Evolution Of Computers The term Computer, originally meant a person capable of performing numerical calculations with the help of a mechanical computing device. The evolution of computers started way back in the late 1930s. Binary arithmetic is at the core of the computers of all times. History of computers dates back to the invention of a mechanical adding machine in 1642. ABACUS, an early computing tool.In the evolution of computers their first generation was characterized by the use of vacuum tubes. These computers were expensive and bulky. They used machine language for computing and could solve just one problem at a time. They did not support multitasking.
History Of Computers 1832 Difference Engine: During this period Charles Babbage used this machine for calculating values,Here the machine are given some mechanical values and thus the resulted values are printed. The Tubes 1942 :In 1942 the first all purpose electronic computer called an Eniac (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was designed. It was so big it filled a whole room. It was made of 18,000 glass tubes called valves. As there were so many this caused over heating problems, used too much power and burned out rapidly. The Eniac was 1000 times faster than any other machine to date. In this second it could perform 5000 additions, 357 multiplications and 38 divisions. The valves were what increased the quickness.
Different types of Computers The Transistor 1956:Transistors made computers smaller and cheaper. They made computers energy efficient. But transistors were responsible for the emission of large amounts of heat from the computer. Due to this computers were subject to damage. The use of transistors marked the second generation of computers. Computers belonging to this generation used punched cards for input. Integrated Circuits 1959: The use of Integrated circuits ushered in the third generation of computers. Small transistors placed on silicon chips, called semi conductors. Microprocessors 1971:A processor is the brain of the computer and it controls other parts of the computer such as the memory, the hard drive and the video card.
Latest Computers Microcomputers: A computer with a microprocessor and its central processing unit is known as a microcomputer. Desktops: A desktop is intended to be used on a single location. The spare parts of a desktop computer are readily available at relative lower costs. Power consumption is not as critical as that in laptops. Desktops are widely popular for daily use in workplaces and households.Laptops: Similar in operation to desktops, laptop computers are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use.
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs): It is a handheld computer and popularly known as a palmtop. Minicomputers: In terms of size and processing capacity, minicomputers lie in between mainframes and microcomputers. Minicomputers are also called mid-range systems or workstations Supercomputers: The highly calculation-intensive tasks can be effectively performed by means of supercomputers.
Main Parts Of A Computer Central Processing Unit (CPU): Also known as the computer processor, the CPU is an electronic circuit that executes computer programs. The primary responsibility of a computer processor is to execute a sequential set of instructions that constitute a program. CPU operation can be divided into four basic steps, namely, fetch, decode, execute and write back. During the 'fetch' step, the processor retrieves program instructions from memory. In the decode step, the instruction is broken down into parts. The instruction set architecture of the CPU defines the way in which an instruction is decoded. In the 'execute' step, CPU performs the operation implied by the program instruction. During the 'writeback' step, the CPU writes back the results of execution, to the computer's memory.
Motherboard: A computer motherboard consists of sockets in which microprocessors are installed, memory slots, a chipset that acts as an interface between the CPU bus Hard Disk: A hard disk is described as a part of the computer disk drive, which stores data and provides computer users with quick access to large amounts of data. A hard disk is an electromagnetically charged surface or set of disks that record data in concentric circles known as tracks. It is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data.
Monitor: A visual display unit, as it is called, is an electrical equipment that displays images generated by the video output of a computer. Keyboard: A keyboard is regarded as an input device for a computer. With respect to the arrangement of keys, a computer keyboard is similar to a typewriter. The keys or buttons act as electronic switches or mechanical levers with characters printed on them, with each keypress corresponding to a written symbol. Mouse: A computer mouse is a pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion. It was introduced by Apple Macintosh in 1984. A mouse translates the motion of your hand into signals that a computer can recognize and respond to
Conclusion Computers have become an integral part of our lives. Its hard to imagine life without a computer. Its one a greatest achievements of mankind. Above all these things have become so cheap, So we can have it our own houses. As Computer Science students we can say that the world is revolving around Computer.
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