital media and poetry/spoken word. The Corps serves 2,500 students at over 35 program partner sites a year and has worked to elevate the status of arts education as a fundamental learning experience in and out of the school day. Three out of four partner sites serve a population in which the majority of students qualify for free and reduced price lunch.Arts Education in AEMS’ mission is to build support for high-quality, systemic arts education—Maryland Schools dance, music, theatre and visual arts—for all Maryland schoolchildren.Alliance (AEMS) AEMS has focused on arts integration, developing a sequence of trainingMaryland in arts integration for administrators and teachers, hosting convenings, providing outreach, and working on statewide policies.Arts at Large Arts @ Large works with schools to create project teams comprised ofMilwaukee, Wi teachers representing all grade levels and a variety of academic subjects. Teams identify academic learning priorities. Arts @ Large helps teams forge sustainable partnerships with higher education, artists, arts organizations and community organizations. Teachers participate in workshops, in- service, and higher education courses to acquire skills in proven arts integration methods and create arts integrated curricula.Big Thought big Thought’s mission is to make imagination a part of everyday learning.dallas, tx The organization coordinates partnerships between schools and cultural organizations to identify and fill existing program gaps in the city. Through these partnerships, their Thriving Minds program offers free and low-cost after-school and neighborhood-based enrichment programs in music, dance, visual and performing arts, science, culinary arts, technology and more. They also conduct research and assessment of arts education outcomes.Center for Arts CAE provides a wide range of arts education support for New York CityEducation of New schools, blending work designed to enhance teaching and learning in the artsYork (CAE) with advocacy and parent and public engagement. CAE trains classroomNew York City. teachers in arts integration; trains teaching artists to work in schools; and offers specialized training for principals to enable them to implement and sustain arts education programming. CAE provides teaching artists residencies in the traditional arts disciplines as well as media arts. Through the School Arts Support Initiative (SASI), CAE works with NYC middle schools that have little or no arts education to transform them into arts-rich schools, including professional development and formation and support of school leadership teams.Center for Creative CCE provides training in arts integration, multiple intelligences theory,Education (CCE) and curriculum mapping for teachers and administrators. CCE’s ProjectPalm Beach County, FL LEAP (Learning Enriched through Arts Partnerships) is a program that utilizes teacher/artist collaboration and team teaching. Artists and teachers collaborate on lesson plans. The Center directs most of its programming to at-risk children in low-socio economic and minority neighborhoods K-12 grade. reinvesting in arts education 61
  • APPENDICES Program Summary of Features Chicago Arts CAPE develops long term partnerships between teachers and artists/arts Partnerships in organizations and offers a variety of services including partnering and Schools (CAPE) training for arts integration, development of curriculum, and providing Chicago, iL teaching artists for residencies. COMPAS With 55 years of arts programming and four decades of arts education, Minnesota (serves COMPAS is a resource for artist residencies, performances, workshops, full state, based in professional development, and community-building through the arts. Minneapolis-St. Paul) COMPAS has arts education partnerships; community programs in youth employment, rural arts, senior programming and healthcare; and grant- making initiatives. Higher Order In HOT schools, the arts are rigorous academic subjects, each with its own Thinking (HOT) sequential curriculum that conveys knowledge not learned through other Schools academic disciplines. HOT schools integrate the arts across disciplines, Connecticut (based in creating arts-rich environments that motivate students to make connections state arts agency) between and among subject areas and ideas. HOT schools cultivate a democratic school culture in which all members of the school community participate. The John F. Kennedy The Kennedy Center offers a variety of arts education programs including Center for the Changing Education through the Arts (CETA) which provides professional Performing Arts learning in the arts for teachers, teaching artists and school administrators Washington, dC in the DC metropolitan area. These development programs are designed to teach educators about the arts and about arts integration techniques, as well as including mentoring and co-teaching by expert teaching artists in the classroom. Programs developed through CETA are shared nationally through the Kennedy Center’s Partners in Education program. Lincoln Center LCI offers a range of activities to connect teachers and students with Institute for the Arts the cultural resources of New York City, cultivating the imagination and in Education (LCI) building aesthetic understanding. The well-known Lincoln Center Institute New York City International Educator Workshop provides indepth training for teachers each summer. LCI works with school-based teams of educators in the New York metropolitan area; supports include professional development, work with teaching artists, and visits to performance venues and museums. Music National MNS launched MusiciansCorps as a national pilot program in five cities, Service Seattle, Oakland, San Francisco, Chicago and New Orleans, designed to San Francisco, Ca bring music into high needs school and community settings. Musicians were recruited to commit to a year of service doing transformative work with youth, schools and communities through music instruction and civic engagement. The focus is on developing 21st Century skills and strengthening communities through music. The program is currently focusing on efforts in California.62 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESProgram Summary of FeaturesProject AIM Columbia College’s Center for Community Arts Partnerships hosts the ArtsChicago and evanston, iL Integration Mentorship Project (Project AIM) which focuses on parallels between arts and literacy learning. It does this by partnering teaching artists from Columbia College and community-based arts organizations with public school teachers in the Chicago area. Artists and teachers learn how to jointly create arts integrated curriculum that promotes reading and writing through the arts and now mathematics as well.P.S. ARTS P.S. ARTS recruits, hires, underwrites, and trains professional artists toLos angeles, Ca develop curriculum and teach classes during the regular school day. The(working throughout organization also provides arts-related workshops to classroom teachersSouthern/Central Ca) to integrate creative expression and the arts into core academic subjects. Current methods include a conservatory model offering one to two traditional arts disciplines per school with each taught by a professional artist with classroom experience for the full school year. P.S. ARTS also provides an innovative Integrated Arts Model (I AM), which furnishes every classroom in a school with three teaching artists, each specializing in a different artistic discipline, who rotate during the course of the school year.Silk Road Silk Road CONNECT is a multidisciplinary initiative for middle schoolCONNECT students in underserved communities throughout New York City in a twoNew York City year pilot. The program is based on the cultural, economic, and technological exchange that connected East Asia to the Mediterranean. Students engage with professional artists as they work toward a culminating performance with Yo-Yo Ma and members of the Silk Road Ensemble. More broadly, the Silk Road project makes available a curriculum for middle and secondary school students that includes ancillary media materials and workshops for young musicians.STUDIO in a School STUDIO in a School is a well-established program that serves the New YorkNew York City City schools. The program has various components including the Long- Term option which places studio artists in residency in a school 4 days per week, gradually decreasing the time over a five year period to 2 or 3 days per week. Classroom teachers participate in studio classes with their students, becoming familiar with art materials, tools, and techniques. Over time the classroom teacher conducts more of the lessons and extends art learning into other curriculum areas. The school also receives professional development workshops for teachers and quality art materials in exchange for providing space and paraprofessional support.Urban Gateways Urban Gateways offers custom-designed programming in the literary,Chicago, iL performing, media and visual arts that range from one-time exposure opportunities to full immersion “Arts-Wired Schools.” An Arts-Wired School offers the following core programs: artist-in-residence programs, touring and performances, professional development, and parent/family and community workshops. reinvesting in arts education 63
  • APPENDICES Program Summary of Features Young Audiences Young Audiences presents nearly 100,000 arts-in-education programs in arts for Learning branches music, theater, visual and design arts, dance, and the literary arts. These in 24 states programs include performance-demonstrations, workshops, residencies, and professional development services for teachers. Works with 4,600 professional teaching artists and produces programs in 7,500 schools annually.64 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESaPPenDIX CSeLeCTeD feDeRaL anD OTHeR naTIOnaL PROGRaMSThe PCAH reviewed the history and features of several national large-scale serviceinitiatives to understand variations and options in recruitment and selection of volunteers;incentives and benefits; training and support; terms of service; organizational structure;and funding levels. Program Summary of Features Comprehensive CETA was a program of the Labor Department created in 1973 to address Employment and high unemployment with full-time jobs ranging from 12-24 months and Training Act (CETA) summer jobs for youth. CETA provided job training for the unemployed, targeting low-income, long-time unemployed and special populations. CETA operated via a decentralized approach; local public agencies served as prime sponsors. Sponsors could accept proposals and fund a wide range of types of organizations to create jobs. CETA was not specifically an arts program; however, cultural enrichment became a category of funding early on. Once the first jobs for artists were approved by a sponsor, the use of CETA funds to employ artists spread rapidly. In the first three years of the program, 200 prime sponsors created 7,500 arts jobs with $75 million funding. Annually, total funding ranged from $2.9-$9.5 billion. In its peak year, CETA created about 725,000 jobs. The program ended in 1981. Works Progress The WPA was the largest New Deal agency, operating from 1935-1943, and Administration carrying out public works projects and arts-related projects. Federal Project (WPA) Number One focused on art production, e.g., public art, state guidebooks, Federal Project Number theatre, music, and so forth. The project included art education and the one arts-related establishment of 100 community art centers in 22 states; over two million components included: students attended WPA art classes. Special emphasis was placed on Federal Writers Project; preserving and preserving minority cultural forms and histories. Federal arts Project; Federal theater Project; WPA was a combination of centralization and decentralization; each Federal Music Project; program component defined its own national direction. Administration was Historical records Survey shared by regional, state, and local WPA offices staffed by federal employees (e.g., 31 states and NYC and federal theater units; each state had panel of editors overseeing writers). WPA’s intent was to provide jobs and income for the unemployed, following the basic concept that jobs should serve the public good and match workers’ skills to conserve their skills and self-esteem. Secondary goals were to provide art for public buildings. The program included some skills training. Artists worked 30 hours per week or less at the prevailing wage rate in the local area (leading to considerable variation across the nation). Artists were required to meet professional standards and were selected by panel of peers in some programs. The total of WPA funding was $11.4 billion; arts programs represented about 7% of the total. At its peak, WPA employed 3.3 million (of estimated 3.55 million eligible), including 40,000 artists. reinvesting in arts education 65
  • APPENDICES Program Summary of Features Peace Corps The Peace Corps, initiated in 1961, operates as an independent federal agency providing service opportunities for skilled workers to meet the needs of participating countries and strengthening cross-cultural understanding. Volunteers work with governmental and private agencies through agreements with host countries. Since inception, Peace Corps has had about 200,000 volunteers. Peace Corps operates a centralized recruitment and selection of volunteers for two year terms of service. Volunteers then receive intense training in language, culture, technical skills, health/ safety conducted in the assigned country. The selection process is competitive; positions require specific educational and technical skills. Volunteers receive living allowance, a transition grant, deferment of some types of student loans, and medical benefits. There are currently 7,700 volunteers in 76 countries; the FY2009 budget was $372.6 million. Americorps AmeriCorps was launched with the Corporation for National and includes: Community Service Act 1993 which incorporated earlier programs. ameriCorps State and The network of local and national organizations includes two programs National, ameriCorps managed at the national level (VISTA; NCCC). AmeriCorps provides team- ViSta, and ameriCorps based service opportunities to meet critical community needs in U.S. and NCCC (National Civilian Community Corps) develop community leaders. Volunteers work in education, youth programs, and community revitalization. National grants are made to public agencies, non-profit organizations, and IHEs. Governor-appointed State Service Commissions provide grants to non-government and government entities that sponsor service programs. Organizations that receive grants are responsible for recruiting, selecting, and supervising AmeriCorps members. Volunteers serve terms of 10-12 months which can be either full or part time and receive modest salaries. Some receive living allowance; some assignments include housing. Education awards ($4,725 for full time) are matched by many institutions. Annually about 75,000 participants volunteer (there have been more than 400,000 volunteers since inception). The FY10 budget for State and National AmeriCorps was $372 million, VISTA $99 million, NCCC $29 million.66 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESProgram Summary of FeaturesTeach for America TFA, founded in 1990, provides teachers for PreK-12 low-income schools(TFA) in high-need subjects. The goal is improving student achievement and alsoincluded as a nonprofit encouraging alumni to become leaders engaged in expanding educationalprogram that receives opportunities. TFA recruits recent top college graduates who commitsome federal funding two years to teach; selection is highly competitive. TFA uses a centralized application, selection, and placement process. Placement takes into account state and district requirements, e.g. course credits, although they are not required to hold teacher certification at outset. Teachers participate in intensive summer preparation and ongoing coursework leading to certification. Regional/local TFA program directors oversee a cadre of teachers and provide ongoing support and professional development. TFA teachers receive a salary and benefits equivalent to teachers in schools where they are placed plus an education stipend. TFA now annually supports over 7,000 teachers in 1,000 schools in 26 urban and rural regions across the country with about 17,000 alumni. In FY09 TFA received $20 million in federal funding (c. 14% of TFA budget); other sources of funding include foundations, corporations, individuals, state and local funders. reinvesting in arts education 67
  • APPENDICES aPPenDIX D bIbLIOGRaPHY Alliance for Excellent Education. (2007). The high cost of high school dropouts: What the nation pays for inadequate high schools. [Issue brief ]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from www.all4ed.org/files/ archive/publications/HighCost.pdf Americans for the Arts. (2003). YouthARTS toolkit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www. artsusa.org/youtharts/download.asp Anne Arundel County Public Schools. (2010). ExCLAIMS! Excellence via cloud learning for arts integration in Maryland Schools. (AACPS) (I3) grant. Annapolis Maryland: Author Arts Education Partnership. (2004). The arts and education: New opportunities for research. Washington, DC: Author. Arts Education Partnership. (2007-2008). Arts education state policy database. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.aep-arts.org/database Arts Education Research Initiative. (2009). K–12 arts education, every student, every school, every year: a report on arts education in Washington. Olympia, WA: Washington State Arts Commission Asbury, C., & Rich, b. (Eds.). (2008). Learning, arts and the brain: The Dana Consortium report on arts and cognition. New York: Dana Press balfanz, R., bridgeland, J.M., Moore, L.A., & Fox, J. H. (2010). Building a grad nation: Progress and challenge in ending the high school dropout epidemic. Washington, DC: America’s Promise Alliance barry, N. (2010). Oklahoma A+ Schools: What the research tells us 2002-2007: Edmond, OK: Oklahoma A+ Schools, University of Central Oklahoma. Retrieved from http://www.aplusok.org/history/reports/ bodilly, Susan J. (2008). Revitalizing arts education through community-wide coordination. Santa Monica, CA: RAND bransom, J., brown, A., Denson, K., Hoitsma, L., Pinto, Y. Wolf, D. P. & Wolf, T. (2010). Creative learning: People and pathways. Dallas: big Thought bridgeland, J.M., Dilulio, JJ., & Morison, K.b. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2010, July 10). The creativity crisis. Newsweek online. Retrieved from http:// www.newsweek.com/2010/07/10/the-creativity-crisis.html brown, S., Campbell-Zopf, M., Hooper, J., Marshall, D., & McLaughlin, b. (n.d.). Research-based communication tool kit. Washington, DC: The National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. Retrieved from http://www.nasaa-arts.org/Research/Key-Topics/Arts-Education/Research*based-Communication- Toolkit.php burnaford, G. et al. (2007). Arts integration frameworks, research & practice: A literature review. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership. Retrieved from http://www.aep-arts.org/files/publications/ arts_integration_book_final.pdf68 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESCasner-Lotto, J., & benner, M.W. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Employers’ perspectives on thebasic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st century U.S. workforce. New York, NY: TheConference board, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Corporate Voices for Working Families, andthe Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved from http://p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdfCatterall, J.S. (n.d.). Involvement in the arts and success in secondary school. Americans for theArts Monographs 9(1). Retrieved from http://www.americansforthearts.org/NAPD/files/9393/Involvement%20in%20the%20Arts%20and%20Success%20in%20Secondary%20School%20%28%2798%29.pdfCatterall, J.S., Chapleau, R., & Iwanaga, J. (1999). Involvement in the arts and human development:General involvement and intensive involvement in music and theater arts. In E.b. Fiske (Ed.), Championsof change: the impact of the arts on learning. (pp. 1-18). Washington, DC: The Arts Education Partnershipand the President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities. Retrieved from http://www.aep-arts.org/files/publications/ChampsReport.pdfCatterall, J.S., & Waldorf, L. (1999). Chicago arts partnerships in education: Summary evaluation. In E. b.Fiske (Ed.), Champions of change: the impact of the arts on learning. (pp. 47-62). Washington, DC: The ArtsEducation Partnership and the President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities. Retrieved from http://www.aep-arts.org/files/publications/ChampsReport.pdfCatterall, J.S. (2009). Doing well and doing good by doing art: The effects of education in the visual andperforming arts on the achievements and values of young adults. http://tiny.cc/OprbgCenter for Arts Education—See Israel, D. belowCenter for Education Policy. (2005-09). An unfinished canvas: Arts education in California. Series ofpublications and presentation based on series of publications. Menlo Park, CA: SRI InternationalChildTrends Databank. Dropout Rates. Retrieved from www.childtrendsdatabank.orgConference board—See Casner-Lotto aboveCorbett, D., McKenney, M., Noblit, G., & Wilson, b. (2001). The A+ schools program: school, community,teacher, and student effects. (Report #6 in a series of seven policy reports summarizing the four-year pilotof A+ schools in North Carolina). Winston-Salem, NC: Kenan Institute for the ArtsDeasy, R.J. (Ed.). (2002). Critical links: Learning in the arts and student achievement and socialdevelopment. Washington, DC: The Arts Education PartnershipDeMoss, K., & Morris, T. (2002). How arts integration supports student learning: Students shed light on theconnections. Chicago, IL: Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education (CAPE)Driver, C.E. (2010). Can the arts become part of the ‘basics’ of our public education? In Thought leaderforum on arts and education: Assuring equitable arts learning in urban K-12 public schools. Report ofconference hosted by Grantmakers in the Arts and Grantmakers for Education. Seattle, WA: Grantmakersin the ArtsDynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, b., Finn, J., Rumburger, R., & Smink, J. (2008). Dropout prevention: Apractice guide. (NCEE 2008-4025). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation andRegional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of EducationEducation Commission of the States. (2004). An arts-rich education helps prepare students for a changingworld. Denver, CO: Author reinvesting in arts education 69
  • APPENDICES Education Commission of the States. (2005). State policies regarding arts in education. Denver, CO: Author Education Commission of the States. (2006). Governor’s commission on the arts in education: findings and recommendations. Denver, CO: Author EPE Research Center (2010). Diplomas count: Graduation by the numbers, putting data to work for student success. Editorial Projects in Education, 29(34) ExCLAIMS!—See Anne Arundel above Fiske, E.b. (Ed.). (1999). Champions of change: the impact of the arts on learning. Washington, DC: The Arts Education Partnership and the President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities. Retrieved from http://www.aep-arts.org/files/publications/ChampsReport.pdf Friedenwald-Fishman, E. (2009). Building public will for arts education. Presentation at Access, Equity and Quality in Arts Learning Conference, Seattle, WA Golden, S. (2007). Profiles in excellence: Case studies of exemplary arts education partnerships. New York, NY: National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts Government Accounting Office (2009). Access to arts education: Inclusion of additional questions in Education’s planned research would help explain why instruction time has decreased for some students. Washington, DC: Author Guttman, J.S. (2007). Partners in excellence: A guide to community school of the arts/public school partnerships from inspiration to implementation. New York, NY: National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts Harris, L., & Princiotta, C. (2009). Reducing dropout rates through expanded learning opportunities. (Issue brief). Washington, DC: NGA Center for best Practices Heath, S.b, Soep, E., & Roach, A. (1998). Living the arts through language-learning: A report on community-based organizations. Americans for the Arts 2(7), 1-20 IbM Corporation. (2010). Capitalizing on complexity: Insights from the 2010 IBM global CEO study. Armonk, NY: Author Ingram, D., & Reidell, E. (2003). Arts for academic achievement: What does arts integration do for students? Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement Israel, D. (2009). Staying in school: Arts education and New York City high school graduation rates. New York City: The Center for Arts Education Johns Hopkins University, School of Education. (n.d.). Neuro-Education initiative. baltimore: MD, Author. Retrieved from http://education.jhu.edu/nei/ Keiper, S., Sandene, b.A., Persky, H.R., & Kuang, M. (2009). The Nation’s Report Card: Arts 2008 music & visual arts. Washington, DC: National Assessment of Educational Progress Lichtenberg, J., Woock, C., & Wright, M. (2008). Ready to innovate: Are educators and executives aligned on the creative readiness of the U.S. workforce? New York, NY: The Conference board Longley, L. (1999). Gaining the arts advantage: Lessons from school districts that value arts education. Washington, DC: The President’s Committee on Arts and Humanities70 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESMcCann, J. (2010). Thought leader forum on arts and education: Assuring equitable arts learning inurban K-12 public schools. Report of conference hosted by Grantmakers in the Arts and Grantmakers forEducation. Seattle, WA: Grantmakers in the ArtsMcCarthy, K.F., Ondaatje, E.H., Zakaras, L., & brooks, A. (2004). Gifts of the muse: Reframing the debateabout the benefits of the arts. Santa Monica, CA: RANDMcLaughlin, M.M. (2000). Community counts: How youth organizations matter for youth development.Washington, DC: Public Education NetworkMcMurrer, J. (2007). Choices, changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the NCLb era.Washington, DC; Center on Education PolicyMorgan Management Systems. (1981). CETA and the arts and humanities: Fifteen case studies.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of LaborNational Art Education Association. (2009). Learning in a visual age: The critical importance of visual artseducation. Reston, VA: AuthorNational Assembly of Local Arts Agencies. (1994). Arts Corps: The first three years. Washington, DC:AuthorNational Assembly of State Arts Agencies. (2009). Arts education state profiles project. Washington, DC:AuthorNational Assembly of State Arts Agencies. (March 2010). Support for arts education. State agency factsheet. Washington, DC: AuthorNational Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (September, 2009). Dropout and completion rates in theUnited States: 2007. (NCES 2009-064). Washington, DC: AuthorNational Center on Education and the Economy. (2007). Tough choices or tough times: The report of thenew Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. Washington, DC: AuthorNational Governors Association, Center for Arts and Culture. (2001). Creativity, culture, education andthe workforce. Washington, DC: AuthorNational Governors Association, Center for best Practices. (2002). The impact of arts education onworkforce preparation. Washington, DC: AuthorNational Guild for Community Arts Education. (2010) Partners in arts education grant program: programoverview: 2010–2011 academic year. New York, NY: AuthorNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National ReadingPanel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature onreading and its implications for reading instruction. (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S.Government Printing OfficeNelson, A.L. (2008). The art of collaboration: promising practices for integrating the arts and school reform.Washington, DC: Arts Education PartnershipNelson, C.A. (2001). The arts and education reform: Lessons from a 4-year pilot of the A+ schools program.Greensboro, NC: Thomas S. Kenan Institute for the ArtsNew Commission on Skills of the American Workforce—See national Center on Education and theEconomy above reinvesting in arts education 71
  • APPENDICES Noblit, G.W., Corbett, H.D., Wilson, b.L., & McKenney, M.b. (2009). Creating and sustaining arts-based school reform: The A+ schools program. New York: Routledge Ohio Alliance for Arts Education. (2006, August). An overview of arts education in Ohio and OAAE’s advocacy agenda. Columbus, OH: Author Partnership for 21st Century Schools. (2010). 21st Century skills map: The arts. Tucson, AZ: Author Pytel, b. (2008). Predicting dropouts: Middle school data foretells who will drop out. Retrieved from http:// www.suite101.com/content/p Quintin, O. (2009). Creativity in schools in Europe: A survey of teachers. brussels: European Commission Joint Research Center, The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Rabkin, N. (2010). Looking for Mr. Good argument: The arts and the search for a leg to stand on in public education. In Thought leader forum on arts and education: Assuring equitable arts learning in urban K-12 public schools. Report of conference hosted by Grantmakers in the Arts and Grantmakers for Education. Seattle, WA: Grantmakers in the Arts Rabkin, N. & Hedberg, E.C. (2011). Arts education in America: What the declines mean for arts participation. Research Report #52. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts Real Visions. Montgomery County Public Schools Arts Integration Model Schools Program 2004-2007. Final Evaluation report. (2007, June). berkeley Springs, WV: Real Visions Rudacliffe, D. (2010, September 1). This is your brain on art. Urbanite: Baltimore Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.urbanitebaltimore.com/baltimore/this-is-your-brain-on-art/Content?oid=1296770 Ruppert, S. (2006). Critical evidence: How the arts benefit student achievement. Washington, DC: National Assembly of State Arts Agencies and the Arts Education Partnership Sabol, F.R. (2010). No Child Left Behind: A study of its impact on art education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association Seidel, S., Tishman, S., Winner, E., Hetland, L., & Palmer, P. (2009). The qualities of quality: Understanding excellence in arts education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education, Project Zero Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N.K., Pearson, P.D., Schatscheinder, C., & Torgeson, J. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: A practice guide (NCEE 2010- 4038). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute for Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education Sternberg, R.J. & Williams, W.M. (1996). How to develop student creativity. Alexandra, VA: ASCD Stevenson, L.M., & Deasy, R.J. (2005). Third space: When learning matters. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership U.S. Conference of Mayors. (2010). Resolutions related to the arts and humanities. Washington, DC: Author U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration. (1978). The partnership of CETA & the arts: Six reprints from Worklife magazine. Washington, DC: Author. ED173490 Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need—and what we can do about it. New York: basic books72 reinvesting in arts education
  • APPENDICESWeiss, S. (2004). The arts in education. The Progress of Education Reform, 5(1)Wells, A.S. (1989). Middle school education—The critical link in dropout prevention. ERIC/CUE DigestNo. 56. New York, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban EducationWinner, E., Hetland, L., Veenema, S., Sheridan, K., & Palmer, P. (2006). Studio thinking: how visual artsteaching can promote disciplined habits of mind. In P. Locher, C. Martindale, L. Dorfman, & D. Leontiev(Eds.), New directions in aesthetics, creativity, and the arts (189-205). Amityville, New York: baywoodPublishing CompanyWinner, E., & Hetland, L. (2000, Fall/Winter). The arts and academic achievement: What the evidenceshows. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34 reinvesting in arts education 73
  • aCKnOWLeDGeMenTS During the research phase, PCAH staff, committee members, and our consultant regularly made informal inquiries, convened discussions and made site visits with a variety of stake- holders to inform our efforts. We extend thanks to all those who generously agreed to par- ticipate and share their insights. In particular, we would like to acknowledge the following organizations which made valuable contributions to this report: PCAH Working Group on Arts and Humanities Education; U.S. Department of Edu- cation; National Endowment for the Arts; Corporation for National and Community Ser- vice; U.S. Department of Labor; Florida Division of Cultural Affairs; Maryland State Arts Council; Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs; New Jersey State Council on the Arts; North Carolina Arts Council; Ohio Arts Council; Pennsylvania Council on the Arts; Tennessee Arts Commission; Washington State Arts Commission; Wisconsin Arts board; New England Foundation for the Arts; South Arts; U.S. Conference of Mayors; Arts Educa- tion Partnership; National Assembly of State Arts Agencies; Americans for the Arts; Inter- national Council of Fine Arts Deans; National Art Education Association; National Guild for Community Arts Education; League of American Orchestras; VSA; Center for Arts Edu- cation of New York; Arts Education in Maryland Schools Alliance; Arts Corps; The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; Lincoln Center Institute; New York University, Tisch School of the Arts; Music National Service; NYC Civic Corps; Teach for America; Watts House Project; Urban Gateways; Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education; Margaret A. Cargill Foundation; Teaching Artists Research Project (TARP); STUDIO in a School; A+ Schools Program, North Carolina; P.S. ARTS; Silk Road Project – Silk Road Connect; Hor- ace Greeley Elementary School, Chicago IL; Telpochcalli Elementary School, Chicago, IL; benson Heights Elementary School of the Arts, Monroe, NC; Community Charter School, Charlotte, NC; Roland Park Elementary School, baltimore, MD; Kensington Parkwood Ele- mentary School, Kensington, MD; Will Rogers Elementary, Santa Monica, CA; MS 223 The Labratory School of Finance & Technology, bronx, NY. Special thanks to the following individuals whose support, guidance and advice dur- ing this process were greatly appreciated: Secretary Duncan and his staff at the Depart- ment of Education, in particular Jim Shelton, David Hoff and Tim Tuten; Melody barnes74 reinvesting in arts education
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSand her staff at the Domestic Policy Council, especially Roberto Rodriquez and LaurenDunn; Chairman Landesman and his staff at the National Endowment for the Arts, in par-ticular Joan Shigekawa and Patrice Walker Powell; Dennis Scholl; Myrna Greenberg; Kal-pen Modi; Sandra Ruppert; Jonathan Katz; Nina Ozlu Tunceli; Nora Halpern; Narric Rome;Heather Noonan; Tom Cochran; Jonathan Herman; Kiff Gallagher; Tom Cahill; RichardKessler; Scott Noppe-brandon; Deborah Reeve; Nick Rabkin; Susannah Washburn; MaryLuehrsen; Ross Wiener; Cristin bagnall; Mary Ann Mears; Amy Rasmussen; Julie Simpson;Kristen Greer-Paglia; Vicki Vitiello; Lori Sherman; and Michelle burrows. None is respon-sible for the content of this report, which represents only the views of the PCAH. reinvesting in arts education 75
  • MeMbeRS Of THe PReSIDenT’S COMMITTee On THe aRTS anD THe HUManITIeS Michelle Obama, Honorary Chair Victoria S. Kennedy, Pacific forest Whitaker, Los angeles, Ca, Palisades, Ca, educational actor, writer, producer and social Co-CHair Consultant activist George Stevens, Jr. Washington, dC Jhumpa Lahiri, Brooklyn, NY, anna Wintour, New York, NY, Producer, writer and director author editor in Chief, Vogue Co-CHair bryan Lourd, Los angeles, Ca, Damian Woetzel, New York, NY, Margo Lion Partner and Managing director, dancer, director, producer and New York, NY Creative artists agency arts activist theater producer, Margo Lion Ltd. anne Luzzatto, New York, NY, George C. Wolfe, New York, NY, ViCe CHair Consultant director, writer, producer Dr. Mary Schmidt Campbell New York, NY Yo-Yo Ma, Cambridge, Ma, alfre Woodard, Santa Monica, Ca, dean, New York university’s tisch Musician, artistic director, the Silk actor and social activist School of the arts road Project ••••• Liz Manne, New York, NY, executive director, Filmaid international ex oFFiCio: Ricky arriola, Miami, FL, President and Ceo, inktel direct Thom Mayne, Los angeles, Ca, James H. billington, Librarian of architect, Founder, Morphosis Congress, Library of Congress Madeleine H. berman, Franklin, architects Mi, Community leader Hillary R. Clinton, Secretary, u.S. Olivia Morgan, Washington, dC, department of State Chuck Close, New York, NY, Managing editor, The Shriver Report Visual artist G. Wayne Clough, Secretary, edward norton, New York, NY, Smithsonian institution Richard J. Cohen, St. Paul, MN, actor, writer and producer Minnesota State Senator arne Duncan, Secretary, u.S. Sarah Jessica Parker, New York, department of education Paula H. Crown, Chicago, iL, NY, actor and producer Principal, Henry Crown and Timothy f. Geithner, Secretary, Company Ken Solomon, Santa Monica, Ca, u.S. department of the treasury Chairman, ovation tV Christine forester, La Jolla, Ca, Susan Hildreth, director, institute Principal, Christine Forester Catalyst andy Spahn, Los angeles, Ca, of Museum and Library Services President, andy Spahn & associates fred Goldring, Pacific Palisades, Martha n. Johnson, administrator, Ca, entrepreneur, Goldring Jill Cooper Udall, Santa Fe, NM, u.S. General Services administration Strategies attorney Rocco Landesman, Chairman, Howard Gottlieb, Wilmette, iL, Reginald van Lee, New York, NY, National endowment for the arts General Partner, Glen eagle Partners executive Vice President, Booz allen Hamilton Jim Leach, Chairman, National Teresa Heinz, Washington, dC, endowment for the Humanities Chairman, Heinz endowments, Dr. agnes Varis, New York, Heinz Family Philanthropies NY, Founder and President, earl Powell III, director, National agvar Chemicals and Modavar Gallery of art Sheila Johnson, the Plains, Va, Pharmaceuticals Founder and Ceo, Salamander David Rubenstein, Chairman, Hospitality Kerry Washington, New York, NY, John F. Kennedy Center for the actor and activist Performing arts Pamela Joyner, San Francisco, Ca, Founder, avid Partners, LLC alexa Wesner, austin, tx, Ken Salazar, Secretary, u.S. Community volunteer department of the interior76 reinvesting in arts education
  • President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities 1100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Suite 526 Washington, DC 20506 Telephone: 202-682-5409 www.pcah.gov nOT fOR SaLe